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In this paper a method is described that allows mapping of the forces acting on dust particles in a GEC reference cell. Monodisperse particles are dropped into the plasma environment and their trajectories are tracked using a high-speed camera system to determine local accelerations and respective forces. Collecting data from a large number of particle drops allows the identification of three-dimensional vector fields for the acting forces. The procedure is described and multiple examples in which the method has been applied are given. These examples include a simple plasma sheath, plasmas perturbed by a horizontal and vertical dipole magnet, an array of multiple magnets mimicking the fields found at a lunar swirl, and the fields inside a glass box used for particle confinement. Further applicability in other plasma environments will be discussed shortly.
We have applied the Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (IMS/MS) and
the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation/Mass Spectrometry (APCI/MS)
techniques to study the formation of the ions in the positive corona
discharge (CD) in highly purified nitrogen with impurities at 100 ppt level.
The main products observed were H3O+(H2O)n ions (reduced
ion mobility of 2.15 cm2 V-1 s-1). Additionally, we have
observed ions with reduced mobilities 2.42 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.30 cm2 V-1 s-1. The intensity of these ions was increasing with
the increasing discharge current. We associated these peaks with
NH4+ and NO+(H2O)n. The formation of these ions
results from trace amounts of O2 and NH3 in nitrogen. The time
evolution of the ions in corona discharge has been studied using the APCI/MS
technique in the time windows ranging from 100 μs to 2 ms. The present
work indicates the ability of the IMS technique equipped with CD ions source
to detect impurities below 100 ppt level.
To determine the frequency of conjunctival colonization, identify the colonizing flora, and correlate culture results with physical findings in infants in a NICU
Level III NICU of a large university teaching hospital.
All infants admitted for longer than 24 hours during a 26-week period.
Weekly bacterial conjunctival cultures were performed for all infants. The conjunctival appearance at the time of culture was recorded. The frequency, identity, and correlation of culture results with physical findings were determined.
One thousand ninety-one cultures were performed for 319 infants: 133 (42%) had no positive cultures and 186 (58%) had at least one positive culture. Culture analysis revealed that 411 (38%) were positive and yielded 494 isolates comprising more than 18 bacterial species. Bacteria most commonly isolated included coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (75%), viridans group streptococci (8.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.8%), Enterococcus species (2.6%), and Serratia marcescens (2.4%). The frequency of non-CoNS isolates increased significantly during the first 6 weeks of patient hospital stay (6% [1 to 3 weeks] to 12% [4 to 6 weeks]; P = .01), with an increasing trend to 15 weeks (18%). Correlation of bacteriologic results with physical findings demonstrated that infants with non-CoNS isolates exhibited conjunctival edema, erythema, or exudates more frequently than did infants with CoNS alone (30% vs 13%; P = .0001).
Conjunctival colonization was common among infants in a NICU. Prolonged hospitalization predisposes to colonization with potentially pathogenic organisms. Physical findings were more likely in patients with non-CoNS conjunctival isolates.
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