The activation of phosphorus implanted into n-type silicon (100) substrate by followed hydrogen ion(H +) implantation was studied by means of spreading resistance technique(SR), secondary ion mass spectroscopy(SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM).
“The activation ratio” defined by carrier concentration divided by phosphorus concentration was used as a measure of activation of phosphorus. The H + energy, dose and dose rate dependence of activation ratio of phosphorus was investigated.
In the case of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 200 minutes the phosphorus atoms were not activated, on the other hand in the case of H + implantation at 400 °C the phosphorus atoms were activated and the activation ratio was increased almost proportionally with the dose. The SIMS data suggested that the depth profile of phosphorus atoms was not changed after activation by H + implantation. The activation ratio was increased with decreasing the dose rate. The TEM data suggested that the density of residual defects was reduced in the case of lower dose rate. The depth profile of activation ratio was similar to that of hydrogen atoms implanted at 20 °C. From these results the activation and recrystalization mechanism is discussed in the view of contribution of elastic collision process between H + ions and substrate atoms.