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Aluminium (Al) consumption growth exceeded those of all other major metals over the last
decades. The main driver for this development is the broad range of applications for Al
and Al-alloys. As the growth in consumption went along with an increase of anthropogenic
stocks and flows of Al, information about material cycles became a crucial issue in terms
of resource management. In this study a comprehensive material flow analysis (MFA) of the
flows and stocks of Al in Austria for the year 2010 is conducted. The focus of the
presented Al balance is on data harmonization and plausibility checks, both based on
extensive data and literature research. The stock of Al is derived from bottom-up
calculations indicating a total stock of about 260 kg Al per capita with an annual growth
of 11 ± 3.1 kg/cap yr in 2010.
Total old Al scrap generation is calculated to be 7 ± 1 kg/cap yr. For considering data
quality aspects of single input data an adopted method for uncertainty assessment has been
applied to the different material flows. This allowed a consistent evaluation of
uncertainties within the material flow model. Due to the substantial uncertainties
associated with end-of-life Al flows and their significance for secondary Al production in
Austria, a better data base is needed in order to evaluate and optimize national Al scrap
utilization in secondary production. Therefore, a dynamic MFA model will be built for
Austrian Al flows and, in conjunction with the results from the static analyses, will
provide a reliable decision basis for future Al resource management.
The formation of carbon nanostructures using silica nanoparticles from quartz substrates as a catalyst in an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition process was examined. The silica particles are reduced to silicon carbide via a carbothermal reduction process. The recyclability of the explored quartz substrates is also presented. The addition of triethyl borate improves the efficiency of the carbothermal reduction process and carbon nanotubes formation. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen during the chemical vapor deposition leads to the helical carbon nanostructures formation.
The design of a novel spectrometer based on a thin film diode in combination with an electro statically tunable micro machined mirror will be presented. The semi transparent diode is introduced into a standing wave created in front of a reflector to sample the profile of the standing wave. Varying the position of the reflector results in a shift of the phase of the standing waves and thus in a change of the optical generation profile within the detector. The spectral information of the incoming light can be determined by the Fourier transformation of the transient response of the sensor. An analytical optical model will be presented which facilitates the evaluation of different detector concepts. The model will be applied to discuss different device designs regarding the resolution of the spectrometer, the spectral range and the linearity.
The potential of MgO and ZrO2 as catalytically active substrates for graphene formation via thermal CVD is explored. Experimental observations show the growth of single and multi-layer graphene nano-flakes over MgO and ZrO2 at low temperatures. The graphene nano-flakes are found to anchor at step sites. Ab initio calculations indicate step sites are crucial to adsorb and crack acetylene.
The molecular structure and dynamics of carbon nanostructures is much discussed throughout the literature, mostly from the theoretical side because of a lack of suitable experimental techniques to adequately engage the problem. A technique that has recently become available is low-voltage aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. It is a valuable tool with which to directly observe the atomic structure and dynamics of the specimen in situ. Time series aberration-corrected low-voltage transmission electron microscopy is used to study the dynamics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in situ. We confirm experimentally previous theoretical predictions for the agglomeration of adatoms forming protrusions and subsequent removal. A model is proposed how lattice reconstruction sites spread. In addition, the complete healing of a multi-vacancy consisting of ca. 20 missing atoms in a nanotube wall is followed.
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