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Introduction: Distal radial fractures (DRF) remain the most commonly encountered fracture in the Emergency Department (ED). The initial management of displaced DRFs by Emergency Physicians (EP) poses considerable resource allocation. We wished to determine the adequacy of reduction, both initially and at follow up. This data updates previously presented high level findings. Methods: We performed a mixed-methods study including patients who underwent procedural sedation and manipulation by an EP for a DRF. Radiological images performed at initial assessment, post-reduction, and clinic follow up were reviewed by a panel of orthopedic surgeons and radiologists blinded to outcomes, and assessed for evidence of displacement. Demographic data were pooled from patient records and included in statistical analysis. Results: Seventy patients were included and had follow-up completed. Initial reduction was deemed to be adequate in 37 patients (53%; 95% CI 41.32 to 64.10%). At clinic follow-up assessment, 26 reductions remained adequate; a slippage rate of 30% (95% CI of 17.37 to 45.90). Overall 7 patients (10%; 95% CI 4.65 to 19.51%) required revision of the initial reduction in the operating room. Agreement on adequacy of reduction on post-reduction radiographs between radiologists and orthopedic surgeons was 38.6% (95% CI -38.3 to -7.4, Kappa -0.229). The statistical strength of this agreement is worse than what would be expected by chance alone. There was no association found between age, sex, or of time of initial presentation and final outcomes. Conclusion: Although blinded review by specialists determined only half of initial EP DRF reductions to be radiographically adequate, only 10 percent actually required further intervention. Agreement between specialists on adequacy was poor. The majority of DRFs reduced by EPs do not require further surgical intervention.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the USA. It comprises 15,924 White male twin pairs born in the years 1917–1927 (N = 31.848), both of whom served in the armed forces, chiefly during World War II. This article updates activities in this registry since the most recent report in Twin Research and Human Genetics (Page, 2006). Records-based data include information from enlistment charts and Veterans Administration data linkages. There have been three major epidemiologic questionnaires and an education and earnings survey. Separate data collection efforts with the NAS-NRC registry include the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) subsample, the Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging and a clinically based study of Parkinson’s disease. Progress has been made on consolidating the various data holdings of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry. Data that had been available through the National Academy of Sciences are now freely available through National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA).
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects ~7% of reproductive age women. Although its etiology is unknown, in animals, excess prenatal testosterone (T) exposure induces PCOS-like phenotypes. While measuring fetal T in humans is infeasible, demonstrating in utero androgen exposure using a reliable newborn biomarker, anogenital distance (AGD), would provide evidence for a fetal origin of PCOS and potentially identify girls at risk. Using data from a pregnancy cohort (The Infant Development and Environment Study), we tested the novel hypothesis that infant girls born to women with PCOS have longer AGD, suggesting higher fetal T exposure, than girls born to women without PCOS. During pregnancy, women reported whether they ever had a PCOS diagnosis. After birth, infant girls underwent two AGD measurements: anofourchette distance (AGD-AF) and anoclitoral distance (AGD-AC). We fit adjusted linear regression models to examine the association between maternal PCOS and girls’ AGD. In total, 300 mother–daughter dyads had complete data and 23 mothers reported PCOS. AGD was longer in the daughters of women with a PCOS diagnosis compared with daughters of women with no diagnosis (AGD-AF: β=1.21, P=0.05; AGD-AC: β=1.05, P=0.18). Results were stronger in analyses limited to term births (AGD-AF: β=1.65, P=0.02; AGD-AC: β=1.43, P=0.09). Our study is the first to examine AGD in offspring of women with PCOS. Our results are consistent with findings that women with PCOS have longer AGD and suggest that during PCOS pregnancies, daughters may experience elevated T exposure. Identifying the underlying causes of PCOS may facilitate early identification and intervention for those at risk.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
The prenatal hormonal milieu is widely believed to shape health later in life; however, there are considerable methodological challenges associated with measuring the in utero hormonal environment. Two potential biomarkers of prenatal androgen exposure that can be measured postnatally have been proposed: anogenital distance (AGD) and the ratio of the second to fourth digits of the hand (2D:4D). Although both measures are widely used research tools, their use in adult women may be complicated by the dramatic fluctuations in reproductive hormones across the menstrual cycle. To determine whether there is cyclical variation in these biomarkers, we conducted a longitudinal study of 12 naturally cycling, nulliparous adult women. Trained examiners assessed two measures of AGD [anus to clitoris (AGD-AC) and anus to fourchette (AGD-AF)] and 2D:4D in both hands for the duration of three menstrual cycles, taking measurements during the follicular, peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of each cycle. Despite the small sample size, longer (more masculine) AGD was associated with lower (more masculine) digit ratios, as predicted by the literature. Using multi-level linear regression models, we found that AGD and 2D:4D measurements did not differ significantly across cycle phases. AGD-AF and digit ratios in both hands were associated with age at menarche, suggesting a possible common developmental trajectory. These results demonstrate that AGD and 2D:4D are stable across the menstrual cycle. In addition, research is needed to determine how reliably these measures reflect the in utero hormonal milieu.
Objectives: In 2000, the first “Dutch Manual for Costing: Methods and Reference Prices for Economic Evaluations in Healthcare” was published, followed by an updated version in 2004. The purpose of the Manual is to facilitate the implementation and assessment of costing studies in economic evaluations. New developments necessitated the publication of a thoroughly updated version of the Manual in 2010. The present study aims to describe the main changes of the 2010 Manual compared with earlier editions of the Manual.
Methods: New and updated topics of the Manual were identified. The recommendations of the Manual were compared with the health economic guidelines of other countries, eliciting strengths and limitations of alternative methods.
Results: New topics in the Manual concern medical costs in life-years gained, the database of the Diagnosis Treatment Combination (DBC) casemix System, reference prices for the mental healthcare sector and the costs borne by informal care-givers. Updated topics relate to the friction cost method, discounting future effects and options for transferring cost results from international studies to the Dutch situation.
Conclusions: The Action Plan is quite similar to many health economic guidelines in healthcare. However, the recommendations on particular aspects may differ between national guidelines in some respects. Although the Manual may serve as an example to countries intending to develop a manual of this kind, it should always be kept in mind that preferred methods predominantly depend on a country's specific context.
Cannabis varies considerably in levels of its two major constituent cannabinoids – (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Recently, we found evidence that those who smoked cannabis containing detectable levels of CBD had fewer psychotic-like symptoms than those whose cannabis had no CBD. The present study aimed, first, to replicate those findings and, second, to determine whether protective effects of CBD may extend to other harms of cannabis, such as memory impairment and reduced psychological well-being.
A total of 120 current cannabis smokers, 66 daily users and 54 recreational users were classified into groups according to whether analysis of their hair revealed the presence or absence of CBD and high versus low levels of THC. All were assessed on measures of psychosis-like symptoms, memory (prose recall; source memory) and depression/anxiety.
Lower psychosis-like symptoms were found in those whose hair had CBD compared with those without. However, this was seen only in recreational users, who had higher levels of THC in their hair. Higher THC levels in hair were associated with increased depression and anxiety. Prose recall and source memory were poorer in daily users with high THC levels in hair while recognition memory was better in individuals with CBD present in hair.
CBD attenuates the psychotic-like effects of cannabis over time in recreational users. Higher THC negatively impacts on memory and psychological well-being. These findings raise concerns for the harms stemming from use of varieties such as ‘skunk’ (sensimillia), which lack any CBD but currently dominate the supply of cannabis in many countries.
A major outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in cattle on a farm in Dorset between 1970 and 1976. Six hundred and twenty-six cattle were slaughtered either because they reacted to the tuberculin test or had been exposed to infection. No source of infection was found until 1974 when badgers infected with Mycobacterium bovis were first discovered.
An analysis of the tuberculin test records of this herd and the six surrounding herds indicated that tuberculosis had been a sporadic problem since the early 1960's. Two peaks of infection occurred in the most severely affected herd in 1970 and 1974 when 29·8% and 27·3% of animals, respectively, reacted to the tuberculin test. These figures are exceptionally high. During the last 20 years there have been two periods when all the herds in the area had synchronous outbreaks consistent with a common source.
Analysis indicated that cattle were at greatest risk in April and May and suggest that there was re-exposure to infection at this time each year. In addition the cattle were apparently exposed to M. bovis, at sufficiently high levels for transmission to occur, for only a relatively short period of time.
Following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in Dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. The sets were found predominantly in areas of Portland Sand. A high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. The removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. Re-colonization of the area has progressed slowly and the cattle have remained free from infection for a period of 5 years.
A large sample of the wild mammals found on a farm in South Dorset were trapped and examined for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis following the discovery of widespread infection in cattle and badgers. M. bovis was isolated from the lymph nodes of two out of 90 rats (Rattus norvegicus) and one out of seven foxes (Vulpes vulpes) but no lesions of tuberculosis were observed. It was concluded that the badger was the only species of wild mammal which was a reservoir of M. bovis in this area.
This chapter focuses on the mechanisms by which environmental exposures can induce endocrine disruption. It highlights the mechanisms that play important roles in developmental programming. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which mimic the activity of endogenous hormones and activate receptors are termed agonists, whereas those that inhibit receptor activity are termed antagonists. During the perinatal period programming of the endocrine axis occurs, making this a vulnerable period of exposure to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Among the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), xenoestrogens have garnered a significant amount of attention due to the well-known effects of the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) in humans, and the identification of many other estrogenic anthropogenic chemicals. Metabolism plays a key role in maintaining hormone homeostasis. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can disturb normal hormone homeostasis, which can have both direct and indirect effects on the reproductive function of both wildlife and human populations.
Although people with schizophrenia display impaired abilities for consent, it is not known how much impairment constitutes incapacity.
To assess a method for determining the categorical capacity status of potential participants in schizophrenia research.
Expert-judgement validation of capacity thresholds on the sub-scales of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool – Clinical Research (MacCAT–CR) was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in 91 people with severe mental illness and 40 controls.
The ROC areas under the curve for the understanding, appreciation and reasoning sub-scales of the MacCAT–CR were 0.94 (95% CI 0.88–0.99), 0.85 (95% CI 0.76–0.94) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.90). These findings yielded negative and positive predictive values of incapacity that can guide the practice of investigators and research ethics committees.
By performing such validation studies for a few categories of research with varying risks and benefits, it might be possible to create evidence-based capacity determination guidelines for most schizophrenia research.
We analyze the dependence of the second-order G'-band profile in terms of their (n,m) indices by measuring the resonance Raman spectra of several semiconducting and metalic isolated single wal carbon nanotubes. We show that this profile is very sensitive to the electronic structure, thus making it possible to get structural (n,m) information and to probe the splitting of the van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states due to the trigona warping effect.