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Background: Challenges in predicting risk of recurrence for individual patients with meningioma limits appropriate selection of patients who may benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy to delay recurrence. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a combined clinicomolecular predictor of early recurrence for individual patients with meningiomas. Methods: A methylation-based predictor of 5-year recurrence-free-survival (RFS) was developed using DNA-methylation profiles from a training cohort of 228 patients. Model performance was compared to a standard-of-care histological-based model using three independent cohorts (N=54 ;N=140; N=64 patients). Subsequently, a nomogram that integrated the methylome-based predictor with prognostic clinical factors was developed and validated. Results: The methylome-based predictor of 5-year RFS performed favorably compared to a grade-based predictor when tested using the three validation cohorts (ΔAUC=0.10, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.018) and was independently associated with RFS on multivariable Cox regression analysis (HR=3.6, 95%CI 1.8–7.2, P<0.001). A nomogram combining the methylome-predictor with clinical factors demonstrated greater discrimination for recurrence than a nomogram using clinical factors alone (ΔAUC=0.25, 95%CI 0.22–0.27) and resulted in two risk groups with distinct recurrence patterns (HR=7.7, 95%CI 5.3–11.1, P<0.001) and clinical implications. Conclusions: Our validated models provide important novel prognostic information that could be used to individualize decisions regarding post-operative therapeutic interventions in meningioma.
The General Structure Analysis System (GSAS-II) package provides materials and crystallographic analysis for all types of diffraction data. It was initially made available with very limited capabilities, but over much of the last decade the features have been expanded, so that GSAS-II is now a comprehensive tool for nearly all types of structural and materials characterization studies. The need to provide materials to teach use of GSAS-II, while the software has been undergoing constant revision and expansion, has required new approaches for documentation. This has included providing tutorials, as each major new capability has been added, and context-sensitive help for each section of the program. Comments in the code are also expanded into a software reference guide. Most recently, video versions of more than half of the tutorials were created and others were provided with animated graphics. All GSAS-II documentation is web-based.
We have been using the technique of pulsed neutron powder diffraction to study several problems in the physics and chemistry of the actinide elements. In these elements one often encounters very complex structures resulting from polymorphic transformations presumably induced by the presence of 5f-electrons. For exampie, at least five distinct structures of plutonium metal are found between room temperature and its melting point of 640°C, and two of the structures are monoclinic! Single crystals are usually not available, and the high resolution which is intrinsic to the time-of-flight powder technique is a powerful tool in the solution of complex structural problems. The relatively low absorption coefficients for neutrons for at least some actinide isotopes is an advantage when surface oxidation is a problem (as in high-temperature experiments) and provides good particle statistics so that high-quality data are available for Rietveld refinement. The low absorption of neutrons by other materials such as vanadium and fused silica enables the use of these materials for the containment of samples in high- and low-temperature environments, and the fixed geometry of the time-of-flight technique simplifies the design of furnaces and cryostats.
Individual animals behave differently from one another, especially when confronting challenges such as changes in diet (e.g. weaning), environment (e.g. moving from pasture to feedlot) and social grouping (e.g. movement to lactating group after parturition). Each of these challenges involves some element of novelty, impacting the welfare and productivity of the animal. Indeed, the large individual variability in the development and expression of feeding behaviour cannot be fully explained by differences in genetics, management practices, body size or growth rate. In this review we outline evidence that individual variability in feeding behaviour is associated with the personality of the individual. We focus on three key personality traits: exploration, fear or reactivity and sociability. Individuals differ in how much they explore their feeding environment, with more exploratory individuals being less reactive to novel situations. Feeding behaviour can be impaired in individuals that are especially reactive to a change in their environment, change in diet or handling or restraint by humans. The social environment is also a major factor affecting how individuals express their behaviour. Sociability of the individual, including dominant-subordinate and affiliative relationships, affects how individuals make foraging decisions, gain access to feed and adopt particular social strategies to maintain or adjust feeding patterns when the social environment changes. Personality traits such as exploration, boldness and sociability also affect the use of social information when learning where, how or what to eat. Our review highlights the implications of feeding behaviour variability for the welfare and productivity of the individual, and how an understanding of personality can help tailor management to the needs of the individual.
Serosurveys have established data about the distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in various populations. We tried to detect whether small serosurveys in blood donors could serve as a simple and inexpensive means to collect information about the circulation of Bordetella pertussis. We screened every donation in 307 adult blood donors aged 19–69 years for IgG-anti-PT by standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and the donors were followed between 2014 and 2016 for a total of 426 person-years. When we used a vertical survey with cut-offs of 100, 62.5 and 40 IU/ml, respectively, as an indicator for recent contacts with B. pertussis, nine (2.9%), 22 (7.2%) and 54 (17.6%) of donors had IgG-anti-PT titres above the respective levels. During the horizontal observation period of 426 person years, six significant increases and two conversions were found, which lead to an estimate of 1878 contacts/100.000 person-years (1.9% per year). Median and mean IgG-anti-PT concentrations remained relatively stable from year to year during the observation period. Our findings show that small serosurveys of blood donors offer a simple and cheap method for the surveillance of B. pertussis.