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The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary thiamine supplementation on the regulation of colonic integrity and mucosal inflammation in goats fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet. Twenty-four Boer goats (live weight of 35.62 ± 2.4 kg) were allocated to 3 groups (CON: concentrate/forage = 30:70; HC; concentrate/forage = 70:30; HCT: concentrate/forage = 70:30 with 200 mg thiamine/kg DMI) for 12 weeks. Results showed that compared with the HC treatment, the HCT group had a significantly higher ruminal pH value from 0 to 12 h after the feeding. The H&E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining showed that desquamation and severe cellular damage was observed in the colon epithelium of the HC group, whereas the HCT group exhibited more structural integrity of the epithelial cell morphology. Compared with the HC treatment, the HCT group showed a markedly increased in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) enzymes activity and a markedly decreased in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes activity. The mRNA expression in the colonic epithelium of SLC19A2, SLC19A3, SLC25A19, Bcl-2, Occludin, Claudin-1, Claudin-4 and ZO-1 in the HCT group were significantly increased, whereas the mRNA expression of NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CXCL-10, CXCL-13, MMP-9, MMP-13 and Bax were significantly decreased in comparison with the HC diet treatment. Compared with the HC treatment, the HCT diet significantly increased the protein expression of claudin-1 and significantly decreased the protein expression of NFκB-related proteins p65. The results show that dietary thiamine supplementation could improve the colon epithelial barrier function and alleviate mucosal inflammation injury in goats after LPS and low pH challenge.
The long-distance stable transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in plasmas is studied by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Theoretical analysis shows that the beam transport is mainly influenced by three transverse instabilities, where the excitation of self-modulation instability, and the suppression of the filamentation instability and the hosing instability are important to realize the beam stable transport. By modulating the transport parameters such as the electron density ratio, the relativistic Lorentz factor, the beam envelopes and the density profiles, the relativistic bunches having a smooth density profile and a length of several plasma wave periods can suppress the beam-plasma instabilities and propagate in plasmas for long distances with small energy losses. The results provide a reference for the research of long-distance and stable transport of REBs, and would be helpful for new particle beam diagnosis technology and space active experiments.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
To examine how individual steward characteristics (eg, steward role, sex, and specialized training) are associated with their views of antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) implementation at their institution.
Descriptive survey from a mixed-methods study.
Two large national healthcare systems; the Veterans’ Health Administration (VA) (n = 134 hospitals) and Intermountain Healthcare (IHC; n = 20 hospitals).
We sent the survey to 329 antibiotic stewards serving in 154 hospitals; 152 were physicians and 177 were pharmacists. In total, 118 pharmacists and 64 physicians from 126 hospitals responded.
The survey was grounded in constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, and it assessed stewards’ views on the development and implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) at their institutions We then examined differences in stewards’ views by demographic factors.
Regardless of individual factors, stewards agreed that the ASP added value to their institution and was advantageous to patient care. Stewards also reported high levels of collegiality and self-efficacy. Stewards who had specialized training or those volunteered for the role were less likely to think that the ASP was implemented due to a mandate. Similarly volunteers and those with specialized training felt that they had authority in the antibiotic decisions made in their facility.
Given the importance of ASPs, it may be beneficial for healthcare institutions to recruit and train individuals with a true interest in stewardship.
A spectral method is developed to study the steady and unsteady flow of fluid into a line sink from a horizontally confined aquifer, and the results are compared to solutions obtained implementing the finite element package COMSOLTM. The aquifer or drain is considered to be confined below so that the solutions are fundamentally unsteady. Comparison is made between the two methods in determining the drawdown of the surface.
We present an unsupervised machine learning approach for segmentation of static and dynamic atomic-resolution microscopy data sets in the form of images and video sequences. In our approach, we first extract local features via symmetry operations. Subsequent dimension reduction and clustering analysis are performed in feature space to assign pattern labels to each pixel. Furthermore, we propose the stride and upsampling scheme as well as separability analysis to speed up the segmentation process of image sequences. We apply our approach to static atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images and video sequences. Our code is released as a python module that can be used as a standalone program or as a plugin to other microscopy packages.
Pneumatic launch systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), including mechanical and pneumatic systems, are complex and non-linear. They are subjected to system parameters during launch, which leads to difficulty in engineering research analysis. For example, the mismatch between the UAV parameters and the parameter design indices of the launch system as well as the unclear design indices of the launching speed and overload of UAVs have a great impact on launch safety. Considering this situation, some studies are presented in this paper. Taking the pneumatic launch system as a research object, a pneumatic launcher dynamic simulation model is built based on co-simulation considering the coupling characteristics of the mechanical structure and transmission system. Its accuracy was verified by laboratory test results. Based on this model, the paper shows the effects of the key parameters, including the mass of the UAV, cylinder volume, pressure and moment of inertia of the pulley block, on the performance of the dynamic characteristics of the launch process. Then, a method for matching the parameter characteristics between the UAV and launch system based on batch simulation is proposed. The set of matching parameter values of the UAV and launch system that satisfy the launch take-off safety criteria are calculated. Finally, the influence of the system parameters of the launch process on the launch performance was analysed in detail, and the design optimised. Meaningful conclusions were obtained. The analysis method and its results can provide a reference for engineering and theoretical research and development of pneumatic launch systems.
In China, the indications of paliperidone extended in schizophrenia adolescents (12-17 years) was approved by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) in 2017. But, the utilization of paliperidone in this group needs to be further investigated.
To assess paliperidone utilization in schizophrenia adolescents.
The study employed the electronic medical records (EMRs) database from a psychiatry specialized hospital (PH) and a general hospital (GH), respectively. General information, including birth date, gender, visit date, diagnosis (inpatient and outpatient) with ICD-10 coding, drug characterize, prescription date and dosage, was de-identified and standardized for analysis. Schizophrenia adolescents (ICD-10: F20.x) received at least one prescription of paliperidone between 2018 and 2019 were included in this study. Index date was defined as the date of first identified paliperidone prescription. The patients were followed up until the end of 2019 with the last record, or upon reaching 18 years. The database was analyzed based on days of supply, administration frequency, and daily dose.
Overall, 112 and 117 eligible patients were included in the present study from PH and GH, respectively. The median drug supply was 179.0 days and 44.0 days, respectively, during which median number of prescriptions patients received was 6.0 and 3.0. Paliperidone was mostly initiated alone (57.1% and 88.9%) with frequency of once daily (97.3% and 88.9%), and the median of average daily dose during follow-up was 5.7 mg/day and 6.0 mg/day, respectively.
The duration of paliperidone usage was very different in two hospitals, but the dosages in both hospitals were generally agreed with prescribing information.
A novel paediatric disease, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, has emerged during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic.
To describe the short-term evolution of cardiac complications and associated risk factors in patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children.
Retrospective single-centre study of confirmed multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children treated from 29 March, 2020 to 1 September, 2020. Cardiac complications during the acute phase were defined as decreased systolic function, coronary artery abnormalities, pericardial effusion, or mitral and/or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Patients with or without cardiac complications were compared with chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum.
Thirty-nine children with median (interquartile range) age 7.8 (3.6–12.7) years were included. Nineteen (49%) patients developed cardiac complications including systolic dysfunction (33%), valvular regurgitation (31%), coronary artery abnormalities (18%), and pericardial effusion (5%). At the time of the most recent follow-up, at a median (interquartile range) of 49 (26–61) days, cardiac complications resolved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Two patients had persistent mild systolic dysfunction and one patient had persistent coronary artery abnormality. Children with cardiac complications were more likely to have higher N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.01), higher white blood cell count (p = 0.01), higher neutrophil count (p = 0.02), severe lymphopenia (p = 0.05), use of milrinone (p = 0.03), and intensive care requirement (p = 0.04).
Patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children had a high rate of cardiac complications in the acute phase, with associated inflammatory markers. Although cardiac complications resolved in 84% of patients, further long-term studies are needed to assess if the cardiac abnormalities (transient or persistent) are associated with major cardiac events.
We examined parent- and adolescent-reported executive functioning (EF) behaviors following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the context of Online Family Problem-Solving Therapy (OFPST) and moderators of change in EF behaviors.
In total, 274 families were randomized to OFPST or an internet resource comparison group. Parents and adolescents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function at four time points. Mixed models were used to examine EF behaviors, assessing the effects of visit, treatment group, rater, TBI severity, age, socioeconomic status, and family functioning.
Parents rated their adolescents’ EF as poorer (F(3,1156) = 220.15, p < .001; M = 58.11, SE = 0.73) than adolescents rated themselves (M = 51.81, SE = 0.73). Across raters, EF behaviors were poorer for adolescents whose parents had less education (F(3,1156) = 8.60, p = .003; M = 56.76, SE = 0.98) than for those with more education (M = 53.16, SE = 0.88). Age at baseline interacted with visit (F(3,1156) = 5.05, p = .002), such that families of older adolescents reported improvement in EF behaviors over time. Family functioning also interacted with visit (F(3, 1156) = 2.61, p = .049), indicating more improvement in EF behaviors over time in higher functioning families. There were no effects of treatment or TBI severity.
We identified a discrepancy between parent- and adolescent-reported EF, suggesting reduced awareness of deficits in adolescents with TBI. We also found that poorer family functioning and younger age were associated with poorer recovery after TBI, whereas adolescents of parents with less education were reported as having greater EF deficits across time points.
Manure is a primary source of methane (CH4) emissions into the atmosphere. A large proportion of CH4 from manure is emitted during storage, but this varies with storage methods. In this research, we tested whether covering a manure heap with plastic reduces CH4 emission during a short-term composting process. A static chamber method was used to detect the CH4 emission rate and the change of the physicochemical properties of cattle manure which was stored either uncovered (treatment UNCOVERED) or covered with plastic (treatment COVERED) for 30-day periods during the four seasons? The dry matter content of the COVERED treatment was significantly less than the UNCOVERED treatment (P < 0.01), and the C/N ratio of the COVERED treatment significantly greater than the UNCOVERED treatment (P > 0.05) under high temperature. In the UNCOVERED treatment, average daily methane (CH4) emissions were in the order summer > spring > autumn > winter. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with the temperature (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.01). Compared to the UNCOVERED treatment, the daily average CH4 emission rates from COVERED treatment manure were less in the first 19 days of spring, 13 days of summer, 10 days of autumn and 30 days of winter. In summary, covering the manure pile with plastic reduces the evaporation of water during storage; and in winter, long-term covering with plastic film reduces the CH4 emissions during the storage of manure.
Carrier-based unmanned aerial aircraft (UAV) structure is subjected to severe tensile load during takeoff, especially the drawbar, which affects its fatigue performance and structural safety. However, the complex structural features pose great challenges for the engineering design. Considering this situation, a structural design, fatigue analysis, and parameters optimisation joint working platform are urgently needed to solve this problem. In this study, numerical analysis of strain fatigue is carried out based on the laboratory fatigue failure of the carrier-based aircraft drawbar. Taking the sensitivity of drawbar parameters to stress and life into account and optimum design of drawbar with fatigue life as a target using the parametric method, this study also includes cutting-edge parameters of milling cutters, structural details of the drawbar and so on. Then an experimental design is applied using the Latin hypercube sampling method, and a surrogate model based on RBF neural network is established. Lastly, a multi-island genetic algorithm is introduced for optimisation. The results show that the error between the obtained optimal solution and simulation is 0.26%, while the optimised stress level is reduced by 15.7%, and the life of the drawbar is increased by 122%.
Although recognized as one of the most significant cultural transformations in North America, the reintroduction of the horse to the continent after AD 1492 has been rarely addressed by archaeological science. A key contributing factor behind this limited study is the apparent absence of equine skeletal remains from early historic archaeological contexts. Here, we present a multidisciplinary analysis of a horse skeleton recovered in Lehi, Utah, originally attributed to the Pleistocene. Reanalysis of stratigraphic context and radiocarbon dating indicates a historic age for this horse (cal AD 1681–1939), linking it with Ute or other Indigenous groups, whereas osteological features demonstrate its use for mounted horseback riding—perhaps with a nonframe saddle. DNA analysis indicates that the animal was a female domestic horse, which was likely cared for as part of a breeding herd despite outliving its usefulness in transport. Finally, sequentially sampled stable carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope values from tooth enamel (δ13C, δ18O, and 87Sr/86Sr) suggest that the horse was raised locally. These results show the utility of archaeological science as applied to horse remains in understanding Indigenous horse pastoralism, whereas consideration of the broader archaeological record suggests a pattern of misidentification of horse bones from early historic contexts.
The rotating instability in a contra-rotating axial flow compressor is investigated by experiments. Twenty-four pressure sensors were installed on the casing to capture the unsteady flow in the rotor tip region simultaneously. A double-phase-locking technique suitable for the contra-rotating compressor was proposed to characterise the static pressure contours of the rotor tip. The mean and root-mean-square pressure contours indicate that rotating instability occurs before the rotating stall happened, and the rotor tip clearance vortex is located upstream of the rear rotor leading edge plane before stall. Fourier spectrum shows that rotating instability and rotating stall both happened under the stall condition, and the frequency band of rotating instability does not change with the flow rate. In the front rotor, the frequency of rotating instability is half of the blade passing frequency. It is verified that the modal estimation method can be implemented by using the average azimuthal phase velocity, which significantly reduced the number of pressure sensors required. Modal estimation results show that each peak of the rotating instability frequency band corresponds to a unique dominant circumferential mode. By optimising average azimuthal phase velocity, an improved modal estimation method is obtained, which can further improve the reliability of the modal estimation results.
To investigate the influences of dietary riboflavin (RF) addition on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, eight rumen cannulated Holstein bulls were randomly allocated into four treatments in a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Daily addition level of RF for each bull in control, low RF, medium RF and high RF was 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg, respectively. Increasing the addition level of RF, DM intake was not affected, average daily gain tended to be increased linearly and feed conversion ratio decreased linearly. Total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) increased linearly. Rumen pH decreased quadratically, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased quadratically. Acetate molar percentage and acetate:propionate ratio increased linearly, but propionate molar percentage and ammonia-N content decreased linearly. Rumen effective degradability of DM increased linearly, NDF increased quadratically but CP was unaltered. Activity of cellulase and populations of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant cellulolytic bacteria, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased linearly. Linear increase was observed for urinary total purine derivatives excretion. The data suggested that dietary RF addition was essential for rumen microbial growth, and no further increase in performance and rumen total VFA concentration was observed when increasing RF level from 600 to 900 mg/d in dairy bulls.
Maternal migraine may contribute to mental heath problems in offspring but empirical evidence has been available only for bipolar disorders. Our objective was to examine the association between maternal migraine and the risk of any and specific psychiatric disorders in offspring.
This population-based cohort study used individual-level linked Danish national health registers. Participants were all live-born singletons in Denmark during 1978–2012 (n = 2 069 785). Follow-up began at birth and continued until the onset of a psychiatric disorder, death, emigration or 31 December 2016, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards model was employed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of psychiatric disorders.
Maternal migraine was associated with a 26% increased risk of any psychiatric disorders in offspring [HR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22–1.30]. Increased rates of psychiatric disorders were seen in all age groups from childhood to early adulthood. Increased rates were also observed for most of the specific psychiatric disorders, in particular, mood disorders (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.39–1.67), neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.37–1.52) and specific personality disorders (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27–1.70), but not for intellectual disability (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71–1.00) or eating disorders (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.93–1.29). The highest risk was seen in the offspring of mothers with migraine and comorbid psychiatric disorders (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.99–2.28).
Maternal migraine was associated with increased risks of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders in offspring. Given the high prevalence of migraine, our findings highlight the importance of better management of maternal migraine at childbearing ages for early prevention of psychiatric disorders in offspring.