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Of all of the African language families, the Chadic languages belonging to the Afroasiatic macro-family are highly internally diverse due to a long history and various scenarios of language contact. This pioneering study explores the development of the sound systems of the 'Central Chadic' languages, a major branch of the Chadic family. Drawing on and comparing field data from 60 different Central Chadic languages, H. Ekkehard Wolff unpacks the specific phonological principles that underpin the Chadic languages' diverse phonological evolution, arguing that their diversity results from historical processes of 'prosodification' of reconstructable segments of the proto-language. It offers meticulous historical analyses of 64 words from Proto-Central Chadic, into up to 60 individual modern languages, including both consonants and vowels. Particular emphasis is on tracing the deep-rooted origin and impact of palatalization and labialization prosodies within a phonological system that, on its deepest level, recognizes only one vowel phoneme */a/.
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is an innovative approach to language teaching which emphasises the importance of engaging learners' natural abilities for acquiring language incidentally. The speed with which the field is expanding makes it difficult to keep up with recent developments, for novices and experienced researchers alike. This handbook meets that need, providing a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the field, written by a stellar line-up of leading international experts. Chapters are divided into five thematic areas, and as well as covering theory, also contain case studies to show how TBLT can be implemented in practice, in a range of global contexts, as well as questions for discussion, and suggested further readings. Comprehensive in its coverage, and written in an accessible style, it will appeal to a wide readership, not only researchers and graduate students, but also classroom teachers working in a variety of educational and cultural contexts around the world.
This unique compendium offers an article-by-article commentary on the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States. Providing a comprehensive explanation of the functioning of this important mechanism for the settlement of investor-State disputes, it incorporates the preparatory work, the Convention's text, various rules and regulations adopted under the Convention, the practice of arbitral tribunals under the Convention, and academic writings on the subject. The first and second editions of this Commentary have been relied upon by numerous arbitral tribunals. This third edition follows the same system and approach, but extensive updates and revisions reflect the vast increase in arbitral practice since the publication of the second edition. A number of novel issues that have emerged through this practice are now addressed, making this practice-oriented guide an indispensable tool for anyone dealing with the ICSID Convention. Likewise, the number of contributors to and editors of the third edition has increased.
This classic work has been a unique resource for thousands of mathematicians, scientists and engineers since its first appearance in 1902. Never out of print, its continuing value lies in its thorough and exhaustive treatment of special functions of mathematical physics and the analysis of differential equations from which they emerge. The book also is of historical value as it was the first book in English to introduce the then modern methods of complex analysis. This fifth edition preserves the style and content of the original, but it has been supplemented with more recent results and references where appropriate. All the formulas have been checked and many corrections made. A complete bibliographical search has been conducted to present the references in modern form for ease of use. A welcome addition to any mathematician's bookshelf, this will allow a whole new generation to experience the beauty contained in this text.
Galois Theory, the theory of polynomial equations and their solutions, is one of the most fascinating and beautiful subjects of pure mathematics. Using group theory and field theory, it provides a complete answer to the problem of the solubility of polynomial equations by radicals: that is, determining when and how a polynomial equation can be solved by repeatedly extracting roots using elementary algebraic operations. This textbook contains a fully detailed account of Galois Theory and the algebra that it needs and is suitable both for those following a course of lectures and the independent reader (who is assumed to have no previous knowledge of Galois Theory). The second edition has been significantly revised and re-ordered; the first part develops the basic algebra that is needed, and the second a comprehensive account of Galois Theory. There are applications to ruler-and- compass constructions, and to the solution of classical mathematical problems of ancient times. There are new exercises throughout, and carefully-selected examples will help the reader develop a clear understanding of the mathematical theory.
A Set of Six (1908) is one of Conrad's most versatile and varied compositions, embracing diverse interests and settings, multiple tonal qualities and a medley of short-story forms (ranging from the novella in 'The Duel' to the anecdotal tale in 'The Informer'). The volume's wide-ranging introduction offers a careful evaluation of the origins and sources of the individual stories, while also measuring their early reception as a published collection. Explanatory notes clarify literary and historical references, identify real-life places and people, and indicate borrowings and Gallicisms. The lengthy textual essay and its accompanying apparatus lay out the history of composition and publication, detailing interventions made by Conrad's typists, compositors and editors. Also included are appendices, allowing the reader first-hand access to Conrad's source material; glossaries of nautical and foreign terms; and illustrations in the form of maps and reproductions of early drafts. By returning to (and respecting) Conrad's own early manuscript and typescript forms, this edition presents the collection and its preface in a form more authoritative than any so far printed.
Between 1920 and 1950, British and US internationalists called for aviation and atomic energy to be taken out of the hands of nation-states, and instead used by international organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations. An international air force was to enforce collective security and internationalized civil aviation was to bind the world together through trade and communication. The bomber and the atomic bomb, now associated with death and devastation, were to be instruments of world peace. Drawing on rich archival research and focusing on public and private discourse relating to the control of aviation and atomic energy, Waqar H. Zaidi highlights neglected technological and militaristic strands in twentieth-century liberal internationalism, and transforms our understanding of the place of science and technology in twentieth-century international relations.
This book gives an up-to-date overview of methodological and data-analytical issues of cross-cultural studies. Written by leading experts in the field, it presents the most important tools for doing cross-cultural research and outlines design considerations, methods, and analytical techniques that can improve ecological validity and help researchers to avoid pitfalls in cross-cultural psychology. By focusing on the relevant research questions that can be tackled with particular methods, it provides practical guidance on how to translate conceptual questions into decisions on study design and statistical techniques. Featuring examples from cognitive and educational assessment, personality, health, and intercultural communication and management, and illustrating key techniques in feature boxes, this concise and accessible guide is essential reading for researchers, graduate students, and professionals who work with culture-comparative data.
For many years, commercial speech was summarily excluded from First Amendment protection, without reason or logic. Starting in the mid-1970s, the Supreme Court began to extend protection but it remained strictly limited. In recent years, that protection has expanded, but both Court and scholars have refused to consider treating commercial speech as the First Amendment equivalent of traditionally protected expressive categories such as political speech or literature. Commercial Speech as Free Expression stands as the boldest statement yet for extending full First Amendment protection to commercial speech by proposing a new, four-part synthesis of different perspectives on the manner in which free expression fosters and protects expressive values. This book explains the complexities and subtleties of how the equivalency principle would function in real-life situations. The key is to recognize that as a matter of First Amendment value, commercial speech deserves treatment equivalent to that received by traditionally protected speech.
The years between 1850 and 1930 witnessed the first large-scale migration of peoples from East Asia and South Asia to North America and the emergence of the US as an imperial power in the Pacific. This period also produced the first instances of Asian North American writing, theater, and film. This exciting collection examines how the many literary and cultural works from this period approached questions of migration, exclusion, and identity. Covering an extensive ranges of topics including anticolonialist writing, the erotics of queer modernist poetry, interracial desire, and the racial gaze in silent film, the book shows the diverse and multi-ethnic nature of literary and cultural production at a crucial period in modern formations of race as well as literary and cultural aesthetics.
The invention and development of advanced methods to detect light underlies much of modern technology. This fully updated and restructured third edition is unique amongst the literature, providing a comprehensive, uniform discussion of a broad range of detection approaches. The material is accessible to a broad range of readers rather than just highly trained specialists, beginning with first principles and developing the relevant physics as it goes. The book emphasizes physical understanding of detector operation, without being a catalog of current examples. It is self-contained but also provides a bridge to more specialized works on specific approaches; each chapter points readers toward the relevant literature. This will provide a broad and lasting understanding of the methods for detecting light that underpin so much of our technology. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and will provide a valuable reference for professionals across physics and engineering disciplines.
How does social spending relate to economic growth and which countries have got this right and wrong? Peter Lindert examines the experience of countries across the globe to reveal what has worked, what needs changing, and who the winners and losers are under different systems. He traces the development of public education, health care, pensions, and welfare provision, and addresses key questions around intergenerational inequality and fiscal redistribution, the returns to investment in human capital, how to deal with an aging population, whether migration is a cost or a benefit, and how social spending differs in autocracies and democracies. The book shows that what we need to do above all is to invest more in the young from cradle to career, and shift the burden of paying for social insurance away from the workplace and to society as a whole.
Dr Daniel Gibbs is one of 50 million people worldwide with an Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Unlike most patients with Alzheimer's, however, Dr Gibbs worked as a neurologist for twenty-five years, caring for patients with the very disease now affecting him. Also unusual is that Dr Gibbs had begun to suspect he had Alzheimer's several years before any official diagnosis could be made. Forewarned by genetic testing showing he carried alleles that increased the risk of developing the disease, he noticed symptoms of mild cognitive impairment long before any tests would have alerted him. In this highly personal account, Dr Gibbs documents the effect his diagnosis has had on his life and explains his advocacy for improving early recognition of Alzheimer's. Weaving clinical knowledge from decades caring for dementia patients with his personal experience of the disease, this is an optimistic tale of one man's journey with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Experts in data analytics and power engineering present techniques addressing the needs of modern power systems, covering theory and applications related to power system reliability, efficiency, and security. With topics spanning large-scale and distributed optimization, statistical learning, big data analytics, graph theory, and game theory, this is an essential resource for graduate students and researchers in academia and industry with backgrounds in power systems engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.
Homozygous (PiZZ phenotype1) α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency is a relatively common autosomal codominant genetic disorder, affecting 1 in 1,600–3,000 live births in most populations of Northern European ancestry [1, 2]. Although α1-AT deficiency liver disease develops in only a subset of PiZZ individuals, this condition represents the most common metabolic cause of liver disease and liver transplantation in children . It can also cause chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and premature pulmonary emphysema in adults [3, 4].
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Parental depression is associated with maladaptive cognitive, academic, socio-emotional and psychological outcomes in offspring. Children with a depressed parent are three to four times more likely to be diagnosed with depression than children with non-depressed parents, making parental depression a significant risk factor in the onset of childhood depression. Preventive interventions aim to reduce the likelihood that depressive symptoms will onset by decreasing risk factors and increasing protective factors. In family-based preventive interventions for children who are at risk for depression due to parental depressive symptoms, clinicians aim to build resilience in children by addressing risk and protective factors. Such intervention programs have been shown to effectively reduce depressive symptoms in children. This chapter summarizes the effects of parental depression on children, risk and protective factors associated with resilience and the family-based preventive interventions used to mitigate the effects of parental depression on children and presents an example case study highlighting one of these preventive interventions. Finally, the chapter reviews essential clinical competencies for productive work in family-based depression preventive interventions.
The systems ecology paradigm (SEP) emerged in the late 1960s at a time when societies throughout the world were beginning to recognize that our environment and natural resources were being threatened by their activities. Management practices in rangelands, forests, agricultural lands, wetlands, and waterways were inadequate to meet the challenges of deteriorating environments, many of which were caused by the practices themselves. Scientists recognized an immediate need was developing a knowledge base about how ecosystems function. That effort took nearly two decades (1980s) and concluded with the acceptance that humans were components of ecosystems, not just controllers and manipulators of lands and waters. While ecosystem science was being developed, management options based on ecosystem science were shifting dramatically toward practices supporting sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and local to global interconnections of ecosystems. Emerging from the new knowledge about how ecosystems function and the application of the systems ecology approach was the collaboration of scientists, managers, decision-makers, and stakeholders locally and globally. Today’s concepts of ecosystem management and related ideas, such as sustainable agriculture, ecosystem health and restoration, consequences of and adaptation to climate change, and many other important local to global challenges are a direct result of the SEP.