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The bifurcation of two-dimensional gravity–capillary waves into solitary waves when the phase velocity and group velocity are nearly equal is investigated in the presence of constant vorticity. We found that gravity–capillary solitary waves with decaying oscillatory tails exist in deep water in the presence of vorticity. Furthermore we found that the presence of vorticity influences strongly (i) the solitary wave properties and (ii) the growth rate of unstable transverse perturbations. The growth rate and bandwidth instability are given numerically and analytically as a function of the vorticity.
A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope of two-dimensional gravity–capillary waves propagating at the free surface of a vertically sheared current of constant vorticity is derived. In this paper we extend to gravity–capillary wave trains the results of Thomas et al. (Phys. Fluids, 2012, 127102) and complete the stability analysis and stability diagram of Djordjevic & Redekopp (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 79, 1977, pp. 703–714) in the presence of vorticity. The vorticity effect on the modulational instability of weakly nonlinear gravity–capillary wave packets is investigated. It is shown that the vorticity modifies significantly the modulational instability of gravity–capillary wave trains, namely the growth rate and instability bandwidth. It is found that the rate of growth of modulational instability of short gravity waves influenced by surface tension behaves like pure gravity waves: (i) in infinite depth, the growth rate is reduced in the presence of positive vorticity and amplified in the presence of negative vorticity; (ii) in finite depth, it is reduced when the vorticity is positive and amplified and finally reduced when the vorticity is negative. The combined effect of vorticity and surface tension is to increase the rate of growth of modulational instability of short gravity waves influenced by surface tension, namely when the vorticity is negative. The rate of growth of modulational instability of capillary waves is amplified by negative vorticity and attenuated by positive vorticity. Stability diagrams are plotted and it is shown that they are significantly modified by the introduction of the vorticity.
M. M. Hedman, University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho, USA,
F. Postberg, University of Heidelberg Heidelberg, GERMANY,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
S. Renner, University of Lille Lille, FRANCE,
H.-W. Hsu, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado, USA
All of the giant planets in the outer Solar System possess rings composed primarily of particles less than 100 microns across. Such small particles are conventionally referred to as “dust grains” regardless of their composition, and so these rings are considered “dusty rings” (as opposed to the more famous main rings of Saturn and Uranus, whose particles are more than a millimeter across). Dusty rings are often very tenuous and so can be much more difficult to observe than Saturn's broad, bright, and dense main rings. Nevertheless, dusty rings are extremely interesting because they have very rich dynamics and are extremely sensitive probes of their environment.
The high surface-area-to-volume ratio of dust-sized grains makes them much more responsive to non-gravitational forces like solar radiation pressure, plasma drag, and torques from the planet's electromagnetic field. Furthermore, sub-millimeter particles can be lost from the ring system on relatively short timescales due to erosion via charged-particle and micrometeoroid bombardment or through ejection by the non-gravitational forces listed above. This means that small particles need to be constantly supplied to these rings from larger bodies, and indeed all of the known dusty rings are associated with larger objects that are the likely sources of dusty debris. The most dramatic example of this is Saturn's E ring, which is clearly supplied by material erupting from beneath the surface of the geologically active moon Enceladus. However, this is a special case, and most dusty rings are instead associated with denser rings (which are composed primarily of millimeter-to-metersized particles) or small moons. These objects can serve as dust sources because they are constantly being bombarded by micrometeoroids, and these impacts release fine debris that can escape the weak gravitational fields of these small bodies and go into orbit around the planet. Note that the amount of dust released by this process depends on the size, mass, and regolith properties of the source object, and calculations of the dust production rate based on simple estimates of impact ejecta velocity distributions suggest that source moons that are several kilometers across are the most efficient at producing dusty rings (Burns et al., 1999).
As the consciousness of energy saving and carbon reduction and comfortable environment is paid increasing attention to, the common objective of various countries with decreasing energy is to develop and popularize high efficiency and low running noise blowers. This study uses CFD to calculate the flow field and performance of a blower and compare with the experimental measurement. The characteristic curve of blower shows that the simulated and experimental values are close to each other, the difference between the values is only 0.4%. This analysis result proofs the CFD package is a highly reliable tool for the future blower design improvement. In addition, this study discusses the noise distribution of blower flow field, the periodic pressure output value calculated by CFD is used in the sound source input of sound pressure field, so as to simulate and analyze the aerodynamic noise reading of the flow field around the blower. The result shows that the simulated value of flow field around the fan has as high as 80.5 dB(A) ∼ 81.5 dB(A) noise level and is agree with measurement (82 dB(A)). The noise level is low but has a sharp noise. According to the numerical results, designer of the blower modify the tongue geometry and remove the sharp noise.
Prior to integrated circuit (IC) packaging, die performance must be verified using probe cards to screen for defective products. With the decrease in IC line width, the dimensions of the pads used for performance verification and the spacing between adjacent pads have also decreased. However, when the pad pitch is reduced to less than 30 μm, commonly used probe cards will face manufacturing problems in miniaturization. To resolve probe card manufacturing problems caused by the miniaturization of IC components, the use of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) in probe cards was proposed in this study. Theoretical calculations and experimental testing of this probe structure were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.
In theoretical calculations, composite material and buckling theory were utilized to evaluate the buckling behavior of the ACF. In experimental testing, photolithography and electroplating techniques were used to control the line width and spacing intervals of the micron-scale metal wires in the ACF. After the ACF was fabricated, the mechanical properties of the ACF during wafer testing were assessed. Theoretical analyses and experimental testing verified that ACFs can potentially be applied to the performance verification of IC products. In the ACF structure, multiple probes came into contact with each pad. Therefore, ACFs can potentially be applied to the performance verification of IC components with pad diameters of less than 20 μm. The results of this study directly benefit the miniaturization of ICs.
Accurate estimation of food portion size is critical in dietary studies. Hands are potentially useful as portion size estimation aids; however, their accuracy has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the accuracy of a novel portion size estimation method using the width of the fingers as a ‘ruler’ to measure the dimensions of foods (‘finger width method’), as well as fists and thumb or finger tips. These hand measures were also compared with household measures (cups and spoons). A total of sixty-seven participants (70 % female; age 32·7 (sd 13·7) years; BMI 23·2 (sd 3·5) kg/m2) attended a 1·5 h session in which they estimated the portion sizes of forty-two pre-weighed foods and liquids. Hand measurements were used in conjunction with geometric formulas to convert estimations to volumes. Volumes determined with hand and household methods were converted to estimated weights using density factors. Estimated weights were compared with true weights, and the percentage difference from the true weight was used to compare accuracy between the hand and household methods. Of geometrically shaped foods and liquids estimated with the finger width method, 80 % were within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 13 % were within ±10 %, in contrast to 29 % of those estimated with the household method being within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 8 % being within ±10 %. For foods that closely resemble a geometric shape, the finger width method provides a novel and acceptably accurate method of estimating portion size.
Recent meta-analyses of resting-state networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) implicate network disruptions underlying cognitive and affective features of illness. Heterogeneity of findings to date may stem from the relative lack of data parsing clinical features of MDD such as phase of illness and the burden of multiple episodes.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 17 active MDD and 34 remitted MDD patients, and 26 healthy controls (HCs) across two sites. Participants were medication-free and further subdivided into those with single v. multiple episodes to examine disease burden. Seed-based connectivity using the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed to probe the default mode network as well as the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) seeds to probe the salience network (SN) were conducted.
Young adults with remitted MDD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the left PCC to the left inferior frontal gyrus and of the left sgACC to the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left hippocampus compared with HCs. Episode-independent effects were observed between the left PCC and the right dorsolateral PFC, as well as between the left amygdala and right insula and caudate, whereas the burden of multiple episodes was associated with hypoconnectivity of the left PCC to multiple cognitive control regions as well as hypoconnectivity of the amygdala to large portions of the SN.
This is the first study of a homogeneous sample of unmedicated young adults with a history of adolescent-onset MDD illustrating brain-based episodic features of illness.
In this study, the region-point-matching technique (RPMT) is applied to examine the scattering problem of truncated semi-elliptic canyons under plane SH-wave excitation. The partition of the entire analyzed region into two subregions is carried out via an introduction of the elliptic-arc auxiliary boundary. Taking advantage of appropriate wavefunctions in elliptic coordinates, the expression of antiplane motions for each subregion can be obtained. To accomplish the indispensable coordinate shift, the coordinate-transformed relation, intended as a substitute for the addition theorem involving Mathieu functions, is well utilized. Integration of the coordinate-transformed relation into the RPMT brings about the rapid construction of simultaneous equations. Effects of pertinent parameters on steady-state and transient surface motions are demonstrated. Computed results show that, for horizontal incidence, the potential high level of ground shaking may occur near the illuminated upper corner of the canyon. In such a small localized region, due to the occurrence of constructive interference between the reflected waves from the horizontal ground surface and the scattered waves from the corners of the canyon, the peak amplifaction may be at least two times that of free-field response.
In this paper, analytical particular solutions of the augmented polyharmonic spline (APS) associated with Reissner plate model are explicitly derived in order to apply the dual reciprocity method. In the derivations of the particular solutions, a coupled system of three second-ordered partial differential equations (PDEs), which governs problems of Reissner plates, is initially transformed into a single six-ordered PDE by the Hörmander operator decomposition technique. Then the particular solutions of the coupled system can be found by using the particular solution of the six-ordered PDE derived in the first author's previous study. These formulas are further implemented for solving problems of Reissner plates under arbitrary loadings. In the solution procedure, an arbitrary loading measured at some scattered points is first interpolated by the APS and a corresponding particular solution can then be approximated by using the prescribed formulas. After that the complementary homogeneous problem is formally solved by the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). Numerical experiments are carried out to validate these particular solutions.
In this work, the effect of bandgap grading of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-Si1-xGex:H) absorber near the p/i and the i/n interfaces was investigated. The a-Si1-xGex:H single-junction solar cells were improved by applying both p/i grading and i/n grading. Our results showed that both the p/i and the i/n grading can increase the open-circuit voltage (VOC) as compared to the cell without grading. The i/n grading can further improve the FF. Presumably the potential gradient created by the i/n grading can facilitate the hole transport thus it can improve the FF. However, the JSC decreased as the i/n grading width increased. The reduction of JSC was due to the loss in the red response, which can be attributed to the replacement of lower bandgap material by the larger ones. Combining the effects of VOC, JSC and FF, a suitable thickness of the p/i and the i/n grading was 20 nm and 45 nm, respectively. Finally, the grading structures accompanied with further optimization of doped layers were integrated to achieve a cell efficiency of 8.59 %.
Taiwan Photon Source is a new 3-GeV ring with characteristics of great brightness and small emittance, at present under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) site in Taiwan and due to be commissioned in 2013. The positioning of the magnets is highly sensitive to alignment errors, and the entire building will be constructed half underground at depth 12 m relative to Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for stability reasons; for these reasons the survey and alignment work is confined and difficult. To position magnets precisely and quickly, a highly accurate auto-tuning girder system combined with a survey network was designed to accomplish the alignment tasks. The survey network includes a preliminary Global Positioning System (GPS) network and a laser-tracking network. The position data from the survey network define a basis for the system of motorized girders to auto-tune and improve the accuracy. The detailed survey and alignment design, simulation and preliminary data are described in this paper.
Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a new 3 GeV synchrotron ring, is under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). To discover problems of design, manufacture and installation, a mockup of 1/24 section (one cell) of TPS was installed at NSRRC. A modified, precise, six-axis, prototype girder system of this mockup composed of three girders was fabricated. We discuss both the installation of the girder system and its diagnostics, and present the results including measurement of the dimensions of the components of the girder system and the vibration tests.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported to affect the performance of ambulation, including unobstructed and obstructed gait. An increased risk of falling in patients with knee OA during obstaclecrossing, as opposed to unobstructed level walking, may be explained by the difference in the control of the body's center of mass (COM) with respect to the center of pressure (COP) while trying to ensure sufficient foot clearance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamic stability in patients with knee OA during level walking and obstacle-crossing. The COM-COP inclination angles and angular velocities, as well as temporal-spatial variables, from eleven patients with bilateral knee OA and eleven normal controls were obtained during level walking and obstacle-crossing using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and forceplates. Demands in the control of the COM relative to the COP were found to be greater during obstacle-crossing in both subject groups. While less stable COM control was found around the end stage of double stance phase during obstacle-crossing when compared to level walking, patients with knee OA successfully acquired strategies in the sagittal plane to maintain close-tonormal stable COM control with normal toe clearances during both level walking and obstacle-crossing. They achieved stable transitions from single limb stance (SLS) to double limb stance (DLS) through a reduced anterior inclination angle and from DLS to SLS through increased anterior angular velocity. It is suggested that assessment of the ability to control dynamic stability in patients with knee OA should consider both the positions and velocities of the COM and COP.
Fifteen young and fifteen older healthy adults walked and crossed obstacles of three different heights while kinematic data and ground reaction forces were acquired to calculate the three-dimensional motion of the centre of mass (COM) and lower limb joint moments. The older group had greater normalized jerk score of the COM. When the leading limb was crossing, the older group kept the COM more posterior and on the trailing stance limb for longer with increased knee extensor crossing moments and thus decreased anterioposterior COM deceleration. When the trailing limb was crossing, the older group decreased vertical COM deceleration through increased hip extensor crossing moments. The older group maintained the same COM motion as the young in the frontal plane with greater hip and knee abductor crossing moments. The older group exhibited significant kinetic changes in their locomotor system with increased muscular demand, leading to a more jerky motion of the body COM. However, these changes helped to maintain the frontal COM motion and to achieve a sagittal COM motion pattern which is thought to be helpful for a safe and successful obstacle-crossing. Failure to meet the kinetic demands in the elderly may increase the risk of falls during obstacle-crossing.
Knowledge of the control of the musculoskeletal system in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) during gait is helpful for the development of intervention programs in the management of these patients. The current study aimed to investigate the leg and joint stiffness, aswell as the associated joint kinematics and kinetics, in patients with bilateral medial knee OA during gait. Joint angles, moments and stiffness, as well as leg stiffness from fifteen patients with bilateral knee OA and fifteen normal controls during level walking, were obtained and their values at the beginning and end of single leg stance were compared using a t-test.
Patients with knee OA were found to modulate their leg and joint stiffness through acquired specific biomechanical strategies in order to maintain normal temporal-spatial patterns of gait. During weight acceptance, they increased their leg stiffness with increased knee stiffness but unalterd hip and ankle stiffness. During weight release, they modulated their hip and ankle kinetics with increased knee and ankle stiffness to improve the control stability of the limb with unaltered leg stiffness. It is suggested that muscle strengthening exercise intervention and/or rehabilitation for patients with knee OA should focus on activities that develop and/or maintain functions not only of the knee, but also of the overall lower extremity.