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Background and Objective. A growing body of literature indicates a significant contribution and role of positive and negative emotions (specifically expressivity) in post-traumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) symptomatology. The current study examined the facet-level relationships between emotional expressivity and PTSD. Specifically, we investigated which emotional expressivity dimension (impulse strength, negative emotional expressivity, and positive emotional expressivity) most strongly related to DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters severity (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity). Methods. The sample of 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ). Results. Results of multivariate multiple regression analysis indicated that only intensity of emotion and difficulty in controlling such emotions (i.e., impulse strength) was strongly related to all four PTSD symptom clusters. The valence of emotional expressivity (positive or negative) was not related to any of the PTSD symptom clusters. Conclusions. Study findings highlight the role of emotional expressivity, specifically impulse strength, in PTSD's symptomatology and may inform guidelines for emotion-focused clinical work for trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD symptoms.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients.
The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 8 AM and 11 PM TRH challenges, on the same day, in 95 medicationfree DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls
Compared to controls:
1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 8AM: p< 0.005; at 11PM: p< 0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels;
2) TSH responses to TRH (delta TSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 8 AM: p< 0.03; at 11PM: p< 0.00001), but not in PSHs.
Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 8AM: p< 0.002; at 11PM: p< 0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (RSA; n=32) and past suicide attempters (PSA; n=21). However, compared to controls, RSAs showed lower 11PM-deltaTSH (p< 0.04) and lower basal FT4 values (at 8AM: p< 0.002; at 11PM: p< 0.008).
Our results indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. In NSHs, one may hypothesize that hypersecretion of hypothalamic TRH (as reflected by decreased TRH receptor responsiveness) represents a compensatory mechanism to maintain normal thyroid hormone secretion. In PSHs this mechanism is ineffective.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
This article seeks to break the scholarly deadlock regarding attitudes toward war and bloodshed held by early Christian thinkers. I argue that, whereas previous studies have attempted to fit early Christian stances into one or another “unitary-ethic” framework, the historical-textual data can be best accounted for by positing that many early Christian writers held to a “dual-ethic” orientation. In the latter, certain actions would be viewed as forbidden for Christians but as legitimate for non-Christians in the Roman Empire. Moreover, this dual-ethic stance can be further illuminated by viewing it in connection with the portrayal in the Hebrew Bible of the relation between Levites and the other Israelite tribes. This framing enables us to gain a clearer understanding not only of writers like Origen and Tertullian, who upheld Christian nonviolence while simultaneously praising Roman imperial military activities, but also of writers such as Augustine, whose theological-ethical framework indicates a strong assumption of a dual-ethic stance in his patristic predecessors.
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
There are striking global inequities in our knowledge of the incidence, aetiology, and outcome of psychotic disorders. For example, only around 10% of research on incidence of psychotic disorders originates in low- and middle-income countries. We established INTREPID I to develop, implement, and evaluate, in sites in India (Chengalpet), Nigeria (Ibadan), and Trinidad (Tunapuna-Piarco), methods for identifying and recruiting untreated cases of psychosis, as a basis for investigating incidence and, subsequently, risk factors, phenomenology, and outcome. In this paper, we compare case characteristics and incidence rates across the sites.
In each site, to identify untreated cases of psychoses in defined catchment areas, we established case detection systems comprising mental health services, traditional and spiritual healers, and key informants.
Rates of all untreated psychoses were 45.9 (per 1 00 000 person-years) in Chengalpet, 31.2 in Ibadan, and 36.9 in Tunapuna-Piarco. Duration of psychosis prior to detection was substantially longer in Chengalpet (median 232 weeks) than in Ibadan (median 13 weeks) and Tunapuna-Piarco (median 38 weeks). When analyses were restricted to cases with a short duration (i.e. onset within preceding 2 years) only, rates were 15.5 in Chengalpet, 29.1 in Ibadan, and 26.5 in Tunapuna-Piarco. Further, there was evidence of age and sex differences across sites, with an older average age of onset in Chengalpet and higher rates among women in Ibadan.
Our findings suggest there may be differences in rates of psychoses and in the clinical and demographic profiles of cases across economically and socially distinct settings.
A patient with no risk factors for malaria was hospitalized in New York City with Plasmodium falciparum infection. After investigating all potential sources of infection, we concluded the patient had been exposed to malaria while hospitalized less than 3 weeks earlier. Molecular genotyping implicated patient-to-patient transmission in a hospital setting.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):113–115
This prospective experimental study sought to examine the unique effects of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity on risky behaviours over time. To this end, 20 African American women enrolled in a historically Black university in the southern United States were randomly assigned to receive one of two brief empirically supported skills training modules (i.e., emotion modulation [EM] or impulsivity reduction [IR]). Participants completed measures of emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and past-week risky behaviours before (pre-) and one week after (post-) the experimental manipulation. Participants assigned to the EM condition reported significant improvements from pre- to post-manipulation in overall emotion dysregulation (as well as all specific dimensions of emotion dysregulation other than lack of emotional awareness), as well as two dimensions of impulsivity: negative and positive urgency. Participants assigned to the IR condition reported a significant decrease in one dimension of impulsivity (lack of premeditation) from pre- to post-manipulation. Findings also revealed a significant effect of time on risky behaviours, with participants reporting significantly fewer past-week risky behaviours at the post- (vs. pre-) manipulation assessment. Finally, changes in emotion dysregulation from pre- to post-manipulation accounted for the observed reduction in risky behaviours over time (above and beyond changes in impulsivity dimensions). Results highlight the relevance of emotion dysregulation to risky behaviours and suggest that treatments targeting emotion dysregulation may be useful in reducing risky behaviours.
Mineral nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereals is commonly split into three or four applications. In order to simplify N fertilization, a single N application either broadcast or placed on the soil surface was compared to conventionally split fertilization for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The 4-year experiment (2007–2010) was performed using a participatory approach on farmers’ fields on deep loamy soils (Luvisols) in South-West Germany.
Grain yield and crude protein contents differed only slightly or not at all between treatments including different N fertilizer types (calcium ammonium nitrate, urea ammonium nitrate solution, urea) and application techniques (broadcast, placed). Furthermore, no differences were found for the yield components ears/m2 and thousand grain weight. Inorganic N in the soil profile after harvest was generally below 40 kg N/ha and did not differ between treatments. In the area where N was placed, mineral N was depleted during the vegetation period.
At the experimental sites a single N application in the period between tillering and stem elongation was sufficient to achieve high yield and quality of winter wheat without increased risk of nitrate leaching. This finding was independent of the method of application or the type of fertilizer.
Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants’ reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual’s own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)