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Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Faecal microbial changes associated with ageing include reduced bifidobacteria numbers. These changes coincide with an increased risk of disease development. Prebiotics have been observed to increase bifidobacteria numbers within humans. The present study aimed to determine if prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) could benefit a population of men and women of 50 years and above, through modulation of faecal microbiota, fermentation characteristics and faecal water genotoxicity. A total of thirty-seven volunteers completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. The treatments – juice containing 4 g GOS and placebo – were consumed twice daily for 3 weeks, preceded by 3-week washout periods. To study the effect of GOS on different large bowel regions, three-stage continuous culture systems were conducted in parallel using faecal inocula from three volunteers. Faecal samples were microbially enumerated by quantitative PCR. In vivo, following GOS intervention, bifidobacteria were significantly more compared to post-placebo (P = 0·02). Accordingly, GOS supplementation had a bifidogenic effect in all in vitro system vessels. Furthermore, in vessel 1 (similar to the proximal colon), GOS fermentation led to more lactobacilli and increased butyrate. No changes in faecal water genotoxicity were observed. To conclude, GOS supplementation significantly increased bifidobacteria numbers in vivo and in vitro. Increased butyrate production and elevated bifidobacteria numbers may constitute beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota in a maturing population.
Aluminum Nitride (AlN) is a technologically important wide band gap semiconductor and a potential piezo-electric material for Biosensor application . It is a clear candidate for the integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on chips with silicon-based electronics . AlN may also prove to be useful for the integration of mechanical devices and also in the field of packaging of Bio-MEMS devices because of its superior thermal conductivity 130-140 (W/mK, room temp-100 deg C) and nontoxicity. In the current work an attempt has been made to determine the elastic modulus of AlN coated on Si-microcantilevers, employing the concept of symmetrically laminated beam theory for the first time at the micro level thus avoiding the coupling effects. So far the earlier studies have been done only using simple beam theory. Modal vibration frequencies for microcantilevers without and with the AlN coating were used, along with analytical models and knowledge of the Si modulus, to “back out” the modulus of AlN .
The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of fish trypanosomes are uncertain. A collection of 22 cloned trypanosome isolates from 14 species of European freshwater fish and 1 species of African freshwater fish were examined by molecular phylogenetic analysis. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) genes of 8 clones were sequenced and compared with ssu rRNA gene sequences from a wider selection of vertebrate trypanosome isolates by phylogenetic analysis. All trypanosomes from freshwater fish fell in a single clade, subdivided into 3 groups. This clade sits within a larger, robust clade containing trypanosomes from marine fish and various amphibious vertebrates. All 22 trypanosome clones were analysed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. The resulting dendrogram shows 3 groups, which are congruent with the groups identified in the ssu rRNA gene phylogeny. Two of the groups contain the majority of trypanosome isolates and within-group variation is slight. These groups do not separate purported trypanosome species distinguished by morphology or host origin, and thus these criteria do not appear to be reliable guides to genetic relationships among fish trypanosomes. However, we suggest that the 2 groups themselves may represent different species of fish trypanosomes. The polymorphic DNA markers we have identified will facilitate future comparisons of the biology of these 2 groups of fish trypanosomes.
A main limitation of biomedical devices is the inability to start, stop, and control cell growth making it crucial to develop biomaterial surfaces that induce a desired cellular response. Micropatterns of ridges and pillars were created in a siloxane elastomer (Dow Corning) by casting against epoxy replicates of a micromachined silicon wafer. Silicone oils were incorporated to determine the change in modulus and surface energy caused by these additives. SEM and white light interference profilometry verified that the micropatterning process produced high fidelity, low defect micropatterns. Mechanical analysis indicated that varying the viscosity, weight percent and functionality of the added silicone oil could change the elastic modulus by over an order of magnitude (0.1-2.3 MPa). As a self-wetting resin, silicone oils migrate to the surface, hence changing the surface properties from the bulk. Both topographical and chemical features define the surface energy, which in combination with elastic modulus, dictate biological activity. The results imply that the morphology, mechanical properties and surface energy of the siloxane elastomer can be modified to elicit a specific cell response as a function of engineered topographical and chemical functionalization.
Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films have been shown to spontaneously produce noncentrosymmetric ordering that gives rise to a substantial second order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. Typically, the ISAM films for NLO response are an assemblage of bilayers of oppositely charged polymers whose thickness can be controlled through variation of pH and ionic strength of the immersion solutions. Here, we investigate the effects of replacing the NLO-active polymer layers with layers of monomeric chromophores containing ionic and covalent bonding sites. Films fabricated exclusively using polyelectrolytes contain some fraction of both randomly oriented and anti-parallel oriented chromophores. We have examined the incorporation of monomeric chromophores into ISAM films in order to increase the net polar orientation of the chromophores and reduce bilayer thickness.
Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films are a recently developed class of materials that allows detailed structural and thickness control at the sub-nanometer level combined with ease of manufacturing and low cost. The ISAM fabrication method simply involves the dipping of a charged substrate alternately into polycationic and polyanionic aqueous solutions at room temperatures. Importantly, the ISAM technique yields exceptionally homogeneous, large area films with excellent control of total film thickness. We describe detailed studies of ISAM light emitting diodes incorporating poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) as the light emitting polymer. The individual thickness of each monolayer and the interpenetration of adjacent layers can be precisely controlled through the parameters of the electrolyte solutions. The effects of the pH and ionic strength of the immersion solutions, the total film thickness, and the PPV thermal conversion parameters on the photoluminescence and electroluminescence yields have been systematically studied. The ISAM process also allows the advantage of depositing well-defined thicknesses of separate polymers at the indium tin oxide and the aluminum electrode interfaces.
This study presents new findings concerning the evolution of the
human pathogens, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi,
which suggest that these parasites have divergent origins and fundamentally
different patterns of evolution. Phylogenetic
analysis of 18S rRNA sequences places T. brucei in a clade comprising
exclusively mammalian trypanosomes of African
origin, suggesting an evolutionary history confined to Africa. T. cruzi
(from humans and sylvatic mammals) clusters with
trypanosomes specific to Old and New World bats, T. rangeli and
a trypanosome species isolated from an Australian
kangaroo. The origins of parasites within this clade, other than some of
those from bats, lie in South America and Australia
suggesting an ancient southern super-continent origin for T. cruzi,
possibly in marsupials; the only trypanosomes from
this clade to have spread to the Old World are those infecting bats, doubtless
by virtue of the mobility of their hosts.
Viewed in the context of palaeogeographical evidence, the results date
the divergence of T. brucei and T. cruzi to the
mid-Cretaceous, around 100 million years before present, following the
separation of Africa, South America and Euramerica.
The inclusion in this study of a broad range of trypanosome species from
various different hosts has allowed long
phylogenetic branches to be resolved, overcoming the limitations of many
previous studies. Moreover, T. brucei and the
other mammalian tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes appear, from these data,
to be evolving several times faster than T.
cruzi and its relatives.
We have investigated the Ca dopant site within the GaN lattice using ion channeling in combination with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), particle induced x ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN on c-plane sapphire substrates implanted with 40Ca at a dose of 1×1015 cm−2 with post-implant annealing were investigated. The channeling results indicate that more than 80% of Ca are near Ga sites even in as-implanted samples, however, they are displaced by ∼ 0.2 Å from the Ga sites and that the Ca goes to the exact Ga sites after annealing at 1100°C. We think that the displaced Ca in the as-implanted samples are electrically compensated due to formation of complex defects with donor like point defects, such as CaGa-VN and/or CaGa-GaN, and that CaGa becomes electrically active when these complex defects are broken and the point defects diffuse away with annealing at 1100°C.
Experience with a straight, vertical incision for cochlear implantation in 168 patients of all ages is reported and comparison made with previous experience using a 'C' shaped incision in 173 patients with regard to complications encountered. With the straight incision the only complication was a wound infection which settled in one week; this is in contrast to the 'C'shaped incision, which was associated with a number of serious complications. The straight incision also compared favourably with the other incisions commonly used for cochlear implantation and appears to offer advantages over them.
We have studied the effect of surface orientation on the optical and morphological characteristics of coherently-strained InP islands grown on GaInP/GaAs. The differences between islands grown on the (100) orientation and the (311)A orientation are studied. Islands grown on the (311)A orientation are more dense than the islands grown on the (100) orientation. For the (100) orientation, the island height distribution is bimodal peaked at 20 Å and 220 Å. For the (311)A orientation, the island height distribution is also bimodal peaked at 15 Å and 60 Å. Photoluminescence measurements for the (311)A orientation show a peak at 1.9 eV attributed to small islands. This peak is shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding peak for the (100) orientation which is at 1.77 eV. This peak shift is due to the fact that the small islands on the (311)A orientation are smaller than the corresponding islands on the (100) orientation.