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This chapter provides a brief review of missions using X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of planetary surfaces. This chapter presents the history of planetary radiation measurements, including significant discoveries. Summary tables with links to the archived data provide a resource for readers interested in working in this field. Upcoming missions and possible future directions are described.
Neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays are used to measure the subsurface elemental composition of Solar System bodies, providing insights into their formation and evolution. Neutrons and gamma rays are highly penetrating particles made by the steady bombardment of the regolith of airless bodies by galactic cosmic rays. Gamma rays are also made by the decay of natural radioelements. The escaping radiation can be detected in close-proximity orbits and analyzed to determine subsurface elemental composition to depths of a few decimeters. Because the radiation sensors have nearly omnidirectional response, spatial resolution depends on orbital altitude. X-ray fluorescence is induced by solar X-rays. Consequently, X-ray spectroscopy is most useful for studies of objects in the inner Solar System. Characteristic elemental X-rays are made within the uppermost ~100 micrometers of the surface. The suite of elements analyzed overlaps that of nuclear spectroscopy, providing complementary geochemical information. Because X-rays are easily collimated, relatively high spatial resolution measurements are possible. This chapter presents the fundamentals of neutron, gamma-ray, and X-ray production, transport, and detection along with an overview of the measurement principles, including modeling, analysis, and mapping methods.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Hydrogen passivation was applied to the initial epitaxial growth of n-type β-FeSi2 thin films on p-type Si(111) substrates by facing-targets direct-current sputtering (FTDCS) in order to reduced the formation of interface states and terminate dangling bonds in the β-FeSi2 films, and the passivation effects were studied on basis of the electrical evaluation results of the formed n-type β-FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunction photodiodes. The initial growth was made at different gas inflow H2/Ar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.2. The photodetection performance of the photodiode fabricated at the ratio of 0.2 was markedly improved as compared to those of the other samples. The quantum efficiency and detectivity were 2.08 % and 1.75 × 1010 cm√Hz/W, respectively. The sample exhibited the minimum junction capacitance density of 9.2 nF/cm2. The enhanced photodetective performance should be mainly because dangling bonds that act as trap centers for photocarriers are effectively inactivated by the passivation.
An approach to control the tensile stress and Q factor of thin Si film beams in MEMS resonators was investigated. Metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) using Ni nanoparticles that were synthesized within a cage-shaped protein, apoferritin, was applied to a thin morphous Si film for making a MEMS resonator with thin film beams. The MILC produced a thin polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) film with large crystallized domain (50-60 μm) with nearly the same crystalline orientation, whereas the poly-Si film obtained by conventional annealing (without MILC) consisted of small grains (less than 1 μm) with random orientation. The MEMS resonator with a beam made of poly-Si film by MILC was fabricated. The large domain size and the improved crystallinity increased the tensile stress, and resulted in 20% increase in Q factor in the resonant characteristics.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99·9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7·0 and 25○C was prolonged approximately 4·8–28·8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/1 cyanuric acid was slower than by 0·5 mg/1 free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the ‚clean’ condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1·5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water.
Gold nanorods, rod-shaped gold nanoparticles, have transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon (SP) bands at visible and near-infrared (IR) regions, respectively. Since the absorbed light energy is converted into heat, photothermal effect of gold nanorods can be triggered without damaging the tissues in the path of near-IR laser light. In this study, we tried to construct controlled release system of functional molecules from surface of gold nanorods mediated by the photothermal effect. First, we evaluated controlled release of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) chains from PEG-modified gold nanorods (PEG-NR). Next, we employed double stranded oligonucleotide as a thermo-responsive dissociating group (DNA-NR). Finally, we evaluated photothermal release of PEG chains mediated retro-Diels-Alder reaction (PEG-DA-NR). For construction of controlled release system of functional molecules, these studies will provide important information about the photothermal reactions of surface molecules on the gold nanorods triggered by near-IR light irradiation.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
This review discusses the clenching-grinding spectrum from the neuropsychiatric/neuroevolutionary perspective. In neuropsychiatry, signs of jaw clenching may be a useful objective marker for detecting or substantiating a self-report of current subjective emotional distress. Similarly, accelerated tooth wear may be an objective clinical sign for detecting, or substantiating, long-lasting anxiety. Clenching-grinding behaviors affect at least 8% of the population. We argue that during the early paleolithic environment of evolutionary adaptedness, jaw clenching was an adaptive trait because it rapidly strengthened the masseter and temporalis muscles, enabling a stronger, deeper and therefore more lethal bite in expectation of conflict (warfare) with conspecifics. Similarly, sharper incisors produced by teeth grinding may have served as weaponry during early human combat. We posit that alleles predisposing to fear-induced clenching-grinding were evolutionarily conserved in the human clade (lineage) since they remained adaptive for anatomically and mitochondrially modern humans (Homo sapiens) well into the mid-paleolithic. Clenching-grinding, sleep bruxism, myofacial pain, craniomaxillofacial musculoskeletal pain, temporomandibular disorders, oro-facial pain, and the fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue spectrum disorders are linked. A 2003 Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that dental procedures for the above spectrum disorders are not evidence based. There is a need for early detection of clenching-grinding in anxiety disorder clinics and for research into science-based interventions. Finally, research needs to examine the possible utility of incorporating physical signs into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria. One of the diagnostic criterion that may need to undergo a revision in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition is Criterion D (persistent fear-circuitry activation not present before the trauma). Grinding-induced incisor wear, and clenching-induced palpable masseter tenderness may be examples of such objective physical signs of persistent fear-circuitry activation (posttraumatic stress disorder Criterion D).
Experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to verify the existence of the acoustic solitary wave in an air-filled tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators connected. Following up previous work (Sugimoto et al. 1999), the experiments are improved by using a newly designed piston driver to launch an initially plane pressure pulse and also by extending the tube length from 7.4 m to 10.6 m. To highlight the effect of the array of resonators, the case with no array is also examined in parallel. Direct and indirect checks are made to verify the existence of the solitary wave. The former compares the profiles and propagation speeds of pulses measured experimentally to the solitary-wave solution. The latter checks the validity of nonlinear wave equations in describing real wave evolution in the tube. Solving an initial-value problem numerically with weakly lossy effects of boundary layers and jet loss at the throat of the resonator, comparison is made between measured and simulated evolution. The validity of the equations in the lossy case is necessary to maintain the existence of the solitary wave in the lossless limit. It is revealed that nonlinear wave equations originally derived for unidirectional propagation in the tube can provide a good description of the real evolution, with some allowance for phase shifts on reflection at both ends of the tube. In particular, it turns out that the lossy effects are described quantitatively well. By establishing the validity of the equations, it is concluded that the acoustic solitary wave exists.
Recently we have demonstrated the potential of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for the fabrication of advanced luminescent photonic crystal (PC) structures based on the inverse opal architecture.[1–3] PC's offer efficiency enhancement, decreased threshold, and other enhancements that improve phosphor performance. 3D PC structures are being extensively modeled, revealing that changes in the structures such as shifting the distribution of dielectric material can significantly improve photonic band gap (PBG) properties. For example, in the inverted “shell” structure, the width of the PBG can be increased from 4.25% to 8.6%. Similarly, the PBG width can also be increased to 9.6% by formation of a non-close-packed structure. Using the FDTD method, we have found that the PBG in a TiO2 non-closed packed structure can be as high as 5%. The performance of these structures depends critically on precisely and accurately placed high dielectric material. Using ALD, we have demonstrated infiltration of TiO2 films with extremely smooth surfaces (0.2–0.4 nm RMS roughness) while maintaining a high level of control over the infiltration coating thickness, enabling formation of composite infiltrated and inverse opals with nano-scale precision.
Here we report progress in fabrication of multi-layered and non-close packed PCs using ALD. Two and three-layer inverse opals were formed by the deposition of thin layers of ZnS:Mn and TiO2 in stacked configuration, each exhibiting luminescence when excited by UV light. Evidence for modification of the emission characteristics by high order PBGs (gaps other than between the 2nd and 3rd bands) has been observed. In addition, non-close packed inverse opals have been formed by infiltrating heavily sintered silica opals with TiO2, etching the spheres with hydrofluoric acid, and backfilling the resulting inverse opal. Resulting structures were characterized using specular reflectance and transmission, photoluminescence, and SEM. This work demonstrates the enormous potential that ALD offers for the realization of high performance photonic crystal structures.
A Xe flash lamp (FL) heating technique was applied to the post deposition annealing process (PDA) for HfAlOx/SiO2 gate insulator with poly-Si or W/TiN gate electrode in a gate last based process. In the case of W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2, CV hysteresis with less than 10mV was achieved using the FL-PDA. However, the FL-PDA increased hysteresis width up to over 100 mV when poly-Si was used as a gate electrode. That occurred also with low temperature (700 °C) rapid thermal PDA process. The lower thermal budget achieved by the flash lamp annealing and the metal gate is effective to suppress the interfacial reaction which causes the traps responsible for the hysteresis. Charge trapping in the W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2 was evaluated using CV hysteresis characteristics in the MISFETs and the MIS capacitors. Electron was major trapped charge of the HfAlOx.
The prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. An inappropriate diet may be an important risk factor for thrombotic events. The daily intake of an anti-thrombotic diet may offer a convenient and effective way of prevention. The aim of the present study was to test tomato extracts for anti-thrombotic effects and to identify those varieties that have such an effect. A shear-induced platelet-function test (haemostatometry) was used to test anti-thrombotic potential in vitro. Extracts from those tomato varieties that showed a significant anti-thrombotic activity in vitro were further assessed in vivo, using a laser-induced thrombosis test in mice. One tomato variety (KG99-4) showed significant anti-thrombotic activity both in vitro and in vivo. KG99-4 inhibited not only platelet-rich thrombus formation but also had a thrombolytic effect. It is concluded that haemostatometry can detect and classify the anti-thrombotic potential of fruits and vegetables and offers a simple way of screening for such effects.
The Groningen voice prosthesis can be successfully replaced using the back-loading system. We have attempted to minimize patient stress by developing a front-loading system that does not require insertion of the introducer via the tracheo-oesophageal shunt to the oral cavity or the mesopharyngeal anaesthetization regularly used with the back-loading system. Using our front-loading system, the existing prosthesis is removed, then the posterior portion of the replacement Groningen prosthesis is grasped by a pair of nasal forceps with a small jaw to make an acute angle and inserted into the oesophageal cavity through the shunt at a stroke. All 20 patients who underwent forward-loading replacement of a Groningen (n=17) or Blom-Singer (n=3) valve with a Groningen valve tolerated the procedure well and experienced no complications except, in some cases, for minor bleeding just after insertion of the prosthesis.The procedure was completed within 30 seconds.
For staked structures consisting of evaporated ZrO2 and ∼0.6nm-thick silicon oxynitride formed on Si(100), the blocking capability of the silicon oxynitride against oxidation in dry-O2 anneal at 500°C has been studied as a function of nitrogen content in the barrier layer in the range within ∼11at.%. With increasing nitrogen content, the interfacial oxide thickness is decreased linearly and, to suppress the growth of the interfacial oxide layer within two monolayers, a nitrogen content of ∼10at.% is necessary. Observed efficient blocking against oxidation, even for the case with a nitrogen content as small as ∼6at.%, is attributable to the improved homogeneity in the Si-O-Si bonding features at the interface by nitrogen incorporation of a few at.%, which is suggested from the experimental fact that the bandwidth of LO phonons near the interface due to the nitrogen incorporation is decreased as obtained by FT-IR-ATR measurements.
Kawasaki Steel Corporation carried out a modernization project at the Chiba works No.2
continuous annealing line by linking the CAL with the existing skinpass mill and newly
constructed facilities in the downstream area. Because the No.2 CAL and the skinpass mill are
arranged in parallel, Kawasaki developed the world steel industry's first non-contact air floatation
type strip turning device, called the "Helical turner".
The phase diagram of the Sm2O3–CuO system was investigated by the combination of the differential thermal analysis and the quench method. The results showed that Sm2CuO4 incongruently melts at about 1220 °C, and that the solid Sm2CuO4 exists in equilibrium with the liquid consisting of 81–95 mol% CuO in the range of 1060–1220 °C. On the basis of the phase diagram, Sm2−xCexCuO4 single crystals were grown by the traveling solvent floating zone method. The crystal structure [space group I4/mmm, a = 3.917(1), c 4 11.899(2) Å] has been refined using single-crystal x-ray diffraction data with a precision corresponding to an R index of 0.02.