To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
The counter tube diffractometer method for determining d spacings is often rejected for precision work because of lack of information concerning the nature and significance of the inherent errors. Errors concerned with the geometry of the method, the nature of the X-ray source, and the technique of collecting data have all been analyzed previously in some detail. The findings of these analyses, which are scattered throughout the literature, are reviewed briefly. Errors arising from imperfections in the instrument and misalignment of the X-ray source with respect to the diffractometev have been studied experimentally. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the resultant error in the determination of the lattice parameter of a cubic crystal. Errors determined both analytically and empirically are discussed in relation to the extrapolation procedures commonly used for diffractometers. It is shown that, depending on the construction of the instrument, the effect of imperfections in the gears may almost double the error in the final extrapolated value of a lattice parameter.
The availability of counter-tube diffractometers which can scan both sides of the direct beam makes it possible to locate the zero-angle position by comparing peak positions measured on either side of the beam. These diffractometers may thus be used to determine accurate lattice parameters without the need of a calibrating substance. The feasibility of this method is explored by determining the lattice parameters of pure silver, and the limits of accuracy are discussed.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
Lake Ejagham is a small, shallow lake in Cameroon, West Africa, which supports five endemic species of cichlid fishes in two distinct lineages. Genetic evidence suggests a relatively young age for the species flocks, but supporting geologic evidence has thus far been unavailable. Here we present diatom, geochemical, mineralogical, and radiocarbon data from two sediment cores that provide new insights into the age and origin of Lake Ejagham and its endemic fishes. Radiocarbon ages at the base of the longer core indicate that the lake formed approximately 9 ka ago, and the diatom record of the shorter core suggests that hydroclimate variability during the last 3 millennia was similar to that of other lakes in Cameroon and Ghana. These findings establish a maximum age of ca. 9 cal ka BP for the lake and its endemic species and suggest that repeated cichlid speciation in two distinct lineages occurred rapidly within the lake. Local geology and West African paleoclimate records argue against a volcanic, chemical, or climatic origin for Lake Ejagham. Although not conclusive, the morphometry of the lake and possible signs of impact-induced effects on quartz grains are instead more suggestive of a bolide impact.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
During the past four years the most important events in meteoric astronomy have been the good showers of the Leonids in 1930 and 1931. When these observations are added to the predictions based on computations of the perturbations, there is good reason to hope for an even better shower in 1932, perhaps rivalling that of 1866. As to the study of meteors in general, there has been an increasing revival of interest. Meteor Notes are now regular features of many scientific journals. Never before have so many people been working in this branch of science. A very brief outline of such activities follows.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (evergreen or holm oak) such as Quercus sapotifolia, Q. eliptica and Q. elongata, which have shiny, narrow, elliptical, or oblong leaves, quantitative habitat targets are useful for effectively incorporating this information into conservation planning and forest management practices. We analysed data on wintering Golden-cheeked Warblers collected during the non-breeding season in Honduras from 1996 to 1998 to identify quantitative targets for habitat conditions for this species. Data on warbler abundance were collected using line transect surveys located in montane pine-oak forests in a stratified-random fashion. Habitat data were collected at five 0.04 ha plots on these same transects and the averaged values used as predictors of Golden-cheeked Warbler abundance. We found that Golden-cheeked Warblers were strongly associated with the basal area of encino oaks and density of ‘roble’ oaks, such as Q. segoviensis, Q. purulhana and Q. rugosa, which have large, lobed leaves. Density of Golden-cheeked Warblers peaked at ≈ 5.6 m2 ha–1 basal area of encino and ≈7 roble oaks ha–1. These values can be used to identify quantitative habitat targets that can be directly incorporated into forest management practices to ensure that these activities maintain habitat conditions necessary for their use by Golden-cheeked Warblers.
Classical plasticity theories generally assume that the stress at a point is a function of strain at that point only. However, when gradients in strain become significant, this localization assumption is no longer valid. These conventional models fail to display a ‘size effect’. This effect is seen experimentally when the scale of the phenomenon of interest is on the order of several microns. Under these conditions, strain gradients are of a significant magnitude as compared to the overall strain and must be considered for models to accurately capture observed phenomena.
The mechanics community has been actively involved in the development of strain gradient theories for many years. Recently, interest in this area has been rekindled and several new approaches have appeared in the literature. Two different approaches are currently being evaluated. One approach considers strain gradients as internal variables that do not introduce work conjugate higher order stresses. Another approach considers the strain gradients as internal degrees of freedom that requires work conjugate higher order stresses. Experiments are being performed to determine which approach models material behavior accurately with the least amount of complexity. A key difference between the two models considered here is the nature of the assumed boundary conditions at material interfaces. Therefore, we are investigating the deformation behavior of aluminum/sapphire interfaces loaded under simple shear. Samples are fabricated using ultra-high vacuum diffusion bonding. To determine the lattice rotations near the boundary, we are examining the samples with both electron backscatter diffraction methods (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope and with a variety of diffraction techniques in the transmission electron microscope. The experimentally found boundary conditions shall be subsequently used to determine whether the simpler internal variable model is adequately descriptive or if the greater complexity associated with the internal degree of freedom approach is warranted.
Low resistance ohmic contacts are difficult to form to p-type GaN and AlGaN due to the unavailability of growth methods for highly p-doped GaN and AlGaN. A p-type carbon-doped GaAs regrowth on p-GaN prior to ohmic metallization has been shown in previous work to improve contact resistance to p-GaN . Applying the regrowth method to the p-base regions of npn structured bipolar transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors have been demonstrated. GaN/AlGaN epilayers were grown with a molecular beam epitaxy system. Highly carbon-doped p-GaAs (1020 cm−3) was regrown on the devices (∼500 Å) in the base contact region by metal organic chemical vapor deposition after emitter mesa etching. Emitter and base mesa structures were formed by Inductively Coupled Plasma etching under low damage conditions with a Cl2/Ar chemistry. SiO2 was used for emitter sidewall formation to reduce leakage current to the emitter, as well as for a mask for GaAs base regrowth. Very high current densities were obtained for common base operation in both device types. The devices were operable at 250 °C.
A study has been made of the effect of solute (Mn, Al, Ni) additions on microstructure refinement due to large strain deformation in single phase, copper solid solutions. The solutes were specifically selected for their influence on stacking fault energy (SFE) of copper, and the large strain deformation was imposed by chip formation in machining. The microstructure of Cu- 0.7at%Ni chip consists of elongated, sub-micrometer sized grains while Cu-7at%Al chip is made up of long, thin microbands with twins. The microstructure of the chip changes as the SFE of the material varies. With all of the solid solutions studied, the hardness of the chips is found to be significantly greater than that of the bulk material. Recrystallization temperature of solid solution chips is found to be higher than those of pure copper chips.
This paper reports the most recent results from the cluster chemistry program at the Naval Research Laboratory, in which our efforts in the characterization of gas-phase cluster properties have been extended to studies of condensed-phase species. First, in an attempt to investigate the fundamental interactions between mass-selected cluster ions and surfaces, two tandem mass spectrometers were constructed or modified, and the results of the initial experiments will be discussed. The emphasis will be on illustrating the general utility of ion/surface collisions to study fragmentations, reactions, and deposition. Second, clusters were deposited into a matrix in order to perform spectroscopic analyses. The initial experiments have been directed at optimization of the techniques. Finally, recent measurement of the ionization potentials of large carbon clusters will be reported. These results are especially significant because of the new developments in large-scale production, isolation, and characterization of these species.
Many ancient Chinese bronze mirrors have a smooth patina. An ingress of corrosion to a depth of approximately 100 μm is found beneath the patina. The corrosion selectively replaces the Cu-rich α phase leaving the Sn-rich σ phase intact. Previous work by x-ray diffraction has shown that the a-phase replacement product is poorly crystallized or nanocrystalline SnO2. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to further characterize the replacement product in both ancient mirror and replication samples. Nanocrystalline SnO, in the form of small spheroids has been found. Remnants of an original alloy phase appear to be interspersed with the tin oxide.
We have measured the transient events of the α-β martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline Ti films via single shot electron diffraction patterns with 1.5 ns temporal resolution. This was accomplished with a newly constructed dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), which combines pulsed laser systems and pump-probe techniques with a conventional TEM. The DTEM thereby enables studies of transformations that are (1) far too fast to be captured by conventional bulk techniques, and (2) difficult to study with current ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instruments (which typically require an accumulation of multiple shots for each diffraction pattern). Martensitic transformations in nanocrystalline materials meet both criteria, with their rapid nucleation, characteristic interface velocities ∼1 km/s, and significant irreversible microstructural changes. Free-standing 40-nm-thick Ti films were laser-heated at a rate of ∼1010 K/s to a temperature above the 1155 K transition point, then probed at various time intervals with a 1.5-ns-long intense electron pulse. Diffraction patterns show an almost complete transition to the β phase within 500 ns. Post-mortem analysis (after the sample is allowed to cool) shows a reversion to the α phase coupled with substantial grain growth, lath formation, and texture modification. The cooled material also shows a complete lack of apparent dislocations, suggesting the possible importance of a "massive" short-range diffusion mechanism.
We report on the epitaxial growth of superconducting molybdenum films on sapphire substrates. These films are to be etched into arrays of isolated cylinders, each 1–5μm in diameter. When placed in a magnetic field and biased at 0.95 Tc(H), the flux movement associated with their bolometric response to the energy deposited when radiation is absorbed will provide the basis of a gamma-ray detector.
The films were prepared by UHV sputter deposition at temperatures between 650° and 840°C. Besides standard XRD analysis the films were examined by TEM. An epitaxy orientation relationship with sapphire was found similar to that observed for niobium. Electrical conductivity measurements were made as a function of temperature down to Tc, the superconducting transition temperature, which ranged from below 0.35K to above 0.8K for films with a high room temperature resistance ratio (e.g. 300 in a 0.9pjn thick film). Results from a range of films will be presented and their Tc’s discussed.