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Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
It has long been recognised that the Neolithic spread across Europe via two separate routes, one along the Mediterranean coasts, the other following the axis of the major rivers. But did these two streams have a common point of origin in south-west Asia, at least with regard to the principal plant and animals species that were involved? This study of barley DNA shows that the domesticated barley grown in Neolithic Europe falls into three separate types (groups A, B and C), each of which may have had a separate centre of origin in south-west Asia. Barley was relatively rarely cultivated by the early Linearbandkeramik farmers of Central and Northern Europe, but became more common during the fifth and fourth millennia BC. The analysis reported here indicates that a genetic variety of barley more suitable for northern growing conditions was introduced from south-west Asia at this period. It also suggests that the barley grown in south-eastern Europe at the very beginning of the Neolithic may have arrived there by different routes from two separate centres of domestication in south-west Asia. The multiple domestications that this pattern reveals imply that domestication may have been more a co-evolutionary process between plants and people than an intentional human action.
In situ ellipsometry reveals that particle formation influences the growth of glow discharge a-Si:H. This particle formation is observed even under discharge conditions leading to the deposition of device quality Material. It is found that less dense material is deposited during the particle-induced initial transient stage of the discharge which influences the properties of the subsequently growing “bulk” film. The effect of special power gradient ignition procedures is discussed. A significant increase of solar cell efficency is achieved by choosing “soft” start conditions for the i-layer deposition.
In this paper we present new results for very thin <p> μc-Si:H films (< 350 Å) deposited at low temperature (170 C) by the Very High Frequency - Glow Discharge technique (VHF-GD) at 70 MHz. First, the effect of boron doping on the growth and electrical properties of μc-Si:H very thin films is investigated, leading to an optimised value of about 0.6 % (B2H6/SiH4). Structural properties of an optimised thickness series ranging from 100 to 350 Å are studied using TEM, Raman, grazing angle X-ray diffraction/reflection and spectroscopie ellipsometry. Further, a columnar structure growth model for these very thin <p>-type μc-Si:H films will be proposed.
We have annealed PECVD a-Si:H films at 250, 300, and 350°C and measured the evolution of the infrared absorption spectrum. We observe that, during the initial stage of such a heat treatment, atomic hydrogen migrates from the isolated state to the clustered state. Thus diffusion of atomic hydrogen must occur around 300°C. Microvoids with internal surfaces covered with SiH bonds appear to be more stable than voids lined with SiH2 bonds and (SiH2)n polymers.
The temperature dependence of the dark conductivity, σD, of unhydrogenated and hydrogen passivated polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films was Measured. While σD of unhydrogenated poly-Si did not exhibit any influence of thermal treatment prior to the measurement, striking effects were observed in hydrogenated poly-Si films. Below 268 K a cooling-rate dependent metastable change of σD is observed. The dark conductivity increases by more than 8 orders of magnitude. This frozen-in state is metastable: Annealing and a slow cool restore the temperature dependence of the relaxed state. The time and temperature dependence of the relaxation reveal that this process is thermally activated with 0.74 eV. The lack of the quenching metastability in unhydrogenated poly-Si is direct evidence that the metastable changes in σD are due to the formation and dissociation of an electrically active hydrogen complex, in the grain-boundary regions.
A possible alternative to a-SiGe for use in multijunction solar cells is a-GeC alloy. Only preliminary work has been done so far on this alloy, Mostly for use as an IR anti-reflection coating, with little study done on its optoelectronic properties. GeC films were grown by the PECVD Method from a novel gas mixture using GeF4 as the germanium source gas. Methane was used as the carbon source, with H2 being added for additional hydrogenation of the film. It was found that adding silane to the mixture would increase the growth rate from less than 1 Å/s up to 30 Å/s. The films contained no detectable silicon, even at mixture ratios of five SiH4 to one GeF4. Varying the amount of methane in the gas mixture allowed the film optical bandgap to be adjusted from 1.1 eV to 1.8 eV. The effect of other parameters such as RF power level and H2 flow rate on bandgap and growth rate were also explored. Optoelectronic properties in the 1.2 to 1.4 eV bandgap range will also be reported.
Thin semiconducting films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its carbon alloy (a-Si:C:H) were applied to gas microstrip detectors in order to control gain instabilities due to charges on the substrate. Thin (∼100 nm) layers of a-Si:H or p-doped a-Si:C:H were placed either over or under the electrodes using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique to provide the substrate with a suitable surface conductivity. By changing the carbon content and boron doping density, the sheet resistance of the a-Si:C:H coating could be successfully controlled in the range of 1012 ∼ 1017 μ/□, and the light sensitivity, which causes the resistivity to vary with ambient light conditions, was minimized. An avalanche gain of 5000 and energy resolution of 20% FWHM were achieved and the gain remained constant over a week of operation. A-Si:C:H film is an attractive alternative to ion-implanted or semiconducting glass due to the wide range of resistivities possible and the feasibility of making deposits over a large area at low cost.
To prepare hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys as low gap material for multi-junction solar cells in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, the well established concept of strong dilution of the process gases with hydrogen has been used. Two different regimes of alloying were found: for low Ge content (x < 0.40) we observe material with low defect density, small Urbach energy and high values of the ambipolar diffusion length. In the regime of high Ge content (x > 0.40) the defect densities and Urbach energies are high and the values of the ambipolar diffusion length low. The transition is accompanied by the appearance of a low-temperature peak in hydrogen effusion experiments indicating a void rich film structure. Material from just above and below the transition zone is used in pin solar cells leading to a much enhanced red response compared with a-Si:H cells. The differences seen in the material quality are mirrored in the solar cell properties. By carefully adjusting the active layer thickness material with low diffusion length shows also reasonable solar cell performance.
The photoconductive gain mechanism in a-Si:H was investigated in connection with applications to radiation detection. Various device types such as p-i-n, n-i-n and n-i-p-i-n structures were fabricated and tested. Photoconductive gain was measured in two time scales: one for short pulses of visible light (< 1 μsec) which simulates the transit of an energetic charged particle, and the other for rather long pulses of light (1 msec) which simulates x-ray exposure in medical imaging. We used two definitions of photoconductive gain: current gain and charge gain which is an integration of the current gain. We found typical charge gains of 3 ∼ 9 for short pulses and a few hundred for long pulses at a dark current level of 10 mA/cm2. Various gain results are discussed in terms of the device structure, applied bias and dark current.
We have investigated the surface roughness and the grain size in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) spin valve multilayers of the general type: FeMn/Ni80Fe20Co/Cu/Co/Ni80Fe20 on glass and aluminum oxide substrates by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The two substrates give very similar results. These polycrystalline GMR multilayers have a tendency to exhibit larger grain size and increased roughness with increasing thickness of the metal layers. Samples deposited at a low substrate temperature (150 K) exhibit smaller grains and less roughness. Valleys between the dome-shaped individual grainsare the dominant form of roughness. This roughness contributes to the ferromagnetic, magnetostatic coupling in these films, an effect termed “orange peel” coupling by Néel. We have calculated the strength of this coupling, based on our STM images, and obtain values generally within about 20% of the experimental values. It appears likely that the ferromagnetic coupling generally attributed to so-called “pinholes” in the Cu when the Cu film thickness is too small is actually “orange peel” coupling caused by these valleys.
Thick silicon films with good electronic quality have been prepared by glow discharge of He-diluted SiH4 at a substrate temperature ∼150°C and subsequent annealing at 160°C for about 100 hours. The stress in the films obtained this way decreased to ∼100 MPa compared to the 350 MPa in conventional a-Si:H. The post-annealing helped to reduce the ionized dangling bond density from 2.5 × 1015 cm−3 to 7 × 1014 cm−3 without changing the internal stress. IR spectroscopy and hydrogen effusion measurements implied the existence of microvoids and tiny crystallites in the material showing satisfactory electronic properties. P-I-N diodes for radiation detection applications have been realized out of the new material.
Carrier-induced changes in the gap states of plasma-enhanced-chemical-vapor-deposited (PECVD) undoped a-Si:H films are systematically studied using isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) method via the novel structure we proposed previously. The density-of-state distribution g (E) and the energy dependence of electron-capture cross section σn (E) of gap states in undoped a-Si:H films before and after injection of electrons are directly measured for the first time. Experimental results show that the density of g (E) increases but the σn (E) has no obvious change after the electron injection. These indicate that the defects created during the electron injection are the same in type as those of the as-deposited films. In addition, it is found the shape of g (E) distorts after the injection, implying that the gap states with different energy levels are associated with distinct types of defects.
A systematic study of both proton and deuteron NMR in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films has revealed significant resonance shifts among various resolved components. The shifts include both paramagnetic and diamagnetic displacements of resolved spectral features from trapped molecular hydrogens. The shifts depend on film quality and deposition conditions. Some of the shifts vary as 1/T and reflect Curie susceptibilities characteristic of local regions of differing dangling bond densities. Spectra from relatively immobile hydrogen molecules trapped in nanovoids are shifted diamagnetically and broadened as temperature decreases. Hydrogens tightly bound to Si do not show similar changes and thus are more remote from dangling bonds and other magnetic defects. Similar spectrally-resol ved shifts have been observed in a-Ge and a-SiGe films and are correlated with film photovoltaic quality as measured by mobility-lifetime products.
It has been widely observed that thin film transistors (TFTs) incorporating an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) channel exhibit a progressive shift in their threshold voltage with time upon application of a gate bias. This is attributed to the creation of metastable defects in the a-Si:H which can be removed by annealing the device at elevated temperatures with no bias applied to the gate, causing the threshold voltage to return to its original value. In this work, the defect creation and removal process has been investigated using both fully hydrogenated and fully deuterated amorphous silicon (a-Si:D) TFTs. In both cases, material was deposited by rf plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition over a range of gas pressures to cover the a-g transition. The variation in threshold voltage as a function of gate bias stressing time, and annealing time with no gate bias, was measured. Using the thermalisation energy concept, it has been possible to quantitatively determine the distribution of energies required for defect creation and removal as well as the associated attempt-to-escape frequencies. The defect creation and removal process in a-Si:H is then discussed in the light of these results.
We describe surface preparation and epilayer growth techniques that readily reduce the density of Vf drift inducing basal plane dislocations in epilayers to less than 10 cm-2 and permit the fabrication of bipolar SiC devices with very good Vf stability. The optimal process route requires etching the substrate surface prior to epilayer growth to enhance the natural conversion of basal plane dislocations into threading edge dislocations during epilayer growth. The surface of this relatively rough “conversion” epilayer is subsequently repolished prior to growing the device structure. We provide details on processing parameters and potential problems as well as describe devices produced using this low basal plane dislocation growth processes.
A study of temperature dependent Hall effect (TDH), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), photoluminescence (PL) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements has been made on high purity semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC crystals grown by the physical vapor transport technique. Thermal activation energies from TDH varied from a low of 0.55 eV to a high of 1.5 eV. All samples studied showed n-type conduction with the Fermi level in the upper half of the band gap. Carrier concentration measurements indicated the deep levels had to be present in concentrations in the low 1015 cm-3 range. Several defects were detected by EPR including the carbon vacancy and the carbon-silicon divacancy. PL measurements in the near IR showed the presence of the UD-1, UD-2 and UD-3 emission lines that have been found in HPSI material. No correlation between the relative intensities of the PL lines and the TDH activation energies was seen. SIMS measurements on nitrogen, boron and other common impurities indicate nitrogen and boron concentrations higher than those of individual deep levels as determined by TDH or of intrinsic defects as determined by EPR such as the carbon vacancy or the divacancy. It is determined that several different defects with concentrations greater than or equal to 1x1015 cm-3 are required to compensate the residual nitrogen and boron.