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Plastic deformation of metals produces a state characterized by the presence of residual elastic strains, small domains which diffract X-rays coherently, and often stacking faults; these effects may be studied with X-ray diffraction techniques. Changes in the lattice parameter, shifts in the relative positions of diffraction lines, and the broadening of diffraction lines were used to study the state of coldwork resulting in Cu-6.6 at.%Si-1.2 at.%Mn after deformation by filing, wiredrawing, and uniaxial tension at room temperature.
Both filing and wire-drawing produce large root-mean-square strains and stacking faults, whereas deformation by tension up to 22% extension fails to produce any clear evidence of faulting or root-mean-square strains. Tensile deformation causes fragmentation of coherent domains to an average dimension of 250 Å after 22% extension, and results in a radial, tensile, residual macrostrain arising from a smaller rate of work hardening in the surface layers than in the interior. Wire drawing also results in a residual macrostrain system. Deformation appears to enhance diffusion and promote solute clustering at room temperature.
Deformation, introduced into niobium and tantalum specimens by wire drawing at room temperature, produced changes in the shape and position of X-ray diffraction peaks. The resultant peak profiles and locations of all available peaks were recorded using the Debye-Scherrer geometry on a modified dtffractometer with crystal monochromated Cu Kα radiation. The amount of deformation in the surface layers of both metals was found to saturate essentially after only 20% reduction in area. The measured decrease in the lattice parameters of either material was attributed to a residual surface stress; the average value for the deformed saturated state for both tantalum and niobium wires corresponded to an equivalent longitudinal tensile stress of 35 ± 5 kg/mm2. Integral breadth measurements revealed approximately equal X-ray particle sizes in the <100> and <110> directions; the minimum particle size for the micro structures of both metals was around 200 Å and occurred after the first few draws.
Sex differences in the incidence of infections may indicate different risk factors and behaviour but have not been analysed across pathogens. Based on 3.96 million records of 33 pathogens in Germany, notified from 2001 to 2013, we applied Poisson regression to generate age-standardised incidence rate ratios and assessed their distribution across age and sex. The following trends became apparent: (a) pathogens with male incidence preponderance at infant and child age (meningococcal disease (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03–1.38, age = 0–4); influenza (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.06–1.13, age = 0–4)), (b) pathogens with sex-switch in incidence preponderance at puberty (e.g. norovirus (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19 in age = 5–14, IRR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.99, age ⩾ 60), (c) pathogens with general male incidence preponderance (bacterial/parasitic infections with campylobacter, Yersinia and Giardia), (d) pathogens with male incidence preponderance at juvenile and adult age (sexually transmitted or vector-borne infections (combined-IRR = 2.53, 95% CI 2.36–2.71, age = 15–59), (e) pathogens with male preponderance at older age (tick-borne encephalitis - IRR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.21–6.24, listeriosis - IRR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.38–3.06, age ⩾ 60). Risk factor concepts only partly serve to interpret similarities of grouped infections, i.e. transmission-related explanations and sex-specific exposures not consistently explain the pattern of food-borne infections (b). Sex-specific differences in infectious disease incidence are well acknowledged regarding the sexually transmitted diseases. This has led to designing gender-specific prevention strategies. Our data suggest that for infections with other transmission routes, gender-specific approaches can also be of benefit and importance.
The Muenster Redshift Project provides to date 0.9 million low-resolution redshifts obtained from automatic reductions of pairs of direct and low-dispersion objective prism Schmidt plates. Preliminary results obtained from subsamples of the survey are described.
A comparison between results of model calculations and observed properties of close, but detached low mass binaries with Main Sequence primaries shows statistical trends, which seem to support fission origin for some of these objects: the mass-momentum relation, the relation between mass ratio and separation and the relation between mass ratio and synchronisation speak in favour of close initial separations and small mass ratios of the components.
Antidepressants reduce depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease, but they may be associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to examine whether the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is associated with mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, and to determine whether this association is mediated by autonomic function.
A total of 956 patients with coronary heart disease were followed for a mean duration of 7.2 years. Autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability, and plasma and 24-h urinary norepinephrine.
Of 956 patients, 44 (4.6%) used TCA, 89 (9.3%) used SSRI, and 823 (86.1%) did not use antidepressants. At baseline, TCA users exhibited lower heart rate variability and higher norepinephrine levels compared with SSRI users and antidepressant non-users. At the end of the observational period, 52.3% of the TCA users had died compared with 38.2% in the SSRI group and 37.3% in the control group. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for TCA use compared with non-use was 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–2.69, p = 0.01]. Further adjustment for measures of autonomic function reduced the association between TCA use and mortality (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.67–2.43, p = 0.47). SSRI use was not associated with mortality (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.81–1.64, p = 0.44).
The use of TCA was associated with increased mortality. This association was at least partially mediated by differences in autonomic function. Our findings suggest that TCA should be avoided in patients with coronary heart disease.
Although livestock production accounts for a sizeable share of global greenhouse gas emissions, numerous technical options have been identified to mitigate these emissions. In this review, a subset of these options, which have proven to be effective, are discussed. These include measures to reduce CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation by ruminants, the largest single emission source from the global livestock sector, and for reducing CH4 and N2O emissions from manure. A unique feature of this review is the high level of attention given to interactions between mitigation options and productivity. Among the feed supplement options for lowering enteric emissions, dietary lipids, nitrates and ionophores are identified as the most effective. Forage quality, feed processing and precision feeding have the best prospects among the various available feed and feed management measures. With regard to manure, dietary measures that reduce the amount of N excreted (e.g. better matching of dietary protein to animal needs), shift N excretion from urine to faeces (e.g. tannin inclusion at low levels) and reduce the amount of fermentable organic matter excreted are recommended. Among the many ‘end-of-pipe’ measures available for manure management, approaches that capture and/or process CH4 emissions during storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, biofiltration, composting), as well as subsurface injection of manure, are among the most encouraging options flagged in this section of the review. The importance of a multiple gas perspective is critical when assessing mitigation potentials, because most of the options reviewed show strong interactions among sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The paper reviews current knowledge on potential pollution swapping, whereby the reduction of one GHG or emission source leads to unintended increases in another.
The Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis, presents two geographically isolated populations in the western South Atlantic. This note reports on a 350 km northward extension range of the southern population. The sighted group of 80 animals was in waters 66 m deep and 75 nautical miles distant from the coast. The record was observed during a dedicated cetacean survey in Brazilian waters in the spring of 2008 and supports a discontinuous distribution along the coast of Brazil.
The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) offers a complementary tool for studying long-lived radionuclides in nuclear astrophysics: (1) as a tool for investigating nucleosynthesis in the laboratory; and (2) via a direct search of live long-lived radionuclides in terrestrial archives as signatures of recent nearby supernova-events. A key ingredient to our understanding of nucleosynthesis is accurate cross-section data. AMS was applied for measurements of the neutron-induced cross sections 13C(n,γ) and 14N(n,p), both leading to the long-lived radionuclide 14C. Solid samples were irradiated at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with neutrons closely resembling a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution for kT = 25 keV, and with neutrons of energies between 123 and 178 keV. After neutron activation the amount of 14C nuclides in the samples was measured by AMS at the VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) facility. Both reactions, 13C(n,γ)14C and 14N(n,p)14C, act as neutron poisons in s-process nucleosynthesis. However, previous experimental data are discordant. The new data for both reactions tend to be slightly lower than previous measurements for the 25 keV Maxwell–Boltzmann energy distribution. For the higher neutron energies no previous data did exist for 13C(n,γ), but model calculations indicated a strong resonance structure between 100 and 300 keV which is confirmed by our results. Very limited information is available for 14N(n,p) at these energies. Our new data at 123 and 178 keV suggest lower cross sections than expected from previous experiments and data evaluations.
The strain relaxation and threading dislocation density of He-implanted and annealed SiGe/Si heterostructures have been studied. For He doses above a threshold of 8×1015 cm−2, the degree of strain relaxation depends primarily on the SiGe layer thickness; a similar degree of strain relaxation is obtained when the He dose and energy are varied over a relatively wide range. In contrast, the threading dislocation density is strongly influenced by the implantation depth. There is a strong correlation between the parameter He(SiGe), the He dose in the SiGe layer calculated from He profiles simulated using the program Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM), and the threading dislocation density. We find that to achieve a low threading dislocation density, <5×107 cm−2, He(SiGe) must be less than 1015 cm−2. The strain relaxation mechanism is also discussed.
YBa2Cu3O7-x (123) powders containing silver have been prepared by aerosol decomposition. Metal nitrate solution droplets were decomposed at temperatures above and below the melting point of the Ag-O eutectic. In both cases, the Ag was present as a separate grain attached to YBa2Cu3O7-x. Individual aerosol particles had dimensions of 50 – 1000 nm. Grain sizes of Ag and 123 crystallites within these particles were 10 to 100 nm. Larger 123 grain sizes could be obtained by varying the reactor operating conditions. The powders provide a source of material for generation of YBa2Cu3O7-x/Ag ceramics with smaller Ag and 123 grain sizes and more uniform composition than can be obtained by other methods.
A pulsed excimer laser was used to ablate aluminum metal into an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The resulting fine powder was collected on a 0.1 μm filter and analyzed to determine structure and composition. Using a combination of TEM, EELS, and thermal analysis techniques, the product was found to be amorphous aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The morphology of the powders was investigated using SEM, TEM, and surface area measurements. The resulting powder was crystallized and examined by x-ray diffraction.
A series of compounds Ba1−xKxBiO3 have been prepared and characterized over the range of compositions ranging from x = 0.3 to 0.5. A neutron powder diffraction analysis has been carried out for the composition x = 0.4 at room temperature and at 10 K. Examination of the superconducting properties as a function of x indicates superconductivity occurs over a narrow range of compositions close to x = 0.4, with Tc of 29 K. Specific heat measurements indicate conventional electron-phonon interactions may play a role in promoting superconductivity in Ba.6K.4BiO3. Magnetization loops and examination of the time dependent magnetization indicate that Ba.6K.4BiO3 has a low value of Jc due to very weak pinning.
The electronic and optical properties of microcrys tall ine silicon films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition are investigated with Hall-effect, electrical conductivity, photothermal deflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. In particular, the influence of the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction on the conductivity, the carrier density and the Hall mobility is investigated in highly doped films. A percolation model is proposed to describe the observed transport data. Photoluminescence properties were studied in un-doped films. It is proposed that the photoluminescence is due to recombination at structural defects similar to those observed in crystalline silicon.
We implanted at 300 eV into Cu-chalcopyrite semiconductors at temperatures between 50°C and 300°C. The surface chemistry is similar to the previously reported behavior of CuInS2 implanted with a H2+, H+ low energy ion beam  with respect to secondary phase etching. We also found an increase of radiative recombination (photoluminescence), which had been attributed to defect passivation and, hence, as an indicator of hydrogen incorporation . Under the 300 eV implantation conditions, however, we observed neither a hydrogen concentration in a few hundred nm surface range exceeding the NRA detection limit of about 1×1019 cm-3 nor a pronounced stoichiometry variation in the ternary material, as proved by Raman measurements.
We conclude, therefore, that a 300 eV implantation introduces significantly less atomic hydrogen into the volume of the sample than previously reported for other beam compositions under similar temperature and current density conditions. This could be a result of the very low energy of less than 100 eV which can be expected for atomic H produced by dissociation of 300 eV at the surface, making the instant out-diffusion into the high vacuum of the implantation chamber a favored process.
Hybrid orientation substrates make it possible to have a CMOS technology in which nFETs are on (100) Si (the Si orientation in which electron mobility is the highest) and pFETs are on (110)-oriented Si (the Si orientation in which hole mobility is the highest). This talk will describe a new amorphization/templated recrystallization (ATR) method for fabricating bulk hybrid orientation substrates. In a preferred version of this method, a silicon layer with a (110) orientation is directly bonded to a Si base substrate with a (100) orientation. Si regions selected for an orientation change are amorphized by ion implantation and then recrystallized to the (100) orientation of the base substrate. After an overview of the ATR technique and its various implementations, we will describe some of the scientifically interesting materials and integration challenges encountered while reducing it to practice.
The franciscana dolphin has been considered the most threatened small cetacean in the south-western Atlantic Ocean due to gillnet by-catch. The estimation of the species' abundance has been recommended as the highest research priority. A line transect aerial survey to estimate franciscana abundance in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was carried out in February 2004. The overall surveyed area comprised 13,341 km2 and at least 20 transect lines. Abundance was estimated using distance sampling methods and assuming g(0) = 0.304. The corrected density is 0.51 franciscanas/km2, resulting in an abundance estimation of 6839 franciscanas (CV = 32%; 95% CI = 3709–12,594) for the surveyed area in Rio Grande do Sul. To improve this estimate: (a) perception bias should be determined; (b) the parameters influencing availability bias should be identified and quantified; and (c) survey sample size should be increased. While the lack of data to correct for perception bias and group size underestimation in this aerial survey is likely to yield an underestimate of franciscana abundance, the use of surfacing and diving time data from boat and land-based surveys to correct for availability bias is likely to cause its overestimation. Alternative values of the g0 group-size estimates and rates of increase were incorporated in the analyses, creating 240 different estimates of annual increment for this franciscana population. Even in the most optimistic scenario, the annual increment of franciscanas is not sustainable with the current levels of by-catch in Rio Grande do Sul, and fishery management to reduce by-catch must be initiated promptly.
The patterns of habitat use by the franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) along its distribution are poorly known. This study investigates the patterns of habitat use with respect to depth for 181 individuals of different age, size, gender and reproductive condition off Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The results reveal that franciscanas are very homogeneously distributed according to depth. Individuals from all lengths utilize nearly the entire range of depths of the surveyed area. Larger or older animals do not use deeper waters than younger animals, indicating that body size and age are not limiting factors for franciscanas that occupy deeper or offshore waters. Gestation seems to not cause a change in the distribution of females. Although the sex-ratio of the overall data did not vary from 1:1 in different depth intervals, a small-scale comparison between the northern and southern coast demonstrated the existence of some kind of sexual segregation. Franciscana by-catch in Rio Grande do Sul is not sustainable and it is agreed that management procedures are needed. Nevertheless, the available data on species distribution do not allow the designing of a protected area in order to minimize the by-catches of a particular sex/reproductive class.