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Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been used to investigate the interaction between a laser pulse and a foil exposed to an external strong longitudinal magnetic field. Compared with that in the absence of the external magnetic field, the divergence of proton with the magnetic field in radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regimes has improved remarkably due to the restriction of the electron transverse expansion. During the RPA process, the foil develops into a typical bubble-like shape resulting from the combined action of transversal ponderomotive force and instabilities. However, the foil prefers to be in a cone-like shape by using the magnetic field. The dependence of proton divergence on the strength of magnetic field has been studied, and an optimal magnetic field of nearly 60 kT is achieved in these simulations.
Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei is the largest urban agglomeration in northern China, but the spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence in this area have been unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HBV infection and quantify the association between HBV infection and socio-economic risk factors. The data on HBV cases in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei from 2007 to 2012 was collected for each county. The Bayesian space–time hierarchy model and the GeoDetector method were used to reveal spatiotemporal patterns and detect risk factors. High-risk regions were mainly distributed in the underdeveloped rural areas in the north and mid-south of the study region, while low-risk regions were mainly distributed in the urban and western areas. The HBV annual incidence rate decreased substantially over the 6-year period, dropping from 7.34/105 to 5.51/105. Compared with this overall trend, 38.5% of high-risk counties showed a faster decrease, and 35.9% of high-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Meanwhile, 29.7% of low-risk counties had a faster decrease, and 44.6% of low-risk counties exhibited a slower decrease. Socio-economic factors were strongly associated with the spatiotemporal patterns and variation. The population density and gross domestic product per capita were negatively associated with HBV transmission, with determinant powers of 0.17 and 0.12, respectively. The proportion of primary industry and the number of healthcare workers were positively associated with the disease incidence, with determinant powers of 0.11 and 0.8, respectively. The interactive effect between population density and the other factors exerted a greater influence on HBV transmission than that of these factors measured independently.
Starch digestion in the small intestines of the dairy cow is low, to a large extent, due to a shortage of syntheses of α-amylase. One strategy to improve the situation is to enhance the synthesis of α-amylase. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which acts as a central regulator of protein synthesis, can be activated by leucine. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of leucine on the mTOR signalling pathway and to define the associations between these signalling activities and the synthesis of pancreatic enzymes using an in vitro model of cultured Holstein dairy calf pancreatic tissue. The pancreatic tissue was incubated in culture medium containing l-leucine for 3 h, and samples were collected hourly, with the control being included but not containing l-leucine. The leucine supplementation increased α-amylase and trypsin activities and the messenger RNA expression of their coding genes (P <0.05), and it enhanced the mTOR synthesis and the phosphorylation of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (P <0.05). In addition, rapamycin inhibited the mTOR signal pathway factors during leucine treatment. In sum, the leucine regulates α-amylase and trypsin synthesis in dairy calves through the regulation of the mTOR signal pathways.
Previous studies showed that spermine could protect the organism from oxidative damage in vivo. However, in vivo information on the antioxidant-related underlying molecular mechanism of spermine is limited. In this experiment, we further evaluated the effects of spermine supplementation and extended spermine administration on the antioxidant status and antioxidant-related signaling molecules gene expression in the liver and longissimus dorsi of piglets. A total of 80 piglets were randomly distributed to two groups, that is, those with adequate nutrient intake administrated with spermine (0.4 mmol/kg BW) or those with restricted nutrient intake supplemented by saline. The piglets were fed in pairs for 7 h or 3, 6, or 9 days. The results are as follows: (1) spermine can promote the antioxidant capacity by increasing enzymatic antioxidant capacity, glutathione content and clearance of oxygen radicals; (2) spermine significantly increased the mRNA levels of enzymatic antioxidant substances, NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and the mammalian target of rapamycin but decreased the mRNA levels of ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in the liver and longissimus dorsi of the piglets.
The effects of obesity on reproduction have been widely reported in humans and mice. The present study was designed to compare the reproductive performance of lean and fat chicken lines, divergently selected for abdominal fat content. The following parameters were determined and analyzed in the two lines: (1) reproductive traits, including age at first egg and total egg numbers from generations 14 to 18, absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age, semen quality at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18, and fertility and hatchability from generations 14 to 18; (2) reproductive hormones at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18; (3) and the relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in reproduction at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18. In females, birds in the lean line laid more eggs from the first egg to 40 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. In male broilers, the birds in the lean line had higher absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14 and 25 weeks of age, but lower absolute and relative testicular weights at 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Male birds in the lean line had greater sperm concentrations and larger numbers of motile and morphologically normal sperms at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Fertility and hatchability were also higher in the lean line than in the fat line. Significant differences in the plasma levels of reproductive hormones and the expression of reproduction-associated genes were also found at different ages in the lean and fat birds, in both males and females. These results suggest that reproductive performance is better in lean birds than in fat birds. In view of the unique divergent lines used in this study, these results imply that selecting for abdominal fat deposition negatively affects the reproductive performance of birds.
Based on the definition of divisibility of Markovian quantum dynamics, we discuss the Markovianity of tensor products, multiplications and some convex combinations of Markovian quantum dynamics. We prove that the tensor product of two Markovian dynamics is also a Markovian dynamics and propose a new witness of non-Markovianity.
Fosfomycin has become a therapeutic option in urinary tract infections. We identified 57 fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from 465 urine-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates from a Chinese hospital during 2010–2014. Of the 57 fosfomycin-resistant isolates, 51 (89·5%) carried fosA3, and one carried fosA1. Divergent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles and multi-locus sequence typing results revealed high clonal diversity in the fosA3-positive isolates. Conjugation experiments showed that the fosA3 genes from 50 isolates were transferable, with IncFII or IncI1 being the most prevalent types of plasmids. The high prevalence of fosA3 was closely associated with that of blaCTX-M. Horizontal transfer, rather than clonal expansion, might play a central role in dissemination. Such strains may constitute an important reservoir of fosA3 and blaCTX-M, which may well be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. Since most ESBL-producing E. coli have acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones worldwide, further spread of fosA3 in such E. coli isolates should be monitored closely.
An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
The stability of green phosphorescent OLEDs with different structures was evaluated through constant-current stressing. Through the modifications of the ITO anode by different plasma treatments and the hole transport layer (HTL) by incorporating inorganic dopants, we proved that energy level misalignment at the ITO/HTL interface leads to localized joule heating, accelerating defect generation and luminescence decay. Pulsed current stressing was then employed to suppress the joule-heating effect so as to differentiate the thermal and nonthermal factors governing the device degradation. For OLEDs with a large energy barrier at the ITO/HTL interface, the effective lifetime was markedly increased under pulsed operation, whereas in OLEDs with an appropriate interfacial energy level alignment, pulsed stressing with 10% duty cycle only improved the effective half life by ∼15% as compared to continuous-wave stressing, indicating a minor role played by joule heating.
Continuous ingestion of the phloem sap of plants by aphids can remove a significant amount of photoassimilates. Based on our earlier works, we hypothesized that due to the reduced aphid feeding time caused by antibiosis, wheat plants may achieve growth tolerance to aphids. We tested this hypothesis using three wheat cultivars, XY22 (Xiaoyan22), AK58 (Bainongaikang58) and XN979 (Xinong979) and the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. In the choice test, S. avenae did not show any preference among the three wheat cultivars. However, S. avenae had a lower body weight and a lower intrinsic rate of increase when feeding on XY22 than on AK58 and XN979. The electrical penetration graph results indicated that S. avenae had significantly shorter mean and total phloem ingestion periods on XY22 than on AK58 or XN979. The aphids required a similar time to reach the phloem sap on the three wheat cultivars, but required more time to establish sustained phloem ingestion on XY22. These results suggest that the resistance factors of XY22 may be phloem based. Moreover, XY22 suffered less biomass loss in response to aphid infestation compared with XN979, suggesting that XY22 also had a better growth tolerance to S. avenae than XN979. Wheat resistance level to S. avenae was partially correlated with plant photosynthetic rates, and peroxidase activities. These results confirmed that the limitation in aphid feeding from plant phloem in wheat cultivar XY22 was related to antibiosis but not antixenosis, which caused XY22 tolerance to S. avenae.
To understand the clinical epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, South China, we collected 1128 faecal specimens from children with diarrhoea from July 2010 to December 2012. HBoV and five other major enteric viruses were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human rotavirus (HRV) was the most prevalent pathogen, detected in 250 (22·2%) cases, followed by enteric adenovirus (EADV) in 76 (6·7%) cases, human astrovirus (HAstV) in 38 (3·4%) cases, HBoV in 17 (1·5%) cases, sapovirus (SaV) in 14 (1·2%) cases, and norovirus (NoV) in 9 (0·8%) cases. Co-infections were identified in 3·7% of the study population and 23·5% of HBoV-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 14 HBoV strains to be clustered into species HBoV1 with only minor variations among them. Overall, the detection of HBoV appears to partially contribute to the overall detection gap for enteric infections, single HBoV infection rarely results in severe clinical outcomes, and HBoV sequencing data appears to support conserved genomes across strains identified in this study.
GaN implanted with donor(Si, S, Se, Te) or acceptor (Be, Mg, C) species was annealed at 900-1500 °C using AlN encapsulation. No redistribution was measured by SIMS for any of the dopants and effective diffusion coefficients are ≤2 × 10−13 cm2. s−1 at 1400 °C, except Be, which displays damage-enhanced diffusion at 900 °C and is immobile once the point defect concentration is removed. Activation efficiency of ∼90% is obtained for Si at 1400 °C. TEM of the implanted material shows a strong reduction in lattice disorder at 1400-1500 °C compared to previous results at 1100 °C. There is minimal interaction of the sputtered AlN with GaN under our conditions, and it is readily removed selectively with KOH.
The linear micromorphic electroelastic theory is proposed to solve bending problems of piezoelectric micro-beam in this paper. The basic governing equations with the boundary conditions are derived through the variational principle. Both the cantilever piezoelectric micro-beam subjected to a concentrated load at the free end and the simply supported micro-beam subjected to a distributed load are analyzed. It is found that the predictions from the micromorphic electroelastic theory are remarkably different from those from the classical theory when the micro-beam thickness is approximate or equal to the characteristic length scale parameter, but their difference is slight when the micro-beam thickness is much larger than the characteristic length scale parameter. As a result, it is concluded that the size effect is significant when the micro-beam thickness is comparable to the characteristic length scale parameter.
The effects of melamine on gas production (GP) kinetics, methane (CH4) production and fermentation of diets differing in forage content (low-forage (LF) diet: 200 g/kg and high-forage (HF) diet: 800 g/kg) by rumen micro-organisms in vitro were studied using batch cultures. Rumen contents were collected from three Simmental×Luxi crossbred beef cattle. Melamine was added to the incubation bottles to achieve final concentration of 0 (control), 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 and 484 mg/kg of each diet. Cumulative GP was continuously measured in an automated gas recording instrument during 72 h of incubation, while fermentation gas end-products were collected to determine molar proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and hydrogen gas (H2) in manually operated batch cultures. Differences in GP kinetics and fermentation gases were observed in response to the nature of the diets incubated. Although melamine addition did not affect GP kinetics and fermentation gas pattern compared to the control, the increase of melamine addition stimulated the yield of CH4 by decreasing CO2, especially during the fermentation of the HF diet. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N), amino acid N and microbial N in culture fluids were greater in the fermentation of LF- than HF diets, and these concentrations were increased by the increase of melamine addition after 72-h fermentation. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were greater in HF than LF diets. The addition of melamine decreased total VFA concentrations and this response was greater in HF than LF diet fermentations. Melamine addition did not affect molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, propionate and valerate compared with the control; however, branched-chain VFA production, which was lower in the HF than the LF diet, was increased by the melamine addition, especially in the HF diet fermentation. The ratio of non-glucogenic to glucogenic acids was lower in the HF than the LF diet, but it was not affected by melamine addition. In brief, the greater reduction in the rate and extent of rumen fermentation found for the HF diet in comparison with the LF diet suggested that rumen fermentation rate and extent in vitro depended mainly on the nature of the incubated substrate, and that they could be further inhibited by the increase of melamine addition.
We observed an area of sky located within the SDSS Stripe 82 field at 1.6 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN). There are fifteen mJy/sub-mJy radio sources within the primary beam of a typical 30-m class EVN radio telescope. Our aim was to obtain information on compact radio structures of all VLBI-detectable sources within this primary beam area. The source of particular interest is the recently identified radio quasar J222843.54+011032.2 (J2228+0110) at z = 5.95. The data correlation was performed at the EVN software correlator at JIVE (SFXC). Three targets (J2228+0110, J222851.45+011203.4, J222941.76+011428.5) were detected, all three with position offsets not exceeding the 3σ accuracy of the original low-resolution radio surveys. The detection rate of 20% is consistent with other wide-field VLBI experiments carried out recently (e.g. Middelberg et al. 2013). The project presented here demonstrates the ability of EVN in multiple-phase-centre experiments and paves the way for future large-scale EVN surveys of compact structures in extragalactic radio sources using the multiple-phase-centre VLBI technique.
We have investigated the effects of two different strain-relief bilayer shell structures on the luminescent properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs with a strain-compensated ZnS/ZnCdS bilayer shell were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique and their crystallinity of was examined by X-ray diffraction. The QDs enjoyed the benefits of excellent exciton confinement by the ZnS intermediate shell and strain compensation by the ZnCdS outer shell. The resulting CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QDs exhibited 40% stronger photoluminescence and a smaller peak redshift upon shell growth compared to conventional CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs with an intermediate lattice adaptor. CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QD light-emitting diodes (LEDs) had a luminance of 558 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm2, 28% higher than that of CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS QD-LEDs. The former also had better spectral purity. These results suggest that nanocrystal shells may be strain-engineered in a different way to achieve QDs of high crystalline and optical quality well suited for full-color display applications.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
Different ions (Ti+, O+, Fe+, Cr+) were implanted at multiple energies into GaN field effect transistor structures (n and p-type). The implantation was found to create deep states with energy levels in the range EC –0.20 to 0.49 eV in n-GaN and at EV +0.44 eV in p-GaN after annealing at 450-650 oC. The sheet resistance of the GaN was at a maximum after annealing at these temperatures, reaching values of ∼4×1012 Ω/⊏ in n-GaN and ∼1010 Ω/⊏ in p-GaN. The mechanism for the implant isolation was damage-related trap formation for all of the ions investigated, and there was no evidence of chemically induced isolation.