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Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.
After Nichrome, Ni, Cr, and Au/Ta films are deposited onto single crystals of cubic SiC, their reactivities at the metal-semiconductor interface are studied by Auger Electron Spectroscopy. For all metals except Ni, metal carbides are detected at the interfaces. Initially these carbides tend to promote adhesion and limit the reaction with the substrate. Annealing at or above 450°C causes Ni to diffuse into the SiC and the Ta and Cr films to migrate through the capping material and away from the SiC, thereby delaminating. Development of the secondary phases at interface severely complicates the interpretation of the depth profiling data and with the uniformity of the contact film. These phases seem to be initiated at SiC defect sites where the reaction kinetics are considerably different and may be minimized with improved SiC substrates.
Heavy ion irradiations of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes and total ionization dose of gallium nitride nanowires were investigated. Post irradiation analyses of samples were performed with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy.
To describe the features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Madagascar, a randomized sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken in the general population ≥ 1 year old of two provinces which represents 45% of the total population. In the 921 sera tested, the prevalence of HBV markers was 20·5% for HBsAg, 38·2% for anti-HBc and 6·9% for HBeAg. HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence rates were significantly higher in males. A large difference in HBsAg prevalence was observed between urban (5·3%) and rural areas (26·0%). The same contrast in prevalence was noticed for the other HBV markers. In rural areas, HBV infection was more frequently acquired early in infancy, which suggests predominantly perinatal or postnatal transmission. The presence of HBV markers was not significantly associated with a history of blood transfusion, surgery or parenteral injection. High infectivity carriers represented 5·3% and the overall frequency of chronic carriers was 10·4%. These results place Madagascar among areas of high endemicity.
Epidemiological data from bank voles, Myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus Puumala (PUUV) were collected by a capture–mark–recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the French department of Ardennes. Four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (Flize and Monthermé). We captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10·34%. The average PUUV seroprevalence was 22·4%. Characteristics of the system reported in North European countries are confirmed in France. PUUV seroprevalence and abundance of rodents appeared weakly linked. Adult voles were more frequently antibody-positive, but no difference between sexes was established. Anti-PUUV seropositive voles were captured and high seroprevalence was observed from both forests, without human infection reported in Flize canton during the study. One site among the four exhibited peculiar infection dynamics, where vole weight and infection risk were negatively correlated.
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