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Buoyancy-driven exchange flows occur in a variety of natural and industrial situations, including nuclear and hydraulic engineering, oceanography and building ventilation. Balanced exchange flows, whereby there is simultaneously an equal volume flux transferred vertically upwards and downwards through a horizontal opening, have previously been described theoretically. However, until now there has been no theoretical description of unbalanced exchange flows, whereby the volume flux in one direction through an opening exceeds that in the other. The model developed herein examines the growth of perturbations on the density interface at an opening made in a horizontal plane that connects buoyant fluid below with denser fluid above. By considering the interface as it is advected away from the plane of the opening by a bulk flow imposed in the vertical, we quantify the exchange for the unbalanced case. The model successfully predicts the Froude number criterion, which corresponds directly to the minimum dimensionless flow rate of the imposed flow, for the onset of unbalanced exchange across circular openings found experimentally. Additionally, comparisons made between the exchanges predicted and measured show excellent agreement across the entire range of possible flows, from unidirectional flow, through unbalanced exchange to balanced exchange. Consideration is given to applications of the model to ocean outfall design and to the prediction of building ventilation flows. For natural ventilation, the theoretical model we derive for unbalanced exchange bridges the gap in the prediction of air flow rates between displacement flows, where the flow is unidirectional, and balanced exchange flows.
Neuropsychological investigations can help untangle the aetiological and phenomenological heterogeneity of schizophrenia but have scarcely been employed in the context of treatment-resistant (TR) schizophrenia. No population-based study has examined neuropsychological function in the first-episode of TR psychosis.
We report baseline neuropsychological findings from a longitudinal, population-based study of first-episode psychosis, which followed up cases from index admission to 10 years. At the 10-year follow up patients were classified as treatment responsive or TR after reconstructing their entire case histories. Of 145 cases with neuropsychological data at baseline, 113 were classified as treatment responsive, and 32 as TR at the 10-year follow-up.
Compared with 257 community controls, both case groups showed baseline deficits in three composite neuropsychological scores, derived from principal component analysis: verbal intelligence and fluency, visuospatial ability and executive function, and verbal memory and learning (p values⩽0.001). Compared with treatment responders, TR cases showed deficits in verbal intelligence and fluency, both in the extended psychosis sample (t = −2.32; p = 0.022) and in the schizophrenia diagnostic subgroup (t = −2.49; p = 0.017). Similar relative deficits in the TR cases emerged in sub-/sensitivity analyses excluding patients with delayed-onset treatment resistance (p values<0.01–0.001) and those born outside the UK (p values<0.05).
Verbal intelligence and fluency are impaired in patients with TR psychosis compared with those who respond to treatment. This differential is already detectable – at a group level – at the first illness episode, supporting the conceptualisation of TR psychosis as a severe, pathogenically distinct variant, embedded in aberrant neurodevelopmental processes.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
We describe the investigation of two temporally coincident illness clusters involving salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in two states. Cases were defined as gastrointestinal illness following two meal events. Investigators interviewed ill persons. Stool, food and environmental samples underwent pathogen testing. Alabama: Eighty cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 5·8 h. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified from 27 of 28 stool specimens tested, and coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated from three of 16 ill persons. Environmental investigation indicated that food handling deficiencies occurred. Colorado: Seven cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 4·5 h. Five persons were hospitalised, four of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in six of seven stool specimens and coagulase-positive S. aureus in three of six tested. No single food item was implicated in either outbreak. These two outbreaks were linked to infection with Salmonella Heidelberg, but additional factors, such as dual aetiology that included S. aureus or the dose of salmonella ingested may have contributed to the short incubation periods and high illness severity. The outbreaks underscore the importance of measures to prevent foodborne illness through appropriate washing, handling, preparation and storage of food.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007. Twenty per cent of Daubenton's bats submitted from Stokesay Castle since surveillance began, have tested positive for EBLV-2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals geographical clustering of UK viruses. Isolates from Stokesay Castle are more closely related to one another than to viruses from other regions. Daubenton's bats from Stokesay Castle represent a unique opportunity to study a natural population that appears to maintain EBLV-2 infection and may represent endemic infection at this site. Although the risk to public health from EBLV-2 is low, consequences of infection are severe and effective communication on the need for prompt post-exposure prophylaxis for anyone that has been bitten by a bat is essential.
Whole apples have not been previously implicated in outbreaks of foodborne bacterial illness. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak associated with caramel apples. We defined an outbreak-associated case as an infection with one or both of two outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes highly related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) from 1 October 2014 to 1 February 2015. Single-interviewer open-ended interviews identified the source. Outbreak-associated cases were compared with non-outbreak-associated cases and traceback and environmental investigations were performed. We identified 35 outbreak-associated cases in 12 states; 34 (97%) were hospitalized and seven (20%) died. Outbreak-associated ill persons were more likely to have eaten commercially produced, prepackaged caramel apples (odds ratio 326·7, 95% confidence interval 32·2–3314). Environmental samples from the grower's packing facility and distribution-chain whole apples yielded isolates highly related to outbreak isolates by wgMLST. This outbreak highlights the importance of minimizing produce contamination with L. monocytogenes. Investigators should perform single-interviewer open-ended interviews when a food is not readily identified.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the
gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an
anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation
source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set
to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation
emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing
techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the very
center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that
a radiation source, emitting < 1054 (∼103 J21) photons per second is
required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ∼ 105 M⊙. The resulting
accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ∼ 0.25 M⊙ yr−1.
Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case,
in terms of H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly effect
the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the
final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ∼ 105 M⊙. This is consistent
with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a
supermassive black hole.
In August 2011, one of the earliest cases of influenza A(H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] virus infection was hospitalized with severe illness. To investigate the potential for healthcare-associated transmission of influenza A(H3N2)v, we evaluated both healthcare providers and patient contacts of the case. We found that healthcare-associated transmission was unlikely.
We report an interesting property of carbon dots: they emit light under charge injection. We synthesized carbon dots in diameter about 20 nm using wet chemistry methods. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the carbon dots dissolved in water was about 11%. We observed strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from the sample. This observation of ECL from carbon dots indicates that they could be a good candidate material for carbon-based electroluminescent devices.
Two full-length cDNA sequences encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2) were recovered from the midgut of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in an ongoing expressed sequence tag project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect and non-insect species, including conserved regions such as the catalytic triad, active pocket, and conserved structural motifs. Secretory signal peptides in both proteases at the N-terminals indicate that these proteins could function as midgut digestive serine proteases. A phylogenetic analysis grouped SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2 with trypsin-like and chymotrysin-like serine proteases, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2 were expressed predominantly in the midgut rather than in other tissues (fat body and salivary glands). Expression analyses revealed high mRNA levels for the feeding instars (1st- and 2nd-instar larvae) compared with other stages (neonate, 3rd instar, pupa, and adult). These results provide new insights into the biology of S. mosellana and are discussed in the context of developing alternative control strategies.
When pretreated with pertussis toxin (PTX), the neurites of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in mixed cell cultures retract over a period of 2 h following the initial stimulus of removal from the cell culture incubator for brief periods of observation. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether this PTX-dependent response was specific to any one of the three subpopulations of DRG neurons. However, no neurite retraction response was observed in neuron-enriched populations of cells, or in cultures enriched in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons or in IB4-negative neurons. But, the addition of non-neuronal cells, and/or medium conditioned by non-neuronal cells, was sufficient to restore the PTX-dependent neurite retraction response, but only in large diameter IB4-negative neurons. In conclusion, we have identified a regulatory response, mediated by Gi/o-proteins, which prevents retraction of neurites in large diameter IB4-negative cells of adult rat DRG. The non-neuronal cells of adult rat DRG constitutively release factor/s that can stimulate neurite retraction of a subset of isolated DRG neurons, but this property of non-neuronal cells is only observed when the Gi/o-proteins of large diameter IB4-negative cells are inhibited.
We present a new approach for modeling strongly anisotropic crystal and epitaxial growth using regularized, anisotropic Cahn-Hilliard-type equations as a model for the growth and coarsening of thin films. When the surface anisotropy is sufficiently strong, sharp corners form and unregularized anisotropic Cahn-Hilliard equations become ill-posed. Our models contain a high order Willmore regularization to remove the ill posedness at the corners. A key feature of our approach is the development of a new formulation in which the interface thickness is independent of crystallographic orientation. In our previous work, we have provided matched asymptotic analysis to show the convergence of our diffuse interface model to the analytical sharp interface model. In previous models there was no such convergence to sharp interface model when the Willmore energy was considered. We present 2D numerical results using an adaptive, nonlinear multigrid finite-difference method. In particular, we find excellent agreement between the computed shapes using the Cahn-Hilliard approach, with a finite but small Willmore regularization, with dynamical numerical simulations of a sharp interface model. The equilibrium shapes from our diffuse model are compared with an analytical sharp-interface theory recently developed by Spencer  at the corners, and there is excellent match. Away from the corners there is an excellent agreement between the diffuse model and the classical Wulff shape. Finally, in order to model the misfit and displacement strains, we add the elastic energy and corresponding forces to our diffuse model. We analyze numerically the effect of elastic stress on the corner regularization in terms of two parameters: one parameter that describes the relative strength of the elastic energy to surface energy and the second that characteristics the strength of the surface energy anisotropy. Adding elastic energy modifies the equilibrium shape and in particular affects the shape of the corners. We can predict different Qdot shapes, such as pyramids and domes, based on the strength of the elastic interactions.
LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30–240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering makes retrospective imaging of explosive short-term events possible. The scientific focus of LOFAR will initially be on four key science projects (KSPs): (i) Detection of the formation of the very first stars and galaxies in the universe during the so-called epoch of reionization by measuring the power spectrum of the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line (Shaver et al. 1999) on the ∼ 5′ scale; (ii) Low-frequency surveys of the sky with of order 108 expected new sources; (iii) All-sky monitoring and detection of transient radio sources such as γ-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and exo-planets (Farrell et al. 2004); and (iv) Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (Falcke & Gorham 2003) allowing for the first time access to particles beyond 1021 eV (Scholten et al. 2006). Apart from the KSPs open access for smaller projects is also planned. Here we give a brief description of the telescope.
Aristiform spines of the rodents Niviventer fulvescens, Maxomys surifer, Hoplomys gymnurus and 17 species of Proechimys (representing both recognized subgenera and all nine species groups) were studied qualitatively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitatively by measuring seven linear dimensions. SEM was used to examine spine tips, bases, longitudinal furrows and cross sections. Spines of the murid rodents N. fulvescens and M. surifer differed from those of the echimyid rodents H. gymnurus and Proechimys spp. in possessing a smaller base with a longer, narrower neck, scaled rather than ridged longitudinal furrows, and a solid internal core and large lacunae at the spine margins. Spines of H. gymnurus differed from those of Proechimys spp. in being considerably more robust with a stout neck at the base, an abruptly-tapering tip and a dense inner layer with a series of smaller lacunae at the spine margins. A factor analysis of spine measurements revealed major differences among N. fulvescens, M. surifer, H. gymnurus, the Proechimys subgenus Trinomys and the nine Proechimys species groups within the subgenus Proechimys. However, all Proechimys species groups clustered closely together. A discriminant function analysis of the nine Proechimys species groups provided generally limited discriminatory power. Although spines are distinct at the generic and subgeneric levels, spines may possess limited diagnostic structure at the level of species within the subgenus Proechimys.