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Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
Between May 1983 and July 1984 glaciological parties of the 24th and 25th Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE–24 and 25) carried out ice-core drilling using a thermal drill, down to 700.5 m depth at Mizuho Station (70°41'53"S, 44°19'54"E), as a part of the Glaciological Research Program in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.
The thermal drill, 3.9 m long and capable of taking a core 1.5 m long and 130 mm in diameter, is an improved version of a drill used by JARE–15 in 1975. The most important improvement was the monitoring system during drilling, for which a micro-computer was fitted in the drill. By using this system, such accidents as heater burn-out, tank overflow and failure of water suction would immediately be brought to our attention. The drilling speed was about 1.6 m/h, when the optimum output was 3.6 kW. The core recovery rate was above 99%.
The core quality was good down to a depth of 80 m. Between 80 and 120 m, cracks were found at intervals of 0.15–0.5 m, and horizontal cracks were found continuously at intervals of 0.01 m or less.
Immediately after the core was pulled, the stratigraphy was observed and bulk density was measured. A dust band, presumably volcanic particles, was seen at only 500.2 m depth during stratigraphic observation. The following analyses were carried out at Mizuho Station within a month of recovery:
(1)Density determination by the hydrostatic method.
(2)Measurement of total gas content.
(3)Thin-section analyses, including observation of cracking around air bubbles and the crystalline texture, and ice-fabric studies.
The 700.5 m core has been brought to Japan, and the following analyses are now under way:
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
Seyfert galaxies often have extended emission line regions around their nucleus. We started an observation program of optical tridimensional spectroscopy for circumnuclear regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies to investigate the ionization source of the gas of just vicinity(typically several hundred pc) of nucleus.
Aoki et al. (1996) found outflowing gas in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7319. The velocity of the outflow comes up to 500 km s−1 and its extent is 4 kpc. This outflow is one of the largest outflowing phenomenon that have ever been found in Seyfert galaxies. The radio emission found by van der Hulst & Rots (1981) aligns the outflowing gas. It suggests the radio emission has relation to the outflow. We have made higher resolution radio imaging of NGC 7319 with VLA to study in detail relation of radio emission to outflowing gas. These radio images have been compared to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival broad-band WFPC2 image. The systemic velocity 6740 km s−1 (Aoki et al. 1996) gives a distance of 90 Mpc for NGC 7319 assuming a Hubble constant H0=75 km s−1 Mpc−1. Thus 1″ corresponds to 450 pc.
We investigate the cosmological model dependence of galaxy luminosity function (GLF) obtained by the Press–Schechter (PS) prescription. We consider the power–law spectra as well as a CDM spectrum for primordial density fluctuations, assuming a variety of cosmological models. We do not consider any galaxy luminosity (chemical) evolution in this report.
A narrow-band imaging observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 was made in the Fabry-Perot mode of the Kyoto 3D Spectrograph attached to the 188cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We observed at wavelengths of Hα, [S ii]λ6716, [S ii]λ6731 and adjacent continua of the respective lines with a “tunable filter”, i.e. a gap-scanning etalon with a spectral resolution of 20 Å.
We propose an X-ray all sky monitor for Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the space station. Considering practical circumstances, we show as a case study that the all sky monitor with slit hole cameras is most promising for monitoring the short-term and long-term X-ray transients. We call this all sky monitor as MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image). Position determination of gamma-ray bursts could be achieved with accuracy less than one degree observing the X-ray component of the burst. Weak X-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei could be also monitored with time resolution less than one day. The X-ray all sky monitor will work to discover X-ray novae and transient phenomena and give us the alarm for further detailed observations. The obtained data will be also used for archival study.
Tridimensional spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 was carried out with Spectronebulagraph (SNG). We constructed a data cube which is free from atmospheric variations during the scans. We then separated the blended lines by deconvolving the line profiles, to obtain pure narrow-line images and narrow-line intensity ratio diagram.
The Kyoto 3-D Spectrograph was commissioned successfully at the 188-cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory in the spring of 1996. This instrument has four distinct modes (Ohtani et al. 1994): (1) narrow-band imager, which is an ordinary focal-reducer camera; (2) Spectro-NebulaGraph (long-slit spectrograph; Kosugi et al. 1995); (3) imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, using either of two Fabry-Perot etalons from Queensgate Instruments (a tunable filter with R = 300 and another with R = 7000 for velocity-field observations. Broad-band (400–700 nm) coatings are deposited on both etalons. During observations, the etalon temperature is stabilized within 0.5°C); and (4) integral-field spectrograph of the TIGER-type (Bacon et al. 1995). In this mode, the spectra of 7 × 11 objects can be recorded simultaneously, along with 7 × 2 spectra of the sky 4′ away. The spatial resolution is 1″.3 and the field of view is 9″ × 14″.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
The researches into extended emission line region (EELR) give us the valuable informations about the nucleus. A recent study of the EELR in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 by Yoshida and Ohtani (1993) have revealed that a strongly asymmetric radiation field in this typical Seyfert 1. They have suggested the anisotropy may be caused inside the BLR. It is important to examine if any other Seyfert 1 galaxy has an anisotropic nuclear radiation.
The famous Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 has EELR which extends ∼ 10” on either side of the nucleus. The morphology of the EELR is Z-shape. This nearby (D=38.9Mpc) galaxy is of type SBO for which the object is expected to be free from contamination by HII regions and dust clouds.
We developed a slit-scanning type 3D-spectroscopic system named as Spectronebulagraph (hereafter SNG; Kosugi et al. 1994) at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. A detailed description about SNG is presented by Ohtani et al. elsewhere in this colloquium. We present here the results of the 3D-spectroscopy of four nearby active galaxies by using SNG.
This nearby (at distance of 5.4 Mpc) Magellanic irregular galaxy has many H II regions in its main body suggesting violent star-formation activity. We performed tridimensional observations of NGC 4449 using SNG in order to obtain detailed kinematic structure and then to investigate the star-formation mechanism of NGC 4449. Hα intensity map, Hα velocity field are shown in figure 1. As is obvious in lower panel of figure 1, no global rotational motion was detected. Most impressive feature of the velocity field is kpc-scale mosaic structure of low velocity and high velocity components. Also, many filamentary components were newly found in 3D-datacube of the SNG observation.
Several strategies have been explored from viewpoint of biomimetics to accomplish artificial photosynthesis by using macromolecules as a medium such as liposomes, supramolecules, and hydrogels.1 Differing from disordered solution systems in which multiple components such as photosensitizer and catalytic nanoparticle are diffusively mixed, the photochemical reactions occur efficiently in medium due to maintenance of the dipersibility of the components and specific molecular arrangement. Here we attempt to clarify the effect of medium hierarchy for photoinduced electronic transmission among multiple components. By conjugating each component on tubulin and integrating them via self-assembly to microtubules, ideal component arrangements with optimum distance for the electronic transmission will be possible.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2·4 vs 19·3; P = 0·06), lower mean total worm burden (26·5 vs 70·1; P = 0·09) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g feces: 238 vs 1259; P = 0·14) than pigs of the AB genotype, as expected based on prior associations. The pigs were also genotyped at another locus (SNP ARNT) which showed a similar trend. This study provides suggestive evidence that resistant pigs may be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and provides further support to the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4.