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Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
Between January 2006 and May 2008, 2624 pregnant S. Korean women between 35–37 weeks gestation were screened for group B streptococcus (GBS). Resistance to antimicrobials was tested by disk diffusion and serotype determined using co-agglutination assays and microarray methods. Overall, 8% of pregnant women were colonized. Serotype III was the predominant serotype (43·8%), followed by serotypes V (20·3%), Ia (12·1%), and Ib (9·5%). GBS was frequently resistant to clindamycin (54·0%) and erythromycin (25·6%); 3·7% were resistant to cefazolin. More than three-quarters of serotype V were resistant to clindamycin or erythromycin or both, and 71% of serotype III were resistant to clindamycin but only 12% were resistant to erythromycin. GBS prevalence exceeded earlier reports by one-third. This is the first report of cefazolin resistance in Korea. These results underscore the need to establish screening measures and chemoprophylaxis guidelines regarding GBS infections in Korea.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
Comparative and functional fungal genomics
R. A. Dean, Center for Integrated Fungal Research Department of Plant Pathology 1200 Partners Building II Box 7251 North Carolina State University Raleigh NC 27695 USA,
T. Mitchell, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
R. Kulkarni, RTI 3040 Cornwallis Road Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA,
N. Donofrio, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
A. Powell, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
Y. Y. Oh, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
S. Diener, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7253 Raleigh NC 27695–7253 USA,
H. Pan, RTI 3040 Cornwallis Road Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA,
D. Brown, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
J. Deng, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
I. Carbone, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7244 Raleigh NC 27695–7244 USA,
D. J. Ebbole, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Peterson Building Rm 120 MS# 2132 Texas A&M University College Station TX 77843–2132 USA,
M. Thon, Department of Computer Science 320C Peterson Building MS# 2132 Texas A&M University College Station TX 77843–2132 USA,
M. L. Farman, Department of Plant Pathology University of Kentucky 1405 Veterans Drive Lexington KY 40546–0312 USA,
M. J. Orbach, Department of Plant Pathology University of Arizona Forbes Room 105 PO Box 210036 Tucson AZ 85721–0036 USA,
C. Soderlund, Director of Bioinformatics Department of Plant Science 303 Forbes Building Tucson AZ 85721 USA,
J-R. Xu, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 915 West State Street Purdue University West Lafayette IN 47906 USA,
Y-H. Lee, Seoul National University School of Agricultural Biotechnology Suwon 441–744 Korea,
N. J. Talbot, Department of Biological Sciences University of Exeter Hatherly Laboratories Prince of Wales Road Exeter EX4 4PS UK,
S. Coughlan, Agilent Technologies Inc. Little Falls Site 2850 Centerville Road Wilmington DE 19808 USA,
J. E. Galagan, The Broad Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02139–4307 USA,
B. W. Birren, The Broad Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02139–4307 USA
Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is a serious and recurrent problem in all rice-growing regions of the world (Talbot, 2003; Valent & Chumley, 1991). It is estimated that each year enough rice is destroyed by rice blast disease to feed 60 million people. Control of this disease is difficult; new host-specific forms develop quickly to overcome host resistance and chemical control is typically not cost effective (Ou, 1987). Infections occur when fungal spores land and attach themselves to leaves using a special adhesive released from the tip of each spore (Hamer et al., 1988). The germinating spore develops an appressorium, a specialized infection cell, which generates enormous turgor pressure – up to 8 MPa – that ruptures the leaf cuticle allowing invasion of the underlying leaf tissue (de Jong et al., 1997; Dean, 1997). Subsequent colonization of the leaf produces disease lesions from which the fungus sporulates and spreads to new plants. When rice blast infects young rice seedlings, whole plants often die, while spread of the disease to the stems, nodes or panicle of older plants results in nearly total loss of the rice grain. Recent reports have further shown that the fungus has the capacity to infect plant roots (Sesma & Osbourn, 2004). Different host-limited forms of Magnaporthe also infect a broad range of grass species including wheat, barley and millet.
Most of the previous treatment methods for auricular haematoma are inconvenient for both patients and doctors because they are time-consuming and complex and must be performed under sterile conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple compressive method using a dental (silicone) impression material and comparing it with other methods for treatment of auricular haematomas. The authors aspirated a haematoma and then placed a mixed base and catalyst of silicone putty material on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the auricle in the shape of an inverted U for seven days.
From the 24 cases managed with this method, 23 cases (95.8 per cent) were successfully healed. Eight patients were treated with a collodion-cotton wool cast and 16 of 19 patients were successfully treated with dental cotton-wool rolls. The average number of those visiting the hospital was 2.7 for the collodion-cotton wool cast, 6.9 for the dental cotton-wool roll, and 3.1 for dental silicone. The mean treatment durations were 8.1 days for the collodion-cotton wool cast, 13.8 days for the dental cotton-wool roll, and 8.6 days for dental silicone. The authors believe that this compressive method using dental silicone material is simple and appropriate for the treatment of auricular haematoma.
With respect to the operation of a Phase-change Random Access Memory (PRAM or PcRAM), we studied the effect of the contact between the electrode metal and the chalcogenide glass, N2 doped Ge2Sb2Te5 in this report. We investigated a change of the resistance-programming current pulse (R-I) curve varying the contact size and the electrode material. Also we tested the surface oxidation of the electrode. We found that the programming current, the resistance of the programmed state (“RESET”) and the erased state (“SET”) were highly dependent on the above parameters. These results are presented and a more effective way to the high density PRAM will be proposed.
In this work, we developed a phase field model describing surface evolution dynamics of a strained solid in contact with gas phase. Elastic solutions are solved with an iteration method for the system in which a solid film, strained by the mismatch strain between the film and substrate, has anisotropic elastic constants and the vapor phase has zero elastic constants. Elastic solutions are incorporated into the phase field evolution equation. The model predicts stable morphology at a given mismatch strain and perturbation wavelength.
First we show that any complex Lie group is complete Kähler. Moreover we obtain a plurisubharmonic exhaustion function on a complex Lie group as follows. Let the real Lie algebra of a maximal compact real Lie subgroup K of a complex Lie group G. Put q := dimC
Then we obtain that there exists a plurisubharmonic, strongly (q + 1)-pseudoconvex in the sense of Andreotti-Grauert and K-invariant exhaustion function on G.
InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates using a multi-wafer MOCVD system. The threshold current for pulsed lasing was 1.6 A for a gain-guided laser diode with a stripe of 10 × 800 μm2. The threshold current density was 20.3 kA cm−2 and the threshold voltage was 16.5 V. The optical power ratio of transverse electric mode to transverse magnetic mode was found to be greater than 50. The characteristic temperature measured from the plot of threshold current versus measurement temperature was between 130 and 150K.
Leptospirosis has significantly decreased in Korea since 1988,
following the leptospiral
vaccination programme initiated in 1988. Whether this wholly explains the
is uncertain. As an initial step to answer this question, infection
rates of Leptospira interrogans
in field rodents, Apodemis agrarius, were examined and compared
with previous data.
Two hundred and twenty-two A. agrarius were captured during
Spirochaetes were isolated from 22 (9·9%) and leptospiral DNA was
detected in an additional
6 rodents (12·6%). Subsequent microscopic agglutination tests (MAT)
classified all these
isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar
lai. The above data did not
significantly differ from previous surveys in 1984–7. There was no
significant change of L.
interrogans infection in field rodents following the introduction
of the vaccination programme
in Korea. Further studies are needed to determine the role of human vaccination
The reaction of Bi4Ti3O12-x with lithium iodide under an atmosphere of iodine at 400°C was found to afford a novel intercalation compound Lil3Bi4Ti3O11. The brownish red bismuth titanate is monoclinic with the lattice parameters of a=5.7417(2), b=5.4016(2), c=36.787(1) Å and ß=88.93(1) deg. The pathway to the new intercalation compound is proposed on the basis of X-ray, XPS, SEM and compositional observations.
This paper presents the process and experimental results about the improved initial bonding between #7740 glass and silicon wafers. We employed a modified initial bonding procedure, called by water-enhanced direct bonding(WDB) technique, and could obtain large initially-bonded area(≥ 95% of the whole wafer area) at room temperature and high interface energy (≥ 2,000 erg/cm2) through 250 °C post-annealing even though the glass wafer had high surface roughness. The main factors contributing to the wider bonded area and higher interface energy in the developed WDB process could be inferred the increase of chemical species (oxygen and hydroxyl groups) responsible for initial hydrogen bonding and conversion from hydroxyl bonds to siloxane bonds in the temperature range between room temperature and 250 °C.
In this work, we proposed a direct bonding method using interlayers for single crystalline silicon wafers and glass wafers. Various materials were used for interlayers of thermal oxide, sputtered nitride, electron-beam(E-beam) evaporated silicon oxide and molybdenum. After hydrophilization, samples were spin dried and mated together without external forces. Three types of solutions were used for hydrophilizing the samples. Changes of average surface roughness after hydrophilization of the single crystalline silicon wafer, thermal oxide and E-beam silicon-oxide were inspected using atomic force microscope(AFM). Bonding interfaces of the bonded pairs were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM). Voids and non-contact areas of the bonding pairs were also inspected using infrared(IR) transmission microscope. Surface energy, tensile strength measurements and breaking tests were also done.