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Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses in many mammal cells. Here, we suggest that the mTOR pathway is involved in the intestinal inflammatory responses evoked by LPS treatment in chicken embryos. The intestinal tissue from Specific pathogen free chick embryos was cultured in the presence of LPS for 2 h. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytokines, and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mTOR and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) were determined. The results showed that LPS treatment increased sIgA concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of interleukine (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 were upregulated by LPS treatment (P<0.05). Lipopolysaccharide increased the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK and NF-κB (P<0.05) while decreasing the phosphorylation level of mTOR (P<0.05). Supplementation of leucine at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mM dose-dependently decreased sIgA production. Leucine supplementation at 40 mM restored the phosphorylation level of mTOR and p70S6K while suppressing the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB (P<0.05) and partially down-regulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK. The transcription of IL-6 was significantly decreased by leucine supplementation. These results suggested that leucine could alleviate LPS-induced inflammatory responses by down-regulating NF-κB signaling pathway and evoking mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, which may involve in the regulation of the intestinal immune system in chicken embryos.
The availability of relatively large format IR array detectors is incentive for reexamining the classic question of whether or not there are “dust rings” around the sun – a problem for which there are conflicting observational answers. The 1991 eclipse path included a high altitude observatory and provided a potentially ideal opportunity to study the infrared properties and dust content of the corona. Here we report results from an experiment conducted from Mauna Kea using a HgCdTe array detector sensitive to wavelengths between 1-2.5 μm. Surface brightness measurements in the H-band and polarization data in the J-band were obtained over a field-of-view of ±6 R⊙ while K-band images further extend to 15 R⊙ on the western side of the Sun. J-band polarization data and H and K-band surface brightness data clearly show the inhomogeneous structure in the K corona and the ecliptical flattening of the F corona. We see no evidence of a circumsolar, local dust corona (dust rings) out to 15 R⊙.
We investigate the relation between different stochastic orders and the degradedness of a fast fading wiretap channel with statistical channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). In particular, we derive sufficient conditions to identify the ergodic secrecy capacities for both single and multiple antenna cases even though there is only statistical CSIT.
To design a wiretap code with higher secrecy rate, channel state information at the transmitter of the legitimate and eavesdropper's channels1 should be known to a certain degree. When there is perfect CSIT of both channels, the secrecy capacity of a Gaussian wiretap channel can be achieved by a Gaussian input. However, due to several practical issues such as (1) being a malicious user, Eve is by no means intending to feed back the correct CSI to Alice; (2) limited feedback bandwidth; (3) the delay caused by channel estimation; (4) the speed of channel variation, etc., it is more reasonable to consider cases where perfect CSIT is unavailable.
In this chapter we consider the cases when only statistical CSIT of both channels from Alice to Bob and Alice to Eve, respectively, are available. One possible way to get such information from Eve virtually is as follows. For some bounded space like indoor parking lots or malls, it is possible to collect the channel statistics offline of most of the positions within that space, where the channel variation may be due to the movement of people or cars, etc. When Alice wants to transmit, she can use the known statistics measured offline of the channel between her and the unknown user closest to her as Eve's channel information to design her wiretap code for the worst-case scenario.
Although the secrecy capacity formula for discrete memoryless non-degraded wiretap channels was proved in , the optimal selection of the auxiliary random variable and channel prefixing are still unknown for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels with partial CSIT in general. Only a few capacity results under the considered scenario are known, and are summarized as follows.
We report the temperature dependence of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition under the resonant excitation (4I15/2 → 4I9/2) excitation using a Ti:Sapphire laser (λexc = 809 nm). High resolution infrared spectroscopy and temperature dependence measurements of photoluminescence intensity from Er ions in GaN have been performed to identify the crystal filed splitting of the first excited state, 4I13/2. Here, we have employed a simple approach to determine activation energies which are related to the thermal population of electrons from the lowest level to the higher level of the crystal field splitting of the first excited state.
In linear system, in-plane motions are decoupled from out-of-plane motions for planar frame structures. A theoretical method is proposed that permits the efficient calculations of modal characteristics of planar multi-story frame structures. There are 3 × m beam components for a planar m-story frame structure. By analyzing the transverse and longitudinal motions of each component simultaneously and considering the compatibility requirements across each frame joint, the undetermined variables of the entire m-story frame structure system can be reduced to six, regardless of the number of stories, and that can be determined by the application of the boundary conditions. The main feature of this method is to decrease the dimensions of the matrix involved in the finite element methods and certain other analytical methods.
The study investigates three-dimensional kinematics of lower limb for female Chinese population during normal squatting activity. 25 young female and 25 elder female Chinese subjects were recruited. With each subject's data collected, the means of three-dimensional rotation angles of knee, hip, and ankle joints of those two groups were calculated and analyzed. Measured results showed that the maximal eccentric range of hip flexion/extension of 128.6° for the young female group (P < 0.05) was compared with that of 158.8° for the elder female group. Thus, the elder female undergoes more hip flexion/extension angles than the young female in the posture of squatting. The mean range of motion (ROM) of knee flexion/extension was 140.2° for the young female group and 138.7° (significant level P > 0.05) for the elder female group. The mean ROM of ankle flexion/extension was 47.90° for the young female group and 31.9° (P > 0.05) for the elder female group. The ROMs obtained in the experiment during squatting were greater than the reported ones achieved after joint arthroplasty. These data may be invaluable in providing designers of lower limb prosthesis with basic mechanical parameters, and assessing the effect of kinematics of low limb on rehabilitation for the Chinese population.
In late 2014, a gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a school in Shandong Province, eastern China. Hundreds of individuals developed the symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. Epidemiological investigation showed that food consumption was not linked to this outbreak, and unboiled direct drinking water was identified as the independent risk factor with a relative risk of 1·37 (95% confidence interval 1·03–1·83). Furthermore, examination of common bacterial and viral gastroenteritis pathogens was conducted on different specimens. Norovirus GI.1, GI.2, GI.6, GII.4, GII.6 and GII.13 were detected in clinical specimens and a water sample. GII.4 sequences between clinical specimens and the water sample displayed a close relationship and belonged to GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. These results indicate that direct drinking water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this gastroenteritis outbreak. This study enriches our knowledge of waterborne norovirus outbreaks in China, and presents valuable prevention and control practices for policy-makers. In future, strengthened surveillance and supervision of direct drinking-water systems is needed.
In many small solar flares the ∼10–100 keV electrons accelerated during the flash phase contain the bulk of the total flare energy output. In large flares, such as those in the period 1972, August 2–7, the flash phase electrons are present in substantially greater numbers. These electrons can explosively heat the chromosphere-lower corona and eject flare material. The ejected matter can produce a shock wave which will then accelerate nucleons and electrons to relativistic energies. We analyze energetic particle, radio, X-ray, gamma ray and interplanetary shock observations of the 1972 August flares to obtain quantitative estimates of the energy contained in each facet of these large flares. In general these observations are consistent with the above hypothesis. In particular:
(1)From the X-ray emission (van Beek et al., 1973) the energy contained in >25 keV electrons is calculated to be 2 × 1032 erg for the 1972, August 4 event. Since the lower energy cutoff to the electron spectrum is known to be below 25 keV and possibly below 10 keV, the electrons contain enough energy to produce the following interplanetary shock wave, which has by far the bulk of the energy dissipated in the flare. Similar numbers are obtained for the large August 7 flare event.
(2)From the γ-ray emission (Chupp et al., 1973) the energy in protons dumped at the same level of the atmosphere, assuming a thick target situation, is at least a factor of three smaller than the electrons. Moreover the γ-ray emission indicates that the bulk of the protons are accelerated at least several minutes after the electrons. Thus it is more likely that the electrons are responsible for the flare optical (Hα and white light) emissions which occur in the chromosphere.
(3)Approximately 5% of the electrons and 99% of the protons escape into the interplanetary medium to be observed by spacecraft. This situation is consistent with the hypothesis of shock acceleration of the protons high in the solar corona.
(4)The four most intense X-ray bursts observed during the period July 31–August 11 are the only bursts followed by an interplanetary shock wave and a new injection of energetic protons into the interplanetary medium.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
Laser vacuum acceleration can be optimized significantly by applying a static magnetic field which is along the direction of laser magnetic field. This setup can cause a charged particle to be of a periodic, oscillatory-rising velocity, and significantly high kinetic energy. Moreover, the contribution from the motion vertical to accelerating electric field is fully taken into account and is found to be essential to efficient acceleration.
Topological insulators are a new class of materials with the ability to carry spin-polarized currents on their surfaces. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements can probe the magnetic interactions between specific isotopes and the electronic system of a material. We present 209Bi NMR spectra and relaxation rate data on single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Se3 grown under various conditions. Our NMR data on single crystals reveal a significant strength of coupling between the nuclear spins and the bulk carrier spins, suggesting that nuclear spins may have a sizeable effect on spin-polarized surface currents.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Altered levels of selenium and copper have been linked with altered cardiovascular disease risk factors including changes in blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether this can be observed prenatally. This cross-sectional study includes 274 singleton births from 2004 to 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord serum selenium and copper using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated exposure levels vis-à-vis umbilical cord serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in multivariable regression models adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, race, parity, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, n-3 fatty acids and methyl mercury. The percent difference in triglycerides comparing those in the highest v. lowest quartile of selenium was 22.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1, 39.7). For copper this was 43.8% (95% CI: 25.9, 64.3). In multivariable models including both copper and selenium as covariates, copper, but not selenium, maintained a statistically significant association with increased triglycerides (percent difference: 40.7%, 95% CI: 22.1, 62.1). There was limited evidence of a relationship of increasing selenium with increasing total cholesterol. Our findings provide evidence that higher serum copper levels are associated with higher serum triglycerides in newborns, but should be confirmed in larger studies.
Fusarium wilt of watermelon, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, is one of the limiting factors for watermelon production in Taiwan. In recent research, the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expressed in the shoot base of the Fusarium wilt resistant line JSB was related to Fusarium wilt resistance. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is the key regulatory enzyme in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway. The downstream products of phenolic compounds are considered to be involved in the complicated plant defence mechanisms. They could act as signal molecules, antimicrobial substances and/or structural barriers. To study the resistant mechanisms of Fusarium wilt, the resistant JSB line was examined for comparison of F. oxysporum-watermelon interactions with the susceptible Grand Baby (GB) cultivar. Unlike infected GB, which was seriously colonized by F. oxysporum in the whole plant, the pathogen was limited below the shoot base of inoculated JSB, suggesting that the shoot base of JSB may contribute to Fusarium resistance. The data indicated that a significant increase in PAL activity was found in shoot bases of the resistant JSB line at 3, 9, 12 and 15 days after inoculation (DAI). Shoot bases of resistant watermelons accumulated higher amounts of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics at 3–9 DAI; the susceptible GB cultivar, however, only increased the cell wall-bound phenolics in shoot bases at 3 DAI. High lignin deposition in the cell walls of vascular bundles was observed in the shoot bases of JSB but not of GB seedlings at 6 and 9 DAI. In the roots and shoot bases of JSB seedlings at 6 DAI, peroxidase enzyme activity increased significantly. In summary, the results suggest that accumulation of cell wall-bound phenolics and increase of peroxidase activity in shoot bases of JSB seedlings during F. oxysporum inoculation, together with the rapid deposition of lignin in the cell walls of vascular bundles, may have provided structural barriers in resistant JSB line to defend against F. oxysporum invasion.
This multicentre surveillance study was conducted to investigate the trends in incidence and aetiology of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSIs) in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2011 a total of 56 830 HCA-BSIs were recorded at three medical centres, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common pathogens isolated (n = 9465, 16·7%), followed by E. coli (n = 7599, 13·4%). The incidence of all HCA-BSIs in each and all hospitals significantly increased over the study period owing to the increase of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae by 4·2% and 3·6%, respectively. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroides spp. and Candida spp. also showed an increase but there was a significant decline in the numbers of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In conclusion, the incidence of HCA-BSIs in Taiwan is significantly increasing, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic Gram-positive cocci.