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National borders are synthetic constructs that may be defined by some geographic features such as rivers or mountain ranges, but essentially remain figments of political expediency. However, social systems evolve around them to provide a unique context for learning the interface between society and ecology. This chapter provides a concise historiography of the development of an initiative in the western Balkans that sought to harness such learning opportunities “between the lines” through experiential field education. The challenges and criticism faced by the progenitors of this initiative are considered in the post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation landscape of the Balkans. Conflict transformation requires empowerment of agents of change, and this is a core component of the experiential peace-building process, especially in terms of helping participants understand the shared meaning of their experience. Such empowerment is often the goal of small-scale peace-building initiatives that target people with influence in divided communities, so that they will be able to apply what they have learned in their home constituencies. This is often done through joint cooperative initiatives or projects that allow a transformed group of people from each side of the divide to have a platform to reach out and extend their transformation to others in their communities. In our understanding, this approach to peace building rests on four criteria: (1) the responsibility and judgment of being empowered; (2) the conscious use of symbolism and ritual to create meaningful images, metaphors and experiences; (3) the transference of individual transformation back into the community; and (4) the reframing of community relationships so as to counter prevailing stereotypes and to inspire a positive notion of the “other” through a real-world example. The Balkans Peace Park Project (B3P) sought to use such a framework to further its goals of peace education and also to foster a better appreciation of the social ecology of this complex border landscape.
The Birth of the Balkans Peace Park Project (B3P)
The story starts with a flash of inspiration from one intrepid woman following her wanderlust in the footsteps of a famous British explorer, Edith Durham, who trekked by horseback through the Dinaric Alps at the turn of the century — before communism lowered its Iron Curtain of isolationism and paranoia.
Mechanical properties of the metals and their alloys are influenced by the material grain size at microscale. In the present study, the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model is modified to incorporate the effect of material's grain size along with the plasticity coupled damage model. 2D finite element (FE) simulations of turning process of an aerospace grade aluminium alloy 2024 (AA2024) were performed with different grain sizes using a commercial FE software, ABAQUS/Explicit. FE simulation results were compared with the published experimental data on turning process of AA2024. The proposed modified JC material model successfully simulated the increase in cutting force as a function of grain size refinement.
The dominance of fossil fuel economies in the Middle East with large Muslim majority populations has led to a recurring question about the role Islamic ethics might play in galvanizing action on climate change. However, the perceived clash of economic values versus environmental norms in Islam deserves more careful examination. This brief article considers the advent of the “Islamic Declaration on Climate Change” which was promulgated in 2015 and considers the tangible steps Muslim government leaders and civil society have taken on this matter. The tangible steps that are being considered with an action plan are discussed in the light of earlier environmental movements within Islam. A brief discussion of environmental norms within Islamic scriptures is also provided to give theological context to this narrative. The establishment of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the UAE as a treaty-based organization with United Nations affiliations is also considered. The environment can play an important peace-building role in the region as exemplified by organizations such as Eco-peace in Palestine, Israel, and Jordan. Based on the analysis of these developments, it is likely that Muslim countries will continue to play a more proactive role in addressing climate change than they are often given credit for in popular discourse.
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica parasites. Diagnosis of CL is predominately made by clinicians, who at times fail to detect the disease and are unable to identify parasite species. Here, we report the development of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) to measure the levels of anti-α-galactosyl antibodies in human sera. Using this assay, we have found that individuals infected with either Leishmania spp. had significantly elevated levels (up to 9-fold higher) of anti-α-Gal IgG compared to healthy control individuals. The assay sensitivity was 96% for L. major (95% CI; 94–98%) and 91% for L. tropica (95% CI; 86–98%) infections and therefore equivalent to restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction analysis of parasite ITS1 gene. In addition, the assay had higher sensitivity than microscopy analysis, which only detected 68 and 45% of the L. major and L. tropica infections, respectively. Interestingly, up to 2 years following confirmed CL cure individuals had 28-fold higher levels of anti-α-Gal IgG compared to healthy volunteers. Monitoring levels of anti-α-Gal antibodies can be exploited as both a diagnostic tool and as a biomarker of cure of Old World CL in disease elimination settings.
For qualitative prediction of chip morphology and quantitative prediction of burr size,
2D and 3D finite element (FE) based turning models have been developed in this paper.
Coupled temperature-displacement machining simulations exploiting the capabilities of
Abaqus® with a particular industrial turning insert and a newly proposed geometrical
version of this insert have been performed. Limitations of 2D models in defining the chip
morphologies and surface topologies have been discussed. The phenomenological findings on
the Poisson burr (Side burr) formation using 3D cutting models have been highlighted.
Bespoke geometry of the turning insert has been found helpful in reducing the Poisson burr
formation, as it reduces the contact pressures at the edges of tool rake face-workpiece
interface. Lower contact pressures serve to decrease the material flow towards workpiece
edges (out of plane deformation). In contrast, higher contact pressures at tool rake
face-workpiece interface lead to more material flow towards workpiece edges resulting in
longer burr. Simulation results of chip morphologies and cutting forces for turning an
aluminum alloy A2024-T351 have been compared with the experimental ones. Finally, it has
been concluded that the newly proposed geometry of the insert not only decreases the burr
but also helpful in lessening the magnitude of tool-workpiece initial impact.
It is pointed out that the Okuda–Dawson mode can couple with the newly proposed current-driven wave. It is also shown that the Shukla–Varma mode can couple with these waves if the density inhomogeneity is taken into account in a plasma containing stationary dust particles. A comparison of several low-frequency electrostatic waves and instabilities driven by shear current and shear plasma flow in an electron–ion plasma with and without stationary dust is also presented.
Achai is an as yet undocumented but well-adapted cattle breed of the Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Pakistan, which is reared under sedentary farming system (SFS) and transhumant farming system (TFS). This paper compares the morphological (physical and morphometric) characteristics of this cattle breed under both farming systems to know the effect of these styles of management. Data were collected from 108 adult females and 108 males in SFS and 108 females and 36 males in TFS on physical characteristics (colour of the coat, horns, eyelashes, muzzle, hoof, switch) and morphometric measurements – i.e. heart girth, body length, height at withers, height at hipbone, face length, horn length, horn circumference, ear (length and width), neck length, dewlap length, chine length, loin length, rump (length and width), length below knee, hoof circumference, tail and switch length. Results showed that farming systems significantly affect most of the morphological characteristics of both sexes, particularly the morphometric measurements with tall and leggy conformation for TFS cows and bulls. This indicates an adaptation to long distance transhumance and mountain terrain grazing. It can be concluded that the Achai has the potential to adapt to the requirements of specific farming systems. There is hence a need for the conservation of its adaptive traits in both farming systems.
This study aims to characterize Azikheli, an undocumented buffalo breed, in its home tract (Khwazakhela, Swat, Pakistan) under traditional farming conditions. For this purpose, 108 buffalo cows and 27 bulls were randomly selected. Mean, standard error, Student's t test and Chi-square test were used for various comparisons. The results show that the majority of animals have a brown coat colour. Cows have significantly higher heart girths, longer horns, longer necks and wider faces at the level of the eyes than bulls, whereas bulls have significantly longer bodies, longer ears, thicker horns, thicker necks and larger hooves than cows. Horns are flat laterally, directed backwards and then slightly upwards without twisting, leading to a sickle to semi-sickle appearance. Owing to its small body size and brown coat colour, the breed is well adapted to mountain slope grazing and thrives well away from swamps. Its adaptation to mountainous ecosystems warrants its in situ conservation.
We describe novel 2-D structures that facilitate strain relief and allow us to obtain Ge epilayers that are free of defects. These structures can potentially absorb thermal expansion and lattice expansion mismatch as well as enable liftoff of heteroepitaxial layers for subsequent wafer reuse. Conventional lithography techniques were combined with reactive ion and wet-chemical etching to fabricate 2-D patterns of silicon posts. The dimensions of the posts were varied keeping the pitch (center to center distance) constant. Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge/SixGe1−x on these micrometer-scale structures was investigated. While, keeping the growth parameters constant, the geometry of the structures was varied to determine the optimum configuration for the highest quality heteroepitaxial growth. The quality of the Si1−xGex buffer system was investigated using high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the epilayer cross-sections. Surface morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Our results show that the quality of the heteroepitaxial layers improves as the width of the posts in the 2-D pattern was decreased.
A model was developed to calculate the elastic fields, including strain energy density, in multilayers grown epitaxially on a planar substrate. This model works well for compliant and non-compliant substrates. In particular we illustrate the model for four layer heterostructure and apply it for graded Ge (SixGe1−x) grown on a planar silicon substrate. Using the equations for static equilibrium and Hooke's law for isotropic materials under a plane stress condition, the elastic fields associated with each layer were calculated. The strain partitioning in this model reduces to the limiting case of a two- layer structure available in the literature. As it turns out here, strain partitioning is a function of the bulk unstrained lattice parameters, elastic constants and thicknesses of the layers. The model was qualitatively verified by comparing the strain energy density with the dislocation density away from a relatively thick substrate. This model helps shed some light on the factors important in achieving defect free multilayers for optoelectronic devices.
Observations of efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous Si have generated a great deal of interest in the optical properties of nm-scale Si structures. The stochastic character of porous-Si fabrication results in a distribution of crystal sizes and shapes. We report on a scalable (to large areas) and manufacturable (to high volumes) fabrication technology for uniform, nm-linewidth Si structures providing an important testbed for controlled studies of these optical properties. Large areas ( ∼ 1 cm2) of extreme sub-μm structures (to ∼ 5 nm) are re-producibly fabricated. Both walls (1-D confinement) and wires (2-D confinement) are reported. The fabrication process includes: interferometric lithography, highly anisotropic KOH etching, and structure dependent oxidation. For the walls, nearly perfect <111> crystal planes form the sidewalls and very high width/depth aspect ratios (> 50) have been achieved. Raman scattering results on the walls demonstrate three regimes: 1) lineshapes and cross sections similar to bulk Si for line widths, W > 200 nm; 2) electromagnetic resonance enhancement of the cross section ( to - 100x) for W from 50-200 nm; and 3) highly asymmetric lineshapes and splittings from W < 30 nm. Photoluminescence is observed for the thinnest samples (W < 10 nm) and is as intense as that observed from porous Si with a spectral linewidth ∼ 50 % smaller than that of porous Si.
A non-contact temperature measurement technique based on diffraction-analysis monitoring of the thermal expansion of materials is discussed. Due to the need for noncontact temperature measurements during semiconductor processing, silicon was chosen for this demonstration. The diffraction method requires a grating of suitable spatial frequency etched on the surface of the silicon wafer. The diffraction angle from the grating depends on the grating period which varies with temperature. Two symmetrically disposed incident beams are used to provide a differential measurement which is relatively independent of sample tilt. A computer system is used to monitor the diffraction order movement, from the order separation a relative temperature change can be calculated in near real-time. Temperature sensitivity for the diffraction technique is inversely dependent on the grating length (number of lines) and independent of the grating width. A sensitivity of 0.75°C is demonstrated for a 3-mm wide grating over a 20-700°C temperature range.
We show heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge/SiGe grown on nanometer-scale grating structures. Conventional lithography techniques were combined with reactive ion and wet-chemical etching to fabricate 1-D patterns of silicon posts. The quality of the GaAs layers was investigated using high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and etch pit density (EPD) measurements. Our results show significant improvement in the quality of heteroepitaxial layers grown on nano patterned structures compared to those on the unpatterned silicon. The optical quality of the GaAs/Ge/SiGe on nano-scale patterned silicon was comparable to that of single crystal GaAs.
We report highest quality Ge epilayers on nanoscale patterned Si structures. 100% Ge films of 10 μm are deposited using chemical vapor deposition. The quality of Ge layers was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The defect density was evaluated using etch pit density measurements. We have obtained lowest dislocation density (5×105 cm-2) Ge films on the nanopatterned Si structures. The full width half maximum peaks of the reciprocal space maps of Ge epilayers on the nanopatterned Si showed 93 arc sec. We were able to get rid of the crosshatch pattern on the Ge surface grown on the nanopatterned Si. We also showed that there is a significant improvement of the quality of the Ge epilayers in the nanopatterned Si compared to an unpatterned Si. We observed nearly three-order magnitude decrease in the dislocation density in the patterned compared to the unpatterned structures. The Ge epilayer in the patterned Si has a dislocation density of 5×105 cm-2 as compared to 6×108 cm-2 for unpatterned Si.
Nanoporous devices constitute emerging platforms for selective molecule separation and sensing, with great potential for high throughput and economy in manufacturing and operation. Acting as mass transfer diodes similar to a solid-state device based on electron conduction, conical pores are shown to have superior performance characteristics compared to traditional cylindrical pores. Such phenomena, however, remain to be exploited for molecular separation. Here we present performance results from silicon membranes created by a new synthesis technique based on interferometric lithography. This method creates millimeter sized planar arrays of uniformly tapered nanopores in silicon with pore diameter 100 nm or smaller, ideally-suited for integration into a multi-scale microfluidic processing system. Molecular transport properties of these devices are compared against state-of-the-art polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) membranes. Mass transfer rates of up to fifteen-fold greater than commercial sieve technology are obtained. Complementary results from molecular dynamics simulations on molecular transport are reported.
In this study, Ag/OD-MO/Ag surface-type diode was fabricated by drop-casting orange dye and methyl orange blend thin film from 1.0 wt.% aqueous solution, under the effect of an electric field, on a glass substrate with preliminary deposited silver electrodes. Geometrical length and width of the semiconducting channel between metallic electrodes were equal to 40 μm and 21 mm, respectively. The dark I-V characteristics exhibited strong rectification behaviour though both electrodes were from the same metal. The average value of rectification ratio (RR) was 27 and it was found that RR varies with applied voltage in the range of 1–40. The dark I-V characteristics were simulated by modified Shockley equation and space-charge limited currents (SCLC) approach. Different diode parameters were calculated from current-voltage characteristics. The diode showed non-ideal I-V behaviour with a quality factor greater than unity. Energy band diagram is proposed for the Ag/OD-MO/Ag surface-type diode.
Nonlinear decay of large-amplitude ordinary and extraordinary electromagnetic waves into an electrostatic upper-hybrid wave and a slow shear Alfvén wave in a low-β plasma is considered. Expressions for the growth rates and thresholds are obtained. Applications of this investigation to both space and laboratory plasmas are pointed out.
It is shown that for a plasma with ion temperature greater than electron temperature, an extraordinary electro-magnetic pump wave can parametrically decay into upper-hybrid and electron-acoustic oscillations. The threshold power flux and the growth rate of the instability are obtained. Comparison of our investigation with an earlier work and its possible application to a mirror machine is pointed out.