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The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has emerged as a serious rice pest in Asia. In the present study, 12 microsatellite markers were employed to investigate the genetic structure, diversity and migration route of 43 populations sampled from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, Korea, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam). According to the isolation by distance analysis, a significant positive correlation was observed between genetic and geographic distances by the Mantel test (r2 = 0.4585, P = 0.01), indicating the role of geographic isolation in the genetic structure of S. furcifera. A population assignment test using the first-generation migrants detection method (thresholds a = 0.01) revealed southern China and northern Vietnam as the main sources of S. furcifera in Korea. Nepal and Bangladesh might be additional potential sources via interconnection with Vietnam populations. This paper provides useful data for the migration route and origin of S. furcifera in Korea and will contribute to planthopper resistance management.
This study aimed to identify the effect of lateral neck dissection on voice change in thyroidectomised patients.
Medical records from 264 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with (n = 65) or without (n = 199) lateral neck dissection were reviewed. Clinical and voice evaluation data were compared between the two groups.
Patients who underwent surgery that included lateral neck dissection had lower fundamental frequencies and speaking fundamental frequencies. They also had a higher incidence of asymmetric mucosal wave and vocal fold oedema on videostroboscopy during the first month after surgery, with the incidence of vocal fold oedema remaining significantly higher at three months. Self-assessed voice quality scores were significantly higher in lateral neck dissection patients at both one and three months after surgery.
In thyroidectomised patients, lateral neck dissection lowers the vocal pitch in the initial period after surgery and induces vocal fold oedema that persists for several months. Although most objective parameters improved within a month, subjective symptoms lasted for longer.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using hard X-ray from GRBs. It also contains the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) for the fast detection of UV-optical photons from GRBs. It is designed to begin the UV-optical observations in less than a few seconds after the trigger. The UBAT is based on a coded-mask X-ray camera with a wide field of view (FOV) and is composed of the coded mask, a hopper and a detector module. The SMT has a fast rotatable mirror which allows a fast UV-optical detection after the trigger. The telescope is a modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter, and an image intensifier readout by CCD. The UFFO pathfinder is scheduled to launch into orbit on 2012 June by the Lomonosov spacecraft. It is a scaled-down version of UFFO in order to make the first systematic study of early UV/optical light curves, including the rise phase of GRBs. We expect UBAT to trigger ~44 GRBs/yr and expect SMT to detect ~10 GRBs/yr.
The structure and composition of Cr-nitrides formed on an electroplated hard Cr layer during an ion-nitriding process were analyzed, and its growth kinetics was examined as a function of the ion-nitriding temperature and time to establish a computer simulation model for the prediction of growth behavior of the Cr-nitride layer. The Cr-nitrides formed during the ion-nitriding at 550–770 °C were composed of outer CrN and inner Cr2N layers. A nitrogen diffusion model in the multilayer, based on fixed-grid finite difference method, was applied to simulate the growth kinetics of Cr-nitride layers. By measuring the thickness of Cr-nitride layers as a function of ion-nitriding temperature and time, the activation energy (Q) and nitrogen diffusion constant (Do) were determined for growth of CrN and Cr2N; the result was applied to simulate the growth kinetics of Cr-nitride layers, and reasonable good agreement was obtained with the experimental results.
Four extra-short-duration (ESD) lines in 1991 and eight ESD lines in 1992 were grown with adequate soil moisture throughout their growth or subjected to drought coinciding with the vegetative, flowering and pod-filling stages under rainout shelters. In both years, drought stress treatments significantly reduced dry matter accumulation and grain yield. The extent of reduction in grain yield varied with the line and stage of stress imposition. Drought stress at the flowering stage caused greater reduction in total dry matter and grain yield than the stress imposed during the pre-flowering and pod-filling stages. Drought stress coinciding with the flowering stage reduced grain yield by 40–55% in 1991 and 15–40% in 1992 in different lines. ESD genotypes could extract moisture from up to a metre depth during pre-flowering and flowering stage stress but less so during the pod-filling stage stress. Genotype ICPL 88039, followed by ICPL 89021, showed consistently lowest sensitivity to drought stress at flowering. Protracted drought stress commencing from the pre-flowering to flowering or from the flowering to pod-filling stages was more harmful than stress at the individual stages. The reduction in yield under drought stress could be attributed mainly to less total dry matter accumulation, but also increased abscission of plant parts. The results suggest variation in sensitivity of ESD lines in relation to timing of stress, which should facilitate targeted screening for different intermittent moisture stress environments.
InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates using a multi-wafer MOCVD system. The threshold current for pulsed lasing was 1.6 A for a gain-guided laser diode with a stripe of 10 × 800 μm2. The threshold current density was 20.3 kA cm−2 and the threshold voltage was 16.5 V. The optical power ratio of transverse electric mode to transverse magnetic mode was found to be greater than 50. The characteristic temperature measured from the plot of threshold current versus measurement temperature was between 130 and 150K.
High quality ZnS epilayers were grown on GaAs and GaP substrates by hot wall epitaxy. The optimum temperature conditions for high quality ZnS epilayer were found. The photoluminescence(PL) spectrum of high quality ZnS epilayers showed sharp and narrow exciton peaks and no self-activated peaks. The room temperature energy gap of ZnS/GaAs was found to be 3.729 eV from the experimentally observed free exciton PL peaks. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity showed a two step quenching process and the temperature dependence of the PL linewidth broadening was tried to analyze in terms of exciton scattering process. From the splitting of the heavy hole and the light hole exciton peaks, the strain was identified.
Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was applied to anneal polycrystalline CdTe thin films evaporated on CdS/ITO substrate and the effects of rapid thermal annealing temperatures and gas environments were studied. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX), cross-sectional transmission microscopy(TEM), and micro-EDX in TEM were used to characterize physical and chemical properties of rapid thermal annealed CdTe thin films. Complete CdTe/CdS photovoltaic cells were fabricated and I-V characteristics of these cells were measured under the illumination. Results showed that the bulk composition of CdTe remained stoichiometric to 550°C in the air environment and surface composition became Cd-rich. Cross-sectional TEM and micro-EDX showed columnar grains and micro-twins remained even after RTA, however, sulfur content in rapid thermal annealed CdTe caused by sulfur diffusion from CdS during the annealing was much smaller than that by furnace annealing. Among the investigated RTA temperatures and gas environments, the cell made with CdTe annealed at 550°C in the air showed the best solar energy conversion efficiency.
Extra-short-duration pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes generally yielded more than short-season legumes when sown at the normal time on rainfed medium-deep Alfisols. However, their growth and yield were more reduced by delayed sowings and varied more widely between seasons than those of the short-season legumes, especially cowpea and black gram. All the crops gave lower yields on shallow Alfisols than on medium-deep Alfisols and none was consistently superior. Partitioning of dry matter into grain yield was less affected by time of sowing, soil and season in extra-short-duration pigeonpea genotypes than in short-season legumes. Less sensitivity of biomass accumulation to various abiotic constraints is therefore a major objective in improving the adaptation of extra-short-duration pigeonpea genotypes.
The GaInP/AlGaInP heterostructure was grown on (100) GaAs substrate using low pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (LP MOVPE) . The growth temperature and pressure were held constant at 740 °C and 40 torr, respectively. The GalnP multiquantum well layers from 10 Å to 85 A were lattice matched to the substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicated that the GaInP/AlGaInP well layers were uniform in thickness and that the interface was abrupt and free of defects. For high performance of visible laser diodes, highly doped p-AlGaInP layer(8X1017/cm3) was obtained. It was also found that the Zn acceptor concentration increased with growth rate. In this study, the GaInP/AlGaInP laser diode, 645nm and 20mW, was fabricated by employing multiquantum well and highly doped p-cladding layer.
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