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Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
An extensive survey of [C II] line emission at 158 microns using the balloon borne telescope (BICE) has provided a complete map of the emission intensity distribution in the first and the fourth quadrants of the galactic plane (280° < l < 80°, −5° < b < 5°: Okuda et al. 1993). The emission is very extended throughout the galactic plane in which three intensity maxima are seen towards the tangential directions of the Scutum and the Norma arms as well as in the Galactic center region. However the Galactic center maximum is much less prominent compared with the two other distributions, unlike the case of far infrared continuum and CO emissions.
The X-ray background in the energy range above 2 keV is highly uniform except for an excess component along the Galactic plane. The excess along the plane is considered to be associated with our Galaxy, whereas the rest of the emission is believed to be of extragalactic origin. In this paper, the X-ray background at high Galactic latitude is discussed and is designated as the CXB (cosmic X-ray background) to distinguish it from the Galactic origin.
Multilayers have a great potentiality to improve the image quality, spectral resolution and energy coverage of x-ray optical systems. The angular resolution of a normal incidence telescope aims at approaching the diffraction limit in the soft x-ray region. Multilayer supermirror makes it possible to fabricate a grazing incidence telescope with high sensitivity in hard x-ray region. Multilayer coated gratings are also useful dispersive elements with high efficiency and spectral resolution in the 2-10keV region. The application of multilayers is expected to open up a new field in astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations which are not accessible by present telescopes.
Cosmic X-rays were observed with three sets of proportional counters covering the energy range between 0.15 and 20 keV. The detector born on a spinning rocket scanned a celestial region in which the galactic latitude bII changed from 30° to −55° across the galactic plane in the Cygnus-Cassiopeia region. The spectrum of Cyg XR-2 thus obtained is represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung of temperature 3.4 keV modified by the interstellar absorption for the hydrogen column density of 3 × 1021 cm−2. The diffuse component showed an interstellar absorption effect, which was however found much weaker than one would expect if the diffuse component were due entirely to be of extragalactic origin. The spectrum obtained in the highest latitude region is represented approximately by a power law E−1.8 but shows a possible trough at about 1 keV.
An approach to control the tensile stress and Q factor of thin Si film beams in MEMS resonators was investigated. Metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) using Ni nanoparticles that were synthesized within a cage-shaped protein, apoferritin, was applied to a thin morphous Si film for making a MEMS resonator with thin film beams. The MILC produced a thin polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) film with large crystallized domain (50-60 μm) with nearly the same crystalline orientation, whereas the poly-Si film obtained by conventional annealing (without MILC) consisted of small grains (less than 1 μm) with random orientation. The MEMS resonator with a beam made of poly-Si film by MILC was fabricated. The large domain size and the improved crystallinity increased the tensile stress, and resulted in 20% increase in Q factor in the resonant characteristics.
Hydrogen passivation was applied to the initial epitaxial growth of n-type β-FeSi2 thin films on p-type Si(111) substrates by facing-targets direct-current sputtering (FTDCS) in order to reduced the formation of interface states and terminate dangling bonds in the β-FeSi2 films, and the passivation effects were studied on basis of the electrical evaluation results of the formed n-type β-FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunction photodiodes. The initial growth was made at different gas inflow H2/Ar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.2. The photodetection performance of the photodiode fabricated at the ratio of 0.2 was markedly improved as compared to those of the other samples. The quantum efficiency and detectivity were 2.08 % and 1.75 × 1010 cm√Hz/W, respectively. The sample exhibited the minimum junction capacitance density of 9.2 nF/cm2. The enhanced photodetective performance should be mainly because dangling bonds that act as trap centers for photocarriers are effectively inactivated by the passivation.
A Xe flash lamp (FL) heating technique was applied to the post deposition annealing process (PDA) for HfAlOx/SiO2 gate insulator with poly-Si or W/TiN gate electrode in a gate last based process. In the case of W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2, CV hysteresis with less than 10mV was achieved using the FL-PDA. However, the FL-PDA increased hysteresis width up to over 100 mV when poly-Si was used as a gate electrode. That occurred also with low temperature (700 °C) rapid thermal PDA process. The lower thermal budget achieved by the flash lamp annealing and the metal gate is effective to suppress the interfacial reaction which causes the traps responsible for the hysteresis. Charge trapping in the W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2 was evaluated using CV hysteresis characteristics in the MISFETs and the MIS capacitors. Electron was major trapped charge of the HfAlOx.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
Monolithic gels of V2O5, Ta2O5 , and Nb2O5 have been prepared from VO(C2H5O)3 , Ta(C2H5O)5 , and Nb(C2H5 O)5 througg hydrolysis in ethanol Solutions. The conditions for gel formation have been determined. Thin coatings of these gels, less than 100 nm in thickness, have been prepared by dip coating. Changes in the thickness, d, and refractive indices, n, have been measured by ellipsometry during drying. In the first stage of drying, d decreases and n increases rapidly. Densification of the coatings takes place due to evaporation of solvent. In the following stage, increase in d and decrease in n have been observed for thin V2O5 gel coatings, about 30 nm or less in thickness. These results suggest that coarsening of pores and/or increase in surface roughness take place due to release of the capillary pressure during drying. Both d and n have increased with increasing number of dipping. After heat treating, decrease in d and increase in n have been observed.
Formation of Au colloid particles and their optical property have been investigated in silica glasses implanted with Au+ ions at an acceleration energy of 1.5MeV and fluence levels of 1016-1017 ions/cm2. The Au colloid particles are formed in the as-implanted glasses. It is inferred that the average radius of Au colloid particles depends on the fluence level, although the fluence level does not affect the distribution of Au atomic concentration. The heat-treatment little affects the Au atomic distribution. The Au colloid particles grow to 4.3nm in average radius during heat treatment. It is revealed that the large nonlinear optical property of the Au+ -ion-implanted silica glass is attributed to the high concentration of the Au colloid particles in the narrow region.
Fibrous crystals containing the high-Tc phase (2223 phase) of the Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor have been prepared by heating a glassy melt-quenched plate in a stream of oxygen gas. Each fiber is composed of several platelike single crystals which are stacked in a layered structure. The fibers show two stepdrops in resistance at 105K and 73K, and a zero-resistance state around 70K. From the results of SQUID measurements, the volume fraction of the high-T phase is found to be about 0.6%. The high-Tc phase is also detected with a microarea X-ray diffractometer, and it is stacked in the interlayer between the low-Tc platelike crystals. For the fibrous Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-Li-O crystals, the volume fraction of the high-Tc phase increases to 1.5% and a zero resistance state is achieved at 81K. The Jc value of the Li doped fiber is 30,000A/cm2 at 77K and 300,000A/cm2 at 66K in a zero magnetic field.
We have controlled the carrier (electron) density in Nd2CuO2 of the T’ structure by introducing both Ce and Ca into the Nd‐sites, and studied the superconducting transition temperature versus carrier density relationship. The phase relations in the (Nd1‐x‐yCexCay)2CuO4‐z system were studied by means of powder X‐ray dirfractron and electron‐probe micro‐analysis techniques. For the phase diagram of the (Nd1‐x‐yCexCay)2CuO4‐z system, the single phase field of the T’ phase was established. Samples of the (Nd0.9‐yCe0.1Cay)2CuO4‐z system with compositions included in the single phase field were synthesized. The carrier density in these samples was varied by controlling the Ca content. The Hall effect and DC resistivity were measured to elucidate the relation between Tc and the carrier density.
TiOx thin films were fabricated by means of a reactive sputtering technique in an rf triode sputtering-deposition unit. The deposition rate was studied in detail. A ‘phase diagram’ of TiOx was determined. XPS study showed the formation of a Ti02 surface layer on TiOx thin films. Oxygen was removed by the Ar+ bombardment on Ti02 to yield Ti203.
Diamond films grown in the microwave plasmas of CO(7–8%)-O2(0–2.2%)-H2 systems in the range of 130–750°C were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence (CL) studies. The films grown in the CO-O2-H2 system had much better crystallinity than those grown in the CO-H2 system. This was because oxygen extremely purified diamond films by suppressing polyacetylene inclusion, and prohibited the vacancy formation in the crystallites. These oxygen functions have indicated the possibility that high quality diamond films (FWI-tM of the diamond Raman peak =4.0–4. lcm−1) close to natural diamond (FWHM=3.0cm−1) were obtained in the CO(8%)-O2(2.2%)-H2 system between 400 and 750°C. Though crystallinity deterioration occurred at 130°C, the obtained film (FWHM=10.2cm−1) in the CO(8%)-O2(2.2%)-H 2 system was of good crystallinity comparable to those (FWHM=7–21cm−1) grown by conventional CVD processes and gas systems between 590 and 1327°C. The CO-O2-H2 microwave plasma was concluded to be one of the best environment for the low temperature growth of highly purified diamond films of good crystallinity.
The dynamic structure of
xLi2S-Ga2S3-6GeS2 (x=4 and 6)
glasses has been investigated by 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance.
In two samples similar values of spin-lattice relaxation time
(T1) were obtained. The relaxation mechanism at 20MHz and 78MHz
is therefore attributed to the local motion of lithium ions. In the glass
corresponding to x=6, which shows higher conductivity, the slow motion of
ions showing an activation energy of 24.3kJ/Mol has been detected by the
spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1p). This
value is comparable to the activation energy determined by the conductivity.
The existence of this mode is supported by the motional narrowing of the
line width which is sensitive to the motion less than 10kHz.
We have observed micromagnetic structure in real computer hard disks with the typical structure of C/Co alloy/Cr/NiP/Al(substrate) using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM). A chemical etching method was introduced to successfully prepare LTEM specimens directly from the computer hard disks with both smooth and mechanically textured substrates. Micromagnetic structural features, e.g., ripples and vortices, were studied in disks in bitswritten, ac-demagnetized, and saturation remanent magnetic states.
The defect structure of cadmium telluride has been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The variation of the TEM images with the defocus value is discussed, and defect symmetry considerations are used to correlate the image contrast characteristics with the lattice struc ture. Experimental micrographs of stacking faults and dislocations in the structure are analyzed.