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Review findings on the role of dietary patterns in preventing depression are inconsistent, possibly due to variation in assessment of dietary exposure and depression. We studied the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in six population-based cohorts and meta-analysed the findings using a standardised approach that defined dietary exposure, depression assessment and covariates.
Included were cross-sectional data from 23 026 participants in six cohorts: InCHIANTI (Italy), LASA, NESDA, HELIUS (the Netherlands), ALSWH (Australia) and Whitehall II (UK). Analysis of incidence was based on three cohorts with repeated measures of depressive symptoms at 5–6 years of follow-up in 10 721 participants: Whitehall II, InCHIANTI, ALSWH. Three a priori dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were investigated in relation to depressive symptoms. Analyses at the cohort-level adjusted for a fixed set of confounders, meta-analysis used a random-effects model.
Cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed statistically significant inverse associations of the three dietary patterns with depressive symptoms (continuous and dichotomous). In cross-sectional analysis, the association of diet with depressive symptoms using a cut-off yielded an adjusted OR of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.84–0.91) for MDS, 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for AHEI-2010, and 0.94 (0.87–1.01) for DASH. Similar associations were observed prospectively: 0.88 (0.80–0.96) for MDS; 0.95 (0.84–1.06) for AHEI-2010; 0.90 (0.84–0.97) for DASH.
Population-scale observational evidence indicates that adults following a healthy dietary pattern have fewer depressive symptoms and lower risk of developing depressive symptoms.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
Excavations between November 1990 and February 1992 have produced important information on the date and development of the Sarn-y-bryn-caled cursus complex between 3000–2000 BC. In particular a timber circle of 2000 BC, two penannular ring-ditches and a section across the cursus monument were excavated. A radiocarbon sequence has been obtained. The results of the excavations are described in Part I. Part II comprises a discussion of the forms, dates, functions, and reconstruction of timber circles. A corpus of and chronology for timber circles is presented.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
We have studied the effect of surface orientation on the optical and morphological characteristics of coherently-strained InP islands grown on GaInP/GaAs. The differences between islands grown on the (100) orientation and the (311)A orientation are studied. Islands grown on the (311)A orientation are more dense than the islands grown on the (100) orientation. For the (100) orientation, the island height distribution is bimodal peaked at 20 Å and 220 Å. For the (311)A orientation, the island height distribution is also bimodal peaked at 15 Å and 60 Å. Photoluminescence measurements for the (311)A orientation show a peak at 1.9 eV attributed to small islands. This peak is shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding peak for the (100) orientation which is at 1.77 eV. This peak shift is due to the fact that the small islands on the (311)A orientation are smaller than the corresponding islands on the (100) orientation.
The use of thiourea/ammonia pre-treatments on (100) InP, followed by chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films (∼ 30 Å), with low-temperature, low-pressure chemical vapor deposited SiO2 has been shown to produce metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) samples with near-ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) response. Here, we report on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the near-surface of InP following pre-treatment and CdS deposition. The pre-treatment was shown by XPS to form an indium sulfide layer and effectively remove native oxides from the InP surface. The subsequent deposition of CdS on a sulfur-passivated surface forms a stable layer which protects the substrate from oxidation during SiO2 chemical vapor deposition. MIS samples prepared using the pre-treatment without CdS deposition showed improved C- V response, while samples prepared with both the pre-treatment and CdS deposition showed a dramatic reduction in the density of interface states.
The entire soil-plant-atmosphere continuum must be analysed to elucidate how xylem anatomy relates to water flow in plants. Measurements of water potential gradients and volume of water flow per unit time are needed to obtain values of hydraulic conductance per unit length. By comparing values of hydraulic conductance per unit length along the plant, the regions where xylem structure restricts water flow can be determined. Previous studies of fern water relations demonstrated that very large water potential gradients occurring in stipes of certain ferns were closely correlated with reduced conducting area of stipe xylem. A new study on Cyrtomium falcatum showed that the water potential gradient was relatively small and constant along the stipe and rachis; however, a much larger gradient occurred from the rachies into the pinnae. Hydraulic conductance per unit length varied with the leaf area to be supplied, leading to the fairly constant water potential gradient along the rachis.. The measured hydraulic conductance per unit length was only half the value predicted from the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Although the Hagen-Poiseuille equation overestimated the measured value by a factor of 2, it did support the assumption that conduit number and lumen diameter are the principal determinants of water conductance in the xylem.
Faecal microbial changes associated with ageing include reduced bifidobacteria numbers. These changes coincide with an increased risk of disease development. Prebiotics have been observed to increase bifidobacteria numbers within humans. The present study aimed to determine if prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) could benefit a population of men and women of 50 years and above, through modulation of faecal microbiota, fermentation characteristics and faecal water genotoxicity. A total of thirty-seven volunteers completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. The treatments – juice containing 4 g GOS and placebo – were consumed twice daily for 3 weeks, preceded by 3-week washout periods. To study the effect of GOS on different large bowel regions, three-stage continuous culture systems were conducted in parallel using faecal inocula from three volunteers. Faecal samples were microbially enumerated by quantitative PCR. In vivo, following GOS intervention, bifidobacteria were significantly more compared to post-placebo (P = 0·02). Accordingly, GOS supplementation had a bifidogenic effect in all in vitro system vessels. Furthermore, in vessel 1 (similar to the proximal colon), GOS fermentation led to more lactobacilli and increased butyrate. No changes in faecal water genotoxicity were observed. To conclude, GOS supplementation significantly increased bifidobacteria numbers in vivo and in vitro. Increased butyrate production and elevated bifidobacteria numbers may constitute beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota in a maturing population.
Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films are a recently developed class of materials that allows detailed structural and thickness control at the sub-nanometer level combined with ease of manufacturing and low cost. The ISAM fabrication method simply involves the dipping of a charged substrate alternately into polycationic and polyanionic aqueous solutions at room temperatures. Importantly, the ISAM technique yields exceptionally homogeneous, large area films with excellent control of total film thickness. We describe detailed studies of ISAM light emitting diodes incorporating poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) as the light emitting polymer. The individual thickness of each monolayer and the interpenetration of adjacent layers can be precisely controlled through the parameters of the electrolyte solutions. The effects of the pH and ionic strength of the immersion solutions, the total film thickness, and the PPV thermal conversion parameters on the photoluminescence and electroluminescence yields have been systematically studied. The ISAM process also allows the advantage of depositing well-defined thicknesses of separate polymers at the indium tin oxide and the aluminum electrode interfaces.
A main limitation of biomedical devices is the inability to start, stop, and control cell growth making it crucial to develop biomaterial surfaces that induce a desired cellular response. Micropatterns of ridges and pillars were created in a siloxane elastomer (Dow Corning) by casting against epoxy replicates of a micromachined silicon wafer. Silicone oils were incorporated to determine the change in modulus and surface energy caused by these additives. SEM and white light interference profilometry verified that the micropatterning process produced high fidelity, low defect micropatterns. Mechanical analysis indicated that varying the viscosity, weight percent and functionality of the added silicone oil could change the elastic modulus by over an order of magnitude (0.1-2.3 MPa). As a self-wetting resin, silicone oils migrate to the surface, hence changing the surface properties from the bulk. Both topographical and chemical features define the surface energy, which in combination with elastic modulus, dictate biological activity. The results imply that the morphology, mechanical properties and surface energy of the siloxane elastomer can be modified to elicit a specific cell response as a function of engineered topographical and chemical functionalization.
Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films have been shown to spontaneously produce noncentrosymmetric ordering that gives rise to a substantial second order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. Typically, the ISAM films for NLO response are an assemblage of bilayers of oppositely charged polymers whose thickness can be controlled through variation of pH and ionic strength of the immersion solutions. Here, we investigate the effects of replacing the NLO-active polymer layers with layers of monomeric chromophores containing ionic and covalent bonding sites. Films fabricated exclusively using polyelectrolytes contain some fraction of both randomly oriented and anti-parallel oriented chromophores. We have examined the incorporation of monomeric chromophores into ISAM films in order to increase the net polar orientation of the chromophores and reduce bilayer thickness.
Employing temperature dependent photoconductivity, photoluminescence and photoreflectivity measurements, we have analyzed a GaAs-AlAs multiple quantum well. The above optical techniques clearly resolve the fundamental inter-subband transitions, including heavy hole-light hole splittings. At T < 60K an anomalously high photoconductivity was discovered below the direct inter-subband transitions and is attributed tentatively to the presence of extrinsic interface states within the bandgap. For T > l00K the fundamental indirect transition was discovered and associated with LO (L) - phonon absorption.
A systematic study of superconducting Te, Hc and also the behavior of resistivity of Nb/Si mfltiiayers is reported. Nb and Si layers with different thicknesses were deposited alternatively in an LUIV two electron—beam evaporating installation and controlled automatically by a microcomputerquartz—monitor system. Well reproduciole results were achieved. Structural analyses show very good modulated structure with (110)textured polycrystallino Nb and] amorphous Si layers. Superconducting Tc of Nb/Simultilayers are significantly higher than that of the sputtered Nb/Ge system. Thevariation of Hc(T) in parallel field manifests a 2D–3D crossover with transformation temperature of 0.7– 0.8 Tc. The possible mechanism and implication of these phenomena were discussed.
Ion backscattering and channeling techniques, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used to investigate the reordering characteristics of implanted amorphous Si in the presence of an Al surface layer. It was found that reordering takes place at the temperature of about 400°C and is associated with an interfacial migration between Al and Si. The regrowth behavior appears to be a function of the initial annealing temperature and annealing sequence. High density of twin faults and substantial concentration of Al are observed in the regrown layers. We believe that the low temperature reordering is due to processes analogous to solid epitaxial growth with transport media.
The microstructures of the silicide Ni5Si2, which formed in self-supporting Ni-Si lateral-diffusion couples has been studied using high-resolution electron microscopy. Two different polymorphs (or polytypes) for Ni5Si2 have been observed. The actual composition of one polytype is confirmed to be Ni31Si12, while the other one has not yet been identified. Variations in the distribution of the two polytypes, as observed in the present study, may account for the composition range of Ni5Si2 in the Ni-Si phase diagram.
We report the observation of a higher degree of preferred crystalline orientation in Nb/rare earth superlattices for modulation wavelengths in the range of 200 Å to 500 Å than that exhibited by single component films. All films and multilayers are sputter deposited onto room temperature sapphire substrates. Electronic transport measurements also show that the residual resistance ratio is higher and the room temperature resistivity is lower than for multilayers of either greater or lower periodicities. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) showing excellent layering, grain size comparable to the layer thickness, and evidence of some degree of epitaxy are presented.
Epitaxial refractory silicides were grown on silicon by solid phase epitaxy method. Transmission electron microscopy has been performed to study the microstructures of epitaxial layers and their orientation relationships with respect to substrate Si.
Metal thin films, electron-gun deposited, or sputtered metal-silicon films were annealed in N2 ambient or in vacuum at 200°C-1100°C. Substrate heating, two step annealing and ion beam mixing were applied to induce the growth and improve the quality of epitaxial films. In this paper, formation and structures of epitaxial CrSi2, VSi2, ZrSi2, MoSi2 and WSi2 are presented. Preliminary results of the epitaxial growth of TiSi2, TaSi2 and NbSi2 are reported.