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Little is known about long-term employment outcomes for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum (FES) disorders who received early intervention services.
We compared the 10-year employment trajectory of patients with FES who received early intervention services with those who received standard care. Factors differentiating the employment trajectories were explored.
Patients with FES (N = 145) who received early intervention services in Hong Kong between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2002 were matched with those who entered standard care 1 year previously. We used hierarchical clustering analysis to explore the 10-year employment clusters for both groups. We used the mixed model test to compare cluster memberships and piecewise regression analysis to compare the employment trajectories of the two groups.
There were significantly more patients who received the early intervention service in the good employment cluster (early intervention: N = 98 [67.6%]; standard care: N = 76 [52.4%]; P = 0.009). In the poor employment cluster, there was a significant difference in the longitudinal pattern between early intervention and standard care for years 1–5 (P < 0.0001). The number of relapses during the first 3 years, months of full-time employment during the first year and years of education were significant in differentiating the clusters of the early intervention group.
Results suggest there was an overall long-term benefit of early intervention services on employment. However, the benefit was not sustained for all patients. Personalisation of the duration of the early intervention service with a focus on relapse prevention and early vocational reintegration should be considered for service enhancement.
Declaration of interests
No relevant conflicts of interests reported by C.L.M.H., Y.N.S., P.S., H.H.P. and K.K.Y. S.K.W.C., W.C.C. and E.H.M.L. report that they are members of the working group of the Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis (EASY) programme of the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. E.Y.H.C. is the convener of the working group of the EASY programme of the Hospital Authority in Hong Kong.
Background: Meningiomas are the most commonly occurring benign intracranial tumors. When presenting with peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), surgical treatment can lead to patient morbidity. This retrospective case series aims to describe the conservative medical management of moderate to large meningiomas with large PTBE. Methods: Patients with suspected meningiomas greater than 2.0cm and edema index greater than 2.0 were identified by screening 3345 MRI scans between 2012-2017. Imaging analysis included MR imaging features of suspected meningiomas and clinical data was gathered from the electronic patient record (patient age, sex, patient symptoms, follow-up duration, and follow-up symptoms). Results: We report on 31 patients who received conservative medical management. Presenting complaints included headache, seizure, weakness; many presented asymptomatically. The average follow-up time was 3.96 years. At the final follow-up appointment, 19 (61%) patients were asymptomatic. Among symptomatic patients, seizures were the most common complaint. There was no mortality reported in our cohort and the average tumor progression was 7.04cm3/year. Conclusions: In this retrospective report of meningioma patients with high edema index, we found that most patients remained asymptomatic or had stable symptoms after at least 1-yr follow up after medical treatment. This study provides insight around the surgical decision-making for meningiomas with large spread of edema.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the most important legume crops in the world. However, soybean grain yield is extensively affected by environmental stresses such as soil salinity. In this study, we evaluated the germplasm of 51 Indonesian soybean accessions for salt tolerance to identify salt-tolerant germplasms for possible use in breeding for soybean salt tolerance. Based on experiments under hydroponic conditions, adding 100 mM of NaCl to a 1/2 concentration of Hoagland and Arnon solution, several Indonesian soybean germplasms, such as Java 7, Seputih Raman, Tambora, Ringgit (JP 30217), Sinyonya (early) and Sinyonya (late) were identified as salt-tolerant in terms of salt tolerance rate (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) taken with the Konica Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. The selected salt-tolerant germplasms were further evaluated under soil medium cultivation in pots irrigated with 100 mM NaCl for around 5 weeks. The six selected soybean germplasms again showed higher salt tolerance in terms of SPAD, STR and shoot dry weight. Expression analysis of the salt tolerance gene Ncl revealed a significant positive correlation between Ncl expression and salt tolerance, suggesting that Ncl is essential for salt tolerance in the Indonesian soybean germplasms we tested. The salt-tolerant Indonesian soybean germplasms identified in this study could be used in local soybean breeding practices for the improvement of salt tolerance.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
Rudolph Lorentz, Science Program, Texas A…M University at Qatar, Doha, Qatar,
Salvatore Tringali, Institute for Mathematics and Scientific Computing, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Heinrichstr. 36, 8010 Graz, Austria,
Catherine H. Yan, Department of Mathematics, Texas A…M University, College Station TX 77845, USA
The present study investigated the adsorption behaviour of Direct Orange 34, a highly toxic dye used in textile industries in Tunisia, on modified kaolinite-rich clays. A kaolin from the Sidi Bader (SDB) area was activated with hydrochloric acid to create the activated clay referred to hearafter as SDBa, or treated with FeSO4•7H2O to obtain its Fe-saturated form, Fe-SDB. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area and zeta-potential measurements. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The estimated adsorption capacities (qm) for the dye were improved in the Fe-loaded samples. The good fit (R2 = 0.99) with a pseudo-second order expression suggests that the adsorption process could be effective following a chemisorption mechanism. At acidic pH, the optimum dye-retention rate was achieved for SDB (83%) after 60 min. The uptake decreased at neutral pH and increased again in alkaline media. This behaviour might be explained by the formation of covalent bonds between the OH radicals on the external surface and the negatively charged dye molecules. On the other hand, Fe impregnation increased the zeta potential of kaolinite, leading to a greater adsorption capacity compared to its natural and acid-activated counterparts. In addition, the adsorption rate increased when increasing the suspension temperature from 283 to 313 K. The modified kaolinite-rich materials showed satisfactory affinity for adsorbing this reactive dye.
Monolithic integrated thin film tandem solar cells consisting of a high bandgap perovskite top cell and a low bandgap thin film bottom cell are expected to reach higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with lower manufacturing cost and environmental impacts than the market-dominant crystalline silicon photovoltaics. There have been several demonstrations of 4-terminal and 2-terminal perovskite tandem devices with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) or CuInSe2 (CIS) and, similar to the other tandem structures, the optimization of this device relies on optimal choice for the perovskite bandgap and thickness. Therefore, further advancement will be enabled by tuning the perovskite absorber to maximize the photocurrent limited by the current match condition. Here, we systematically study the optical absorption and transmission of perovskite thin films with varying absorber band gap. Based on these results, we model the photocurrent generations in both perovskite and CIS subcells and estimate the performances of projected tandem devices by considering the ideally functioning perovskite and CIS device. Our results show that for perovskite layers with 500 nm thickness the optimal bandgap is around 1.6 eV. With these configurations, PCEs above 20% could be achieved by monolithically integrated perovskite/CIS tandem solar cells. Also by modelling the absorption at every layer we calculate the quantum efficiency at each subcell in addition to tracking optical losses.
Recent researches have showed that probiotics promote bone health in humans and rodents. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotics have the similar effects in laying hens. Ninety-six 60-week-old White Leghorn hens were assigned to four-hen cages based on their BW. The cages were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: a layer diet mixed with a commercial probiotic product (containing Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) at 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg feed (Control, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0×) for 7 weeks. Cecal Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher in all probiotic groups (P<0.001) compared with the control group. The percentage of unmarketable eggs (cracked and shell-less eggs) was decreased in both 0.5× and 2.0× groups compared with the control group (P=0.02), mainly due to the reduction of shell-less eggs (P=0.05). The increases in tibial and femoral mineral density and femoral mineral content (P=0.04, 0.03 and 0.02, respectively), with a concomitant trend of increases in humerus mineral density and tibial mineral content (P=0.07 and 0.08, respectively), occurred in the 2.0× group. However, the bone remodeling indicators of circulating osteocalcin and c-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were similar among all groups (P>0.05). In addition, the plasma concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α) and corticosterone as well as the levels of heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar between the 2.0× group and the control group (P>0.05). In line with these findings, no differences of cecal tonsil mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were detected between these two groups (P>0.05). These results suggest that immune cytokines and corticosterone may not involve in the probiotic-induced improvement of eggshell quality and bone mineralization in laying hens. In conclusion, the dietary probiotic supplementation altered cecal microbiota composition, resulting in reduced shell-less egg production and improved bone mineralization in laying hens; and the dietary dose of the probiotic up to 2.0× did not cause negative stress reactions in laying hens.
Methods of obtaining large grain size and high crystallinity in absorber materials play an important role in fabrication of high-performance methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells. Here we study the effect of adding small concentrations of Cd2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+salts to the perovskite precursor solution used in the single-step solution fabrication process. Enhanced grain size and crystallinity in MAPbI3 films were obtained by using 0.1% of Cd2+ or Zn2+in the precursor solution. Consequently, solar cells constructed with Cd- and Zn-doped perovskite films show a significant improvement in device performance. These results suggest that the process may be an effective and facile method to fabricate high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaic devices.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
DNA nanostructures are a set of materials with well-defined physical, chemical, and biological properties that can be used on their own or incorporated with other materials for many applications. Herein, the practical aspects of utilizing DNA nanostructures (structural or dynamic) as materials are comprehensively covered. This article first summarizes properties of DNA molecules and practical considerations and then discusses the fundamental design principles of structural DNA nanostructures. Finally, various aspects of dynamic DNA nanostructure-based actuation and computation are included.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Compare effectiveness of a patient case-based, interactive teaching approach that included optional student genotyping with traditional didactic teaching strategies for increasing students’ knowledge and ability to effectively use pharmacogenomic data in clinical decision making. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The UF College of Pharmacy offers a required Personalized Medicine (PM) course for pharmacy students as well as an elective course, Clinical Applications of Personalized Medicine (CAPM). Students dual enrolled in the PM and elective CAPM courses comprised the intervention (INT) group, with interactive patient case-based teaching and the option to undergo personal genotyping, whereas students enrolled in PM alone comprised the control (CTR) group, which primarily used a traditional didactic teaching format and did not include personal genotyping. Both groups completed a pre- and post-course patient case-based test (15 questions/1 point each) to evaluate their knowledge and abilities to apply genotype and other patient-specific data to drug therapy recommendations. Pre- and post-course test scores for knowledge were compared between the INT and CTR groups using the Student t-test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 52 students completed surveys (INT group, n=21; CTR group, n=31). Race was similar between groups, but there were fewer females in the INT compared with CTR group (8 vs. 22, p=0.02). Pre-course knowledge scores did not differ between INT and CTR groups (6.8±2.2 vs. 6.3±1.6 respectively, p=0.34), however, post-course scores were significantly higher in the INT Versus CTR group (10.0±2.3 vs. 7.5±1.7, p<0.0001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There have been significant advancements in the clinical applications of pharmacogenomic and genomic data, however, barriers to routine clinical adoption of genomic medicine persist. Developing education and training methods that equip practitioners to effectively translate genomic data into evidence-based clinical recommendations has been identified as a key strategy to overcome such barriers. Our data suggest that a personalized medicine course that employs patient-centered, case-based teaching strategies and includes optional personal genotyping for students compared with traditional didactic instruction improves students’ knowledge and abilities to apply pharmacogenomic data in practice-based scenarios. These results can inform future strategies for educating healthcare professionals on the clinical use of pharmacogenomic and genomic data.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the most common and severe symptoms of schizophrenia, but the neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying AVHs are not well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether AVHs are associated with cortical thinning.
Participants were schizophrenia patients from four centers across China, 115 with AVHs and 93 without AVHs, as well as 261 healthy controls. All received 3 T T1-weighted brain scans, and whole brain vertex-wise cortical thickness was compared across groups. Correlations between AVH severity and cortical thickness were also determined.
The left middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was significantly thinner in schizophrenia patients with AVHs than in patients without AVHs and healthy controls. Inferences were made using a false discovery rate approach with a threshold at p < 0.05. Left MTG thickness did not differ between patients without AVHs and controls. These results were replicated by a meta-analysis showing them to be consistent across the four centers. Cortical thickness of the left MTG was also found to be inversely correlated with hallucination severity across all schizophrenia patients.
The results of this multi-center study suggest that an abnormally thin left MTG could be involved in the pathogenesis of AVHs in schizophrenia.
A Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP) low-emission combustor with a staged lean combustion technology was developed. In order to study cold-flow dynamics in the LPP combustor, both experimental tests using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify the flow dynamics and numerical simulation using the commercial software (FLUENT) were conducted, respectively. Numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown from the observation of the results that: there is a Primary Recirculation Zone (PRZ), a Corner Recirculation Zone (CRZ) and a Lip Recirculation Zone (LRZ) in the LPP combustor, and the exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between pilot swirling flow and primary swirling flow are contributed by the velocity gradients, and the shear flow is transformed into a mixing layer exhibiting the higher Reynolds stresses, which suggests the mixing process is strictly affected by the Reynolds stresses.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent chronic condition that is usually managed in an outpatient setting. However, the emergency department (ED) plays a crucial role in the management of diabetic patients, particularly for those who are presenting with newly diagnosed diabetes. Little research has been done to characterize the population of patients presenting to the ED with hyperglycemia with no previous diagnosis of diabetes. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes in the ED and to compare those with newly diagnosed type I versus type II diabetes. Methods: A one-year health records review of newly diagnosed diabetes patients ≥18 years presenting to one of four tertiary care EDs was conducted. All patients with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome were screened, but only those who did not have a previous history of diabetes were included. Trained research personnel collected data on patient characteristics, management, disposition, and outcome. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data where appropriate. Results: Of 645 patients presenting with hyperglycemia in the study period, 112 (17.4%) were newly diagnosed diabetes patients. Of these patients, 30 (26.8%) were later diagnosed with type I diabetes and 82 (73.2%) were diagnosed with type II diabetes. For the newly diagnosed type I patients the mean (SD) age was 27.6 (9.9) and the mean (SD) age for type II patients was 52.4 (14.1). Of all the new onset patients, 26.8% were diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis. The percentage of patients diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in type I than type II (63.3% vs 13.4%; P<0.01). A total of 49 (43.8%) patients were admitted to the hospital, and more patients with type I were admitted compared to those with type II (66.7% vs 35.4 %; P<0.01). Conclusion: Limited research has been done to describe patients newly diagnosed with diabetes in the ED. Patients with type I were found to be more likely to present to the ED with serious symptoms requiring admission to hospital. Our findings demonstrate that the ED may have a strong potential role for improving diabetic care, by providing future opportunities for education and follow-up in the ED to reduce complications, particularly in type I.