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This study proposed the application of a novel immersed boundary method (IBM) for the treatment of irregular geometries using Cartesian computational grids for high speed compressible gas flows modelled using the unsteady Euler equations. Furthermore, the method is accelerated through the use of multiple Graphics Processing Units – specifically using Nvidia’s CUDA together with MPI - due to the computationally intensive nature associated with the numerical solution to multi-dimensional continuity equations. Due to the high degree of locality required for efficient multiple GPU computation, the Split Harten-Lax-van-Leer (SHLL) scheme is employed for vector splitting of fluxes across cell interfaces. NVIDIA visual profiler shows that our proposed method having a computational speed of 98.6 GFLOPS and 61% efficiency based on the Roofline analysis that provides the theoretical computing speed of reaching 160 GLOPS with an average 2.225 operations/byte. To demonstrate the validity of the method, results from several benchmark problems covering both subsonic and supersonic flow regimes are presented. Performance testing using 96 GPU devices demonstrates a speed up of 89 times that of a single GPU (i.e. 92% efficiency) for a benchmark problem employing 48 million cells. Discussions regarding communication overhead and parallel efficiency for varying problem sizes are also presented.
In this paper, we develop the isogeometric analysis of the dual boundary element method (IGA-DBEM) to solve the potential problem with a degenerate boundary. The non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) based functions are employed to interpolate the geometry and physical function. To deal with the rank-deficiency problem due to the degenerate boundary, the hypersingular integral equation is introduced to promote the full rank for the influence matrix in the dual BEM. Finally, three numerical examples are given to verify the accuracy of our proposed method. Both circular and square domains subjected to the Dirichlet boundary condition are considered. The engineering problem containing a degenerate boundary is considered, e.g., a seepage flow problem with a sheet pile. Numerical results of the IGA-DBEM agree well with these of the exact solution and the original dual boundary element method.
For nearly a century, the incidence of cancer in people with schizophrenia was lower than in the general population. In the recent decade, the relationship between cancer and schizophrenia has become obscured. Thus, we investigated the cancer risk among young and middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.
Records of newly admitted patients with schizophrenia (n = 32 731) from January 2000 through December 2008 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database in Taiwan, and the first psychiatric admission of each patient during the same period was defined as the baseline. We obtained 514 incident cancer cases that were monitored until December 2010. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those with schizophrenia and the general population. Stratified analyses of cancer incidences were performed by gender, site of cancers and duration since baseline (first psychiatric admission).
The incidence of cancer for all sites was slightly higher than that of the general population for the period (SIR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.06–1.26], p = 0.001). Men had a significantly higher incidence of colorectal cancer (SIR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.06–2.06], p = 0.019). Women had a higher incidence of breast cancer (SIR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.22–1.78], p < 0.001). Intriguingly, the risk for colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission rather than earlier (SIR = 1.94 [1.36–2.75], p < 0.001) and so was the risk for breast cancer (SIR = 1.85 [1.38–2.48], p < 0.001). The cancer incidence was higher in patients with schizophrenia contradicting the belief that schizophrenia was protective of cancers.
Our analyses suggest that men and women with schizophrenia were more vulnerable to certain types of cancers, which indicates the need for gender-specific cancer screening programs. The fact that risk of colorectal cancer was more pronounced 5 years after the first psychiatric admission could imply the impact of unhealthy lifestyles or the possibility of delayed diagnoses.
The association between Kawasaki disease (KD) and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that KD may increase the risk of ADHD using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database.
Our study cohort consisted of patients who were diagnosed with KD between January 1997 and December 2005 (N = 651). For a comparison cohort, five age- and gender-matched control patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling (N = 3255). The cumulative incidence of ADHD was 3.89/1000 (from 0.05 to 0.85) in this study. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether or not they had developed ADHD. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to evaluate 5-year ADHD-free survival rates.
Of all patients, 83 (2.1%) developed ADHD during the 5-year follow-up period, of whom 21 (3.2%) had KD and 62 (1.9%) were in the comparison cohort. The patients with KD seemed to be at an increased risk of developing ADHD (crude hazard ratio (HR): 1.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–2.80; p < 0.05). However, after adjusting for gender, age, asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and meningitis, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) of the ADHD in patients with KD showed no association with the controls (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI = 0.96–2.62; p = 0.07). We also investigated whether or not KD was a gender-dependent risk factor for ADHD, and found that male patients with KD did not have an increased risk of ADHD (AHR: 1.62; 95% CI = 0.96–2.74; p = 0.07) compared with the female patients.
The findings of this population-based study suggest that patients with KD may not have an increased risk of ADHD and whether or not there is an association between KD and ADHD remains uncertain.
Transcritical flow of a stratified fluid past a broad localised topographic obstacle is studied analytically in the framework of the forced extended Korteweg–de Vries, or Gardner, equation. We consider both possible signs for the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation corresponding to different fluid density stratification profiles. We identify the range of the input parameters: the oncoming flow speed (the Froude number) and the topographic amplitude, for which the obstacle supports a stationary localised hydraulic transition from the subcritical flow upstream to the supercritical flow downstream. Such a localised transcritical flow is resolved back into the equilibrium flow state away from the obstacle with the aid of unsteady coherent nonlinear wave structures propagating upstream and downstream. Along with the regular, cnoidal undular bores occurring in the analogous problem for the single-layer flow modelled by the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, the transcritical internal wave flows support a diverse family of upstream and downstream wave structures, including kinks, rarefaction waves, classical undular bores, reversed and trigonometric undular bores, which we describe using the recent development of the nonlinear modulation theory for the (unforced) Gardner equation. The predictions of the developed analytic construction are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the forced Gardner equation for a broad range of input parameters.
To investigate whether inadequate dose to Point-A necessitates treatment plan changes in a time of computed tomography (CT)-image-guided brachytherapy treatment planning for cervix cancer.
Materials and methods
A total of 125 tandem and ovoid insertions from 25 cervix patients treated were reviewed. CT-image-based treatment planning was carried out for each insertion. Point-A is identified and the dose documented; however, dose optimisation in each plan was based on covering target while limiting critical organ doses (PlanTarget). No attempts were made to equate prescription and Point-A dose. For each insertion, a second hypothetical treatment plan was generated by prescribing dose to Point-A (PlanPoint-A). Plans were inter-compared using dose–volume histogram analyses.
A total of 250 treatment plans were analysed. For the study population, the median cumulative dose at Point-A was 80 Gy (range 70–95) for PlanTarget compared with 84·25 Gy for PlanPoint-A. Bladder and rectal doses were higher for PlanPoint-A compared with PlanTarget (p < 0·0001). Target D90 did not correlate with Point-A dose (p = 0·60).
Depending on applicator geometry, tumour size and patient anatomy, Point-A dose may vary in magnitude compared with prescription dose. Treatment plan modifications purely based on inadequate Point-A dose are unnecessary, as these may result in higher organ-at-risk doses and not necessarily improve target coverage.
This paper studies the behavior of second grade viscoelastic fluid past a cavity in a horizontal channel. The effects of Reynolds number, fluid elasticity and the aspect ratio of the cavity on the flow field are simulated numerically. The equations are converted into the vorticity and stream function equations. The solution is obtained by the finite difference method.
The behavior of viscoelastic fluids is quite different from the Newtonian fluid, due to the effects of fluid elasticity. Only one flow pattern appears when the Newtonian fluid past the cavity. However, three kinds of flow patterns appear while the viscoelastic fluids past the cavity by increasing Reynolds number from 20 to 300. The flow field is affected by the fluid elasticity as well as the aspect ratio of the cavity. The transitional flow pattern appears at lower Reynolds number as the higher elasticity fluid past the cavity with larger aspect ratio.
The interface layer between thin sputter-deposited tantalum oxide (TaOx) high-k film and silicon substrate was engineered with the Hf doping method and the insertion of a thin 5Å TaNx interface. The following results have been obtained: 1) the Hf dopant in the TaOx film was involved in the interface formation process, e.g., forming a new, thinner high-k HfSixOy interface layer rather than the SiOx layer, 2) when the TaNx interface was inserted, the interface layer composition was even more complicated, e.g., including TaOxNy and HfSixOy structures. No hafnium nitride or oxynitride was detected, 3) the interface layer structure was changed, e.g., from single-zone to multi-zone with different compositions, 4) when a low concentration of Hf existed in the TaOx film, the high-k dielectric properties, such as the k value, fixed charge density, dielectric strength, were improved, and 5) when the thin TaNx interface layer was inserted, the above electric properties were further improved. However, the fixed charge density and interface states were increased due to the insertion of the TaNx interface layer. These results were contributed by factors such as the charge-trapping characteristics in the interface layer and the some damage repairing mechanisms. In summary, this research proved that the high-k film's interface layer and bulk properties could be were improved with the doping process as well as the insertion of an ultra-thin TaNx interface film.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
Polycrystalline silicon thin films were formed from the amorphous silicon thin film by the pulsed rapid thermal annealing process enhanced with a thin nickel seed layer through the vertical crystallization mechanism. In this paper, authors presented the results on the material properties of the crystallized film. The dopant and film thickness effects were also investigated. It has been demonstrated that a 2 μm thick amorphous silicon n+-i-p+ diode structure could be transformed into polycrystalline stack with a 4-pulse 1 sec 850°C heating and 5 sec cooling cycle process.
This paper presents residual stress characterization and fracture analysis of thick silane based PECVD oxide films. The motivation for this work is to elucidate the factors contributing to residual stress, deformation and fracture of oxide films so as to refine the fabrication process for power MEMS. It is shown that residual stress in oxide films strongly depended on thermal processing history. Dissolved gases were found to play an important role in governing intrinsic stress. The tendency to form cracks is a strong function of film thickness and annealing temperature. Mixed mode fracture mechanics was applied to predict critical cracking temperature, and there is a fairly good match between theoretical predictions and experimental observations.
Elemental Vapor Transport Epitaxy (EVTE) is a novel technique for semiconductor manufacturing, which combines the advantages of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE). EVTE provides a high level of elemental flux control, scaling to large deposition areas, and elimination of elemental Ga source related oval defects. EVTE has been successfully applied to the deposition of III-V and II-VI thin films and heterostructures. Design considerations and evaluations of the novel EVTE elements: elemental flux regulating valve operating at temperatures >1250°C with demonstrated response times less than 1 second and elemental flux distribution manifold are presented. The calculated operational parameters for EVTE are in good agreement with the observed experimental results.
We have grown linearly compositionally graded GexSi1−x structures at high temperatures (700–900°C) on Si substrates to form a surface which resembles a GexSi1−x substrate. We have obtained completely relaxed structures with x≤0.50 and threading dislocation densities in the 105cm−2 - 106cm−2 range. Because of the very low threading dislocation densities, the structures appear dislocation free in conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section and plan view. Employing the electron beam induced current technique (EBIC), we were able to consistently measure these low threading dislocation densities. A direct comparison of two x=0.35 films, one graded in Ge content and one uniform in Ge content, shows that compositional grading decreases the dislocation density by a factor of 100–1000. These. higher quality graded buffers have been used as templates for the subsequent growth of InGaP light emitting diodes (LED) and GexSi1−x/Si two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) structures. Room temperature operation of orange-red LEDs were obtained at current densities of =600A/cm, and mobilities as high as 96,000 cm2/V-s were achieved at 4.2K in the 2DEG structures.
Shallow and deep electronic defects in MOCVD-grown GaN were characterized by variable temperature Hall effect measurements, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and photoemission capacitance transient spectroscopy (O-DLTS). Unintentionally and Si-doped, n-type and Mg-doped, p-type GaN films were studied. Si introduces a shallow donor level into the band gap of GaN at ∼Ec - 0.02 eV and was found to be the dominant donor impurity in our unintentionally doped material. Mg is the shallowest acceptor in GaN identified to date with an electronic level at ∼Ev + 0.2 eV. With DLTS deep levels were detected in n-type and p-type GaN and with O-DLTS we demonstrate several deep levels with optical threshold energies for electron photoemission in the range between 0.87 and 1.59 eV in n-type GaN.
The parasitic reactions between ammonia and commonly used alkyls have been studied in a horizontal OMVPE reactor. The results indicate that parasitic reactions between TMA1 and NH3 is severe, leading to the necessity to grow A1N at low reactor pressure. On the other hand, parasitic reactions between TMGa+NH3 and TMIn+NH3 are not significant and it is possible to grow GaN and GaInN at any reactor pressure.
The influence of Si doping on the structure of GaN grown by metal-organic chemicalvapor deposition (MOCVD) has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Undoped and low Si doped samples were compared with samples of increased dopant concentration. In addition, defect reduction due to different buffer layers (AIN and GaN) is discussed. Silicon doping improves surface morphology and influences threading dislocation arrangement. High doping leads to a more random distribution of dislocations. Based on this study it appears (for the same dopant concentration) that an AIN buffer layer can significantly reduce the number of threading dislocations, leaving the samples more strained. However, no significant reduction of threading dislocations could be observed in the samples with GaN buffer layer. These samples are the least strained.
We report the morphological and compositional characteristics of Er-doped GaN grown by MBE on Si(111) substrates and their effect on optical properties. The GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy using solid sources (for Ga and Er) and a plasma gas source for N2. The films emit by photoexcitation in the visible and near infrared wavelengths from the Er atomic levels. The morphology of the GaN:Er films was examined by AFM. Composition was determined by SIMS depth profiling that revealed a large Er concentration at 4.5 × 1021 atoms/cm3 accompanied by a high oxygen impurity concentration.
The grown-in tensile strain, due to a lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN, is responsible for the observed cracking that seriously limits the feasibility of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) emitters. We report in-situ monitoring of strain/stress during MOCVD of AIGaN based on a wafer-curvature measurement technique. The strain/stress measurement confirms the presence of tensile strain during growth of AlGaN pseudomorphically on a thick GaN layer. Further growth leads to the onset of stress relief through crack generation. We find that the growth of AlGaN directly on low-temperature (LT) GaN or AIN buffer layers results in a reduced and possibly controllable strain.
Piezoelectric effects in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been directly probed by picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The time-resolved PL spectra of the 40 Å well MQWs reveal that the PL transition peak position is in fact blueshifted at early delay times due to the collective effects of quantum confinement of carriers, piezoelectric field, and Coulomb screening. However, the spectral peak position shifts toward lower energies as the delay time increases and becomes redshifted at longer delay times. By comparing experimental and calculation results, we have obtained a low limit of the piezoelectric field strength to be about 560 kV/cm in the 40 Å well GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N MQWs.