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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants can have an adverse effect on brain development. We examine the association between prenatal near roadway air pollution (NRAP) exposure and early neurodevelopment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study is a prospective birth cohort that began in 1999 with 605 mother-child pairs of primarily Mexican-American descent. Maternal residence during pregnancy was geocoded using ArcGIS and prenatal NRAP exposure was assigned using the CALINE4 line source dispersion model. We used composite Bayley Scale scores for cognitive and motor development, and created separate linear regression models at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After adjusting for relevant maternal and child characteristics, preliminary estimates suggest that prenatal NRAP exposure is associated with a nonsignificant increase in Bayley Scale scores at 6 and 24 months (cognitive: β=0.13, p-value=0.20 and motor: β=0.08, p-value=0.58 at 6 months; cognitive: β=0.16, p-value=0.42 and motor: β=0.20, p-value=0.25 at 24 months) and a nonsignificant decrease at 12 months (cognitive: β=−0.07, p-value=0.64 and motor: β=−0.12, p-value=0.56). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our preliminary findings do not suggest that prenatal NRAP exposure is associated with early cognitive development. Additional exploration of co-exposures known to effect neurodevelopment should be examined in this rural population.
We present an all-sky star count model at 12 μm based upon the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations that characterize both the 12 μm luminosity function and the geometrical parameters of the galaxy. The model includes five galactic components: the bulge, the spheroid, the exponential disk, the spiral arms, and the molecular ring. The distribution of the brighter IRAS sources along the galactic plane required that the model include sources within the spiral arms and the molecular ring to produce an acceptable fit. We do not support the conclusion of Habing (1988) that the galactic disk ends just outside the solar circle, and do not require a thick disk to match the observations. We suggest that Habing's sample includes IRAS sources in the spiral arms but his model for the galactic disk does not include this critical component.
The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before [1-7]. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990.
The influence of Si-doping on the growth and material characteristics of InAs nanowires deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was investigated. It was observed that above a certain partial pressure ratio, doping has an influence on the morphology. The nanowires exhibit better uniformity but lower height vs. diameter aspect ratio as the supply of the dopant increases. It was consistantly found that the specific conductance of the nanowires also increases. Moreover the electrical measurements showed a transition from semiconducting to metallic behavior in the case of highly doped nanowires.
Transverse waves and instabilities propagating along the magnetic field in a homogeneous plasma are discussed analytically and numerically for frequencies of the order of the ion cyclotron frequency and below. The free energy driving the instabilities is assumed to be provided by thermal anisotropies, with the parallel temperature exceeding the perpendicular temperature, a situation appropriate to the solar wind near the earth and to the downstream conditions in collisionless shocks propagating approximately parallel to the magnetic field. It is shown that in the case where the ion β is of order one the long wavelength Firehose instability is not stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects, but that for smaller wavelengths it goes over smoothly into the resonant proton mode, discussed by Kennel & Scarf (1968).
A new mechanism is suggested that draws non-resonant thermal electrons into a higher-velocity range, where they can be effectively accelerated by waves. We argue that the acceleration of a small number of pre-existing resonant particles influences the dynamics of the bulk plasma and results in a macroscopic electric field. The solution for the spatial dependence of this electric field is obtained, and it appears to be a new type of electrostatic shock, which forms only in the presence of background turbulence. This field enriches the region of resonant particles with thermal electrons, which leads to a build-up of an excess of accelerated particles. The number of accelerated particles is calculated. This mechanism appears as a good candidate to explain electron acceleration in the foot of quasi-perpendicular shocks.
As we have noted before, the WG-IR was created following a Joint Commission Meeting at the IAU General Assembly in Baltimore in 1988, a meeting that provided both diagnosis and prescription for the perceived ailments of infrared photometry at the time. The results were summarized in Milone (1989). The challenges involve how to explain the failure to systematically achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to re-define the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated although bearing the same JHKLMNQ designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the atmospheric windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
The WG-IR was created following a Joint Commission Meeting at the IAU General Assembly in Baltimore in 1988, a meeting that provided both diagnosis and prescription for the perceived ailments of infrared photometry at the time. The results were summarized in Milone (1989). The challenges involve how to explain the failure to systematically achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated although bearing the same JHKLMNQ designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the atmospheric windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
High energy gamma-ray astronomy has recently made significant progresss through ground-based instruments like the H.E.S.S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The unprecedented angular resolution and the large field of view has allowed to spatially resolve for the first time the morphology of gamma-ray sources in the TeV energy range. The experimental technique is described and the types of sources detected and still expected are discussed. Selected results include objects as different as a Galactic binary Pulsar, the Galactic Center and Supernova Remnants but they also concern the diffuse extragalactic optical/infrared radiation field. Finally, a scan of the Galactic plane in TeV gamma rays is described which has led to a significant number of new TeV sources, many of which are still unidentified in other wavelengths. The field has a close connection with X-ray astronomy which allows the study of the synchrotron emission from these very high energy sources.
The single-beam Asterix IV high-power iodine laser, presently operated at a pulse length of 0.3 ns, has achieved its projected output power of 4 TW. It is designed to deliver output pulses with lengths ranging from 0.1–3 ns with a maximum power of 5 TW and an energy of up to 2 kJ. This laser has been developed on the basis of 10 years of experience with the 1 TW Asterix III laser and with the support of a 1-D and 3-D pulse propagation code. Special emphasis has been put on increasing the overall efficiency of the laser system and obtaining a laser beam intensity profile as homogeneous as possible. In this article, the measures for improving the laser performance and the results obtained hitherto are presented.
The ASTERIX iodine laser delivers after frequency tripling to λ = 0.44-μm laser pulses with energies up to 500 J at a pulse duration of 300 ps for target experiments. Experimental investigations of radiative transfer in low- and high-Z materials are reported.
Coins are one of the most abundant sources for our study of the past, yet their value as historical evidence is relatively neglected because of a general lack of knowledge of numismatic techniques. This volume of essays, offered by a circle of friends, colleagues and pupils working in Britain, Europe and North America, is intended to pay tribute to Philip Grierson's unique contribution to the study of numismatic method. A medievalist by training, through his wide-ranging interests in coins and coinage Grierson has commanded the respect of historians and numismatists of all periods for the originality and good sense of his prolific scholarship. More than any other living scholar, he has been responsible for making available an understanding of numismatic expertise to specialist and non-specialist audiences.
The range of his learning, his searching curiosity, his flair for setting numismatic problems in their wider context have given Philip Grierson's contributions to numismatic method a particular significance. The contributors to this volume were, therefore, invited to submit papers which, whatever the details of the topic, would illustrate numismatic method and we are most grateful to them for the way in which they have responded. The papers are placed in the broad chronological order of the coinage discussed, beginning with the earliest issues of the Greek world and continuing to the close of the Middle Ages. The approaches which they illustrate include coining technology, the choice of types, the interpretation of find evidence, and the correlation of coins themselves with contemporary documents. The resulting volume does not pretend to be a complete exposition of the methods available to the student, but it is hoped that it will have a special usefulness in demonstrating current directions and techniques in the study of coinage. Perhaps the one general conclusion which the collection allows is the value of combining more than one method for the solution of a problem – a fitting tribute to the scholar to whom this volume is dedicated.
The methods and technology of coin production provide one of the principal means for answering such basic questions as when and where a coinage was produced, and in what quantity. For many series the evidence of production is limited to what can be inferred from the specimens that survive.