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The objective of this study was to determine how much improvement red edge-based vegetation indices (VIs) obtained with the RapidSCAN sensor would achieve for estimating rice nitrogen (N) nutrition index (NNI) at stem elongation stage (SE) as compared with commonly used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ratio vegetation index (RVI) in Northeast China. Sixteen plot experiments and seven on-farm experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2016 in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. The results indicated that the performance of red edge-based VIs for estimation of rice NNI was better than NDVI and RVI. N sufficiency index calculated with RapidSCAN VIs (NSI_VIs) (R2=0.43–0.59) were more stable and more strongly related to NNI than the corresponding VIs (R2=0.12–0.38).
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a Crop Circle sensor-based precision nitrogen (N) management (PNM) strategy in different winter wheat cropping systems under on-farm conditions in North China Plain (NCP). Four farmer’s fields were selected for on-farm experiments in Laoling County, Shandong Province of NCP in 2015-2016. In each field, the PNM strategy was evaluated in two winter wheat cropping systems: farmer’s conventional management (FCM) and regional optimum crop management (ROCM). In each cropping system, there were two N management strategies: 1) FCM or ROCM; 2) PNM. The results indicated that the PNM strategy significantly increased partial factor productivity (PFP) by 29% in the FCM system, but did not have any significant improvement in the ROCM system. The ROCM system, using either regional optimum N management or PNM, significantly increased both grain yield and PFP than the FCM system.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
Background: Assessment of ischemic penumbra during the acute stage of cerebral infarction is crucial for a decision to initiate thrombolytic therapy and for predicting stroke evolution. Although controversial as a perfect equivalence to penumbra, perfusion weighted imaging (PWI)-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch may predict the response to thrombolysis. Due to the reliance on contrast agents in PWI, noninvasive alternatives remain an unmet need. Methods: We herein investigate the potentials of SWI as an alternative to PWI in defining ischemic penumbra and in predicting stroke outcome. A multimodal magnetic resonance imaging work-up which includes conventional magnetic resonance imaging sequences (T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR), DWI, PWI and SWI was performed. The Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was used to evaluate the changes in DWI, SWI and PWI. Results: The mismatch of SWI-DWI was comparable with that of PWI-DWI (p>0.05). Furthermore, the grade of prominent vein and the cerebral blood volume in the ipsilateral brain tissue were positively correlated. Conclusions: SWI can be used as a noninvasive alternative to identify occlusive arteries and to evaluate the ischemic penumbra. The susceptibility vein sign may represent thrombosis in arteries whereby being helpful to identify responsible blood vessels in ischemic stroke.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Technology for third generation gravitational wave detectors
H. Miao, California Institute of Technology,
Y. Chen, California Institute of Technology
D. G. Blair, University of Western Australia, Perth,E. J. Howell, University of Western Australia, Perth,L. Ju, University of Western Australia, Perth,C. Zhao, University of Western Australia, Perth
Laser interferometers are quantum instruments. This chapter presents the quantum theory of laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors. We show the basics for analysing the quantum noise in the detector, and for deriving the associated standard quantum limit (SQL) for the sensitivity. By providing different perspectives on the origin of the SQL, we illustrate the motivations behind different approaches for surpassing the SQL.
The most difficult challenge in building a laser interferometer gravitational wave (GW) detector is isolating the test masses from the rest of the world (e.g. random kicks from residual gas molecules, seismic activities, acoustic noises, thermal fluctuations, etc.) whilst keeping the device locked around the correct point of operation (e.g. pitch and yaw angles of the mirrors, locations of the beam spots, resonance condition of the cavities, and darkport condition for the Michelson). Once all these issues have been solved, we arrive at the issue that we are going to analyse in this chapter: the fundamental noise that arises from quantum fluctuations in the system. A simple estimate (following the steps of Braginsky, 1968) will already lead us into the quantum world – as it will turn out, the superb sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors will be constrained by the standard quantum limit (SQL), which relates to the fundamental heisenberg uncertainty principle. Further improvements of detector sensitivity beyond this require us to manipulate the quantum coherence of light to our advantage. In this chapter, we will introduce how to analyse GW detectors quantum mechanically, and will describe several advanced configurations to surpass the SQL.
We compared the hydrogen uptake weight percentages (wt.%) of different
carbonized materials, before and after modification, for their application
in hydrogen storage at room temperature. The Sievert's method [T.P. Blach, E. Mac, A. Gray, J. Alloys Compd. 446-447, 692 (2007)] was used
to measure hydrogen uptake values on: (1) Taiwan bamboo charcoal (TBC), (2)
white charcoal (WC), (3) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) bought from
CBT Inc. and (4) homemade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown on
TBC. Modified samples were coated with a metal catalyst by dipping in KOH
solutions of different concentrations and then activated in a high
temperature oven (800 °C) under the atmospheric pressure of inert
gas. The results showed that unmodified SWCNTs had superior uptake but that
Taiwan bamboo charcoal, after modification, showed enhanced uptake
comparable to the SWCNTs. Due to TBC's low cost and high mass production
rate, they will be the key candidate for future hydrogen storage
Based on the radial basis function (RBF) and the singular hybrid boundary node method (SHBNM), this paper presents an inherent meshless, boundary-only technique, which names dual reciprocity singular hybrid boundary node method (DRSHBNM), for numerical solution of various inhomogeneous equations. In this study, the RBFs are employed to approximate the inhomogeneous terms via dual reciprocity method (DRM), while the general solution is solved by means of SHBNM, in which only requires discrete nodes constructed on the boundary of a domain, while several nodes in the domain are needed for the RBF interpolation. The treatment of singularity integration and the 'boundary layer effect' have been given by a series of effective approaches. Numerical examples for the solution of inhomogeneous equations show that high convergence rates and high accuracy with a small node number are achievable.
This article presents current R&D activities at Observatoire de Paris – Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement
et de la Matière en Astrophysique in the fields of low noise mixers and local oscillators for heterodyne instruments dedicated to astrophysics, planetology and the sciences of the atmosphere.
First-principles calculations by the use of a plane-wave pseudopotential method are performed to investigate intrinsic point defect behavior in TiNi. The results show that TiNi is an antisite type intermetallic compound. The calculated interaction energies between the point defects demonstrate that Ti antisites are attractive to each other whereas Ni antisites are mutually repulsive. The attraction between Ti antisites indicates that excess Ti in TiNi may agglomerate so that a Ti-rich phase can easily precipitate. The repulsion between Ni antisites implies that the excess Ni is of certain solubility in TiNi. This result explains well the asymmetric feature of TiNi field on the binary phase diagram. In order to understand the correlation between the composition dependent elastic modulus and martensitic transformation (MT) temperature, the elastic moduli critical to MT, i.e., c′ and c44, are calculated as a function of the composition of the off-stoichiometric TiNi and a series of ternary TiNi-X alloys, by the use of exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with coherent potential approximation. It turns out that, generally speaking, the early transition metal (TM) alloying elements in the periodic table increase c′ but decrease c44; the middle ones increase both c′ and c44, whereas the late ones decrease c′ but increase c44. An examination of the theoretical composition dependent elastic modulus and the experimental MT temperature shows that the MT temperature is more sensitive to the variation of c44 than to that of c′.
Bunched and multi-circularly wrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT) are
observed to grow on alloy substrates based on iron group metals and copper
by a microwave enhanced hot-filament method with a dilute gas of ammonia at
a proper RF self-bias. The grown size of CNTs embodied in the grain sizes of
conducting bulk alloy catalysts such as Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe, Cu-Co, and Cu-Ni-Fe-Co
are controlled by a precursor time of hydrogen plasma etching. Species with
different structural features and homogenization of CNTs samples are
produced crucially attributed to various reactant gases and self-bias
induced by the radio frequency field.
A solid polythiophene pellet was ablated by a KrF excimer laser beam to deposit thin films on silicon substrates. The laser-ablated plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy to identify the photon-breaking of C–S bonds in the ablated heterocycles. Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of the deposited thin films also supported the selective photon-induced bond breaking. After eliminating sulfur in the molecular structures, the thin films appeared to be composed of cubic nanocrystals with a uniform size of 240 nm. X-ray diffraction measurement determined the cubic crystal structures with a lattice constant of α =3.38 Å and suggested a quasi-onedimensional carbon chain structure along the body diagonal of the cube.
Thin films of polythiophene, a kind of polyheterocyclic compound with hydrogen function groups, were deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation of a compressed solid target in a vacuum chamber. The laser pulse fluence was approximately selected at 2 J/cm2 with a pulse duration of 25 ns. The structural, topographic, and electronic properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscope, x-ray diffraction, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Deposited thin films were observed to have good crystal properties and to be composed of crystalline cubes with a uniform size of 0.1 μm. The electronic structure of the deposited thin films should be different from the target materials, resulting from the laser irradiation effects. The influence of the deposition temperature on the structural and electronic properties of the deposited thin films was studied.
This report will try to review briefly the work achieved from 1982 to 1984 in different “subjects to be considered by Commission 31 Time” as adopted in Grenoble 1976. It contains also information provided by Commission members, for which hearty thanks are to be given. The limitation of space required the abbrevation of some institution reports.
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