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Upgraded heating and current drive (H/CD) systems have been equipped on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With the upgraded H/CD systems, the operation space of EAST is extended, and the ability to achieve higher performance is improved. In this paper, a 0.5 dimension transport code named Minute Embedded Tokamak Integrated Simulator (METIS) is applied to predict the EAST operation space and to assess the current drive capability of the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system. Predictive simulation of several EAST scenarios, including steady-state high confinement mode (H-mode), advanced regime, high normalized beta and high electron temperature, are also performed with the available H/CD systems. The simulation results provide a guidance for forthcoming advanced EAST experiments.
Reliable distances to Galactic Supernova remnants (SNRs) are essential to constrain parameters that reveal the evolutional process of SNRs. We carry out a project to measure SNRs’ distances in the first quadrant of the Galaxy. In this project, red clump stars (RCS) are used as standard candle to build the optical extinction (AV)-(D) distance relation in each direction of extinction-known SNRs. Here, G5.7-0.01, G54.1+0.3 and G78.2+2.1 are taken as typical examples. We obtain the distance of 3−0.3+0.4 kpc for G5.7-0.01, the lower limit of 5.8 kpc for G54.1+0.3, the upper limit of 2 kpc for G5.7-0.01. The results are consistent with distances from kinematic measurements. Hence, we highlight the RCS method can independently trace the distance to the SNRs.
Aiming at a fusion reactor, two issues must be solved for the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), namely good lower hybrid wave (LHW)–plasma coupling and effective current drive at high density. For this goal, efforts have been made to improve LHW–plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). LHW–plasma coupling is improved by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is taken as a routine way for EAST to operate with LHCD. Studies of high density experiments suggest that low recycling and high lower hybrid (LH) frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. With the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves, a repeatable high confinement mode plasma with maximum density up to
was obtained by LHCD in EAST. In addition, in the first stage of LHCD cyclic operation, an alternative candidate for more economical fusion reactors has been demonstrated in EAST and further work will be continued.
The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment.
Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8). Resting-state activity was evaluated in the course of the 8-week treatment and in relation to clinical improvement.
Escitalopram dynamically modified resting-state activity in depression during the treatment. After 5 h the antidepressant induced a significant decrease in the signal in the occipital cortex and an increase in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and middle cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while remitters demonstrated more obvious changes following treatment, these were more modest in non-responders suggesting possible tonic and dynamic differences in the serotonergic system. Changes after 5 h in the caudate, occipital and temporal cortices were the best predictor of clinical remission at endpoint.
This study revealed the possibility of using the measurement of resting-state neural changes a few hours after acute administration of antidepressant to identify individuals likely to remit after a few weeks of treatment.
This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or betaine on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition in backfat and belly fat of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Thirty-two (60±2 kg) crossbred barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshine) were assigned to one of four diets randomly: (1) the control diet containing no corn DDGS (control group); (2) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS (DDGS-fed group); (3) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS and 10 g/kg CLA (CLA-fed group); (4) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS and 1 g/kg BET (BET-fed group). The pigs fed DDGS showed that the percentages of C18:2, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and iodine value (IV) increased, while C18:1, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) decreased. Pigs fed the DDGS+CLA or DDGS+betaine diets showed the increased percentage of SFA, and the decreased percentage of C18:2, PUFA and IV. In conclusion, results confirmed that the diets containing 30% DDGS had no detrimental effects on growth performance, but increased the percentage of PUFA and IV and decreased the percentage of SFA and MUFA in the backfat and belly fat. However, supplementation with CLA or BET can part reverse these effects on carcass fat in finishing pigs.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
Selective emitter structure has long been regarded as a good and relatively simple approach to improve the energy conversion efficiency of Si wafer-based single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells. Recently emerged double printing method, on the other hand, potentially has the capability of improving the efficiency with no requirement for device structure modification. The manufacturability of these two approaches has been studied on a mass-production platform at JA Solar recently with large scale sampling. The experimental results collected from over two hundred thousand cells demonstrated that both approaches are capable of achieving significant conversion-efficiency gain in a cost-effective way with high yield rate on the PV industry commonly used mass production platform currently adopted by the vast majority of cell manufacturers
Lattice kinetic equations incorporating the effects of external/internal force fields via a shift of the local fields in the local equilibria are placed within the framework of continuum kinetic theory. The mathematical treatment reveals that in order to be consistent with the correct thermo-hydrodynamical description, temperature must also be shifted, besides momentum. New perspectives for the formulation of thermo-hydrodynamic lattice kinetic models of non-ideal fluids are then envisaged. It is also shown that on the lattice, the definition of the macroscopic temperature requires the inclusion of new terms directly related to discrete effects. The theoretical treatment is tested against a controlled case with a non-ideal equation of state.
Variability among samples analysed using the same ELISA protocol generates ambiguity in deciding which assay best quantifies the protein concentration. In this study, we propose a standardization method, called I-STOD (Improved STandardization method for Optical Density), for the transformation of OD values on different plates into relative concentrations of the antibody levels being assessed. We derived an equation relating OD values of different test samples to antibody levels according to the multi-stage reaction dynamics of the indirect-ELISA. Using serum samples from a Schistosomiasis japonica endemic area, we evaluated the fitness of the I-STOD model to experimental data of a standard reference serum in comparison with 5 other models. Calibration curves fitted by the I-STOD method judged to be superior, based on adjusted R2 (adjusted R2>0·99 on 22 out of 26 plates) values. The CV (coefficient of variation) value of the results between multi-well plates and the number of plates with OD values beyond the control range in Shewhart charts also demonstrate that the I-STOD method is a powerful tool which can greatly improve the comparability of results on different multi-well ELISA plates. We conclude that a standardization method is certainly necessary for antibody levels detected in order to properly illustrate clinical differences.
Most steel grades undergo a ductility trough in the temperature
range 700 to 1100 °C that may bring about surface cracks in the CC
strands. Micro-mechanical modelling of the as solidified austenite-ferrite
microstructure, supported by experimental evaluations of the fracture
surfaces, affords a comprehensive description of the crack formation
mechanism. This opens the way for a quantitative evaluation
of the sensitivity of CC strands to transverse cracks.
Long and fine Zn1-xCdxSe pseudo-binary alloy nanowires of various compositions x covering the entire range were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, using diethlyzinc, dimethylcadmium and diisopropylselenide as precursors, on Si (100) and GaAs (100) substrates; sputtered gold was used as a catalyst to promote nanowire formation. By controlling the ratio of the flows of the precursors, the temperature and the pressure during growth, we obtained nanowires of desired compositions. The morphology, structure and optical properties of the nanowires were studied by various techniques, including secondary electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman scattering. Depending on the substrate, composition and conditions of growth, either the zincblende or wurtzite nanowires were obtained. At compositions where the stable form would have been normally wurtzite, the zincblende form could be obtained under certain growth conditions. From the orientations of the ordered nanowires on the substrate surface, their directions of growth were deduced and confirmed by high resolution lattice imaging. The relationship between the band gap and the composition of the nanowires were measured and found to deviate from that of bulk alloys and epilayers. The interplay between the growth conditions and compositions and morphology of the nanowires are discussed.
The continuum energy distributions of R127 and R110 in the outburst phase are fitted by use of a optically envelope model. Both stars show two peaks in the continuum energy distributions in which one lies in the short-wavelength range (near 1250Å) and the other in the optical band. We suggest that the fluxes in the UV and optical bands may have different origins: the UV flux comes from the central star and the optical flux comes from the expanded optically envelope. We construct such a model for LBVs with the use of two LTE atmosphere models with different temperatures, and find it to be in satisfactory agreement with the observed spectral energy distributions of R127 and R110.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
This paper reports on the effect of colloidal abrasive particle size in the polishing of thermally grown silicon dioxide on 100mm diameter, P-type, (100), single crystal silicon wafers. The abrasive particle sizes were varied in six (6) slurries with pH values of 10.97 ± 0.08. The abrasive sizes were 10, 20, 50, 80, 110 and 140nm in diameter, and the slurry contained 30 weight percent abrasives. The experimental results indicate that the material removal rate (MRR) varies with the volume of the particle size. Results also confirm that there exists an optimum abrasive particle size with respect to material removal rate and surface finish. For a pad surface roughness of 5.2μm (Ra), the slurry containing 80nm particles resulted in the highest material removal rate and best surface finish. A nano-film model based on the pad roughness is used to explain the results.
Dilute III-Nx-V1-x alloys were successfully synthesized by nitrogen implantation in
GaAs and InP. The fundamental band gap energy for the ion beam synthesized III-Nx-V1-x alloys was found to decrease with increasing N implantation dose
in a manner similar to that commonly observed in epitaxially grown GaNxAs1-x and InNxP1-xthin films. The fraction of N occupying anion sites ("active" N) in
the GaNxAs1-x layers formed by N implantation was thermally unstable and
decreased with increasing annealing temperature. In contrast, thermally
stable InNxP1-x alloys with N mole fraction as high as 0.012 were synthesized by N
implantation in InP. Moreover, the N activation efficiency in InP was at
least a factor of two higher than in GaAs under similar processing
conditions. The low N activation efficiency (<20%) in GaAs can be
improved by co-implanting Ga and N in GaAs.
A direct numerical simulation of transitional pipe flow is carried out with the help of
a spectral element method and used to investigate the localized regions
flow that are observed in experiments. Two types of such regions can be distinguished:
the puff and the slug. The puff, which is generally found at low values of the Reynolds
numbers, is simulated for Re = 2200 where the Reynolds number
Re is based on the mean velocity UB
and pipe diameter D. The slug occurs at a higher Reynolds number
and it is simulated for Re = 5000. The computations start with a laminar pipe flow
to which is added a prescribed velocity disturbance at a given axial position and for
a finite time. The disturbance then evolves further into a puff or slug structure.
The simulations confirm the experimentally observed fact that for a puff the
velocity near the leading edge changes more gradually than for a slug where an
almost discontinuous change is observed. The positions of the leading and trailing
edges of the puff and slug are computed from the simulations as a function of time.
The propagation velocity of the leading edge is found to be constant and equal
to 1.56UB and 1.69UB for the
puff and slug, respectively. For the trailing edge the
velocity is found to be 0.73UB and
0.52UB, respectively. By rescaling the simulation
results obtained at various times to a fixed length, we define an ensemble average.
This method is used to compute the average characteristics of the puff and slug such
as the spatial distribution of the mean velocity, the turbulent velocity fluctuations and
also the wall shear stress. By computing particle trajectories we have investigated the
entrainment and detrainment of fluid by a puff and slug. We find that the puff detrains
through its trailing edge and entrains through its leading edge. The slug entrains fluid
through its leading and through most of its trailing edge. As a consequence the fluid
inside the puff is constantly exchanged with fluid outside whereas the fluid inside a
slug remains there. These entrainment/detrainment properties which are in agreement
with the measurements of Wygnanski & Champagne (1973) imply that the puff has
the characteristics of a wave phenomenon while the slug can be characterized more
as a material property which travels with the flow.
Finally, we have investigated in more detail the velocity field within the puff. In a
coordinate system that travels with the mean velocity we find recirculation regions
both near the trailing and leading edges which agrees at least qualitatively with
experimental data. We also find streamwise vortices, predominantly in the trailing-edge region which have been also observed in experiments and which are believed to
play an important role in the dynamics of the transition process.