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At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
Introduction: Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for an emergency department (ED) visit. Most cases are functional and no therapy has proven effective. Our objective was to determine if hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) (BuscopanTM) is effective for children who present to the ED with functional abdominal pain. Methods: We conducted a randomized, blinded, superiority trial comparing HBB 10 mg plus acetaminophen placebo to oral acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (max 975 mg) plus HBB placebo using a double-dummy approach. We included children 8-17 years presenting to the ED at London Health Sciences Centre with colicky abdominal pain rated >40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was VAS pain score at 80 minutes post-administration. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects; caregiver satisfaction with pain management using a five-item Likert scale; recidivism and missed surgical diagnoses within 24-hours of discharge. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Results: We analyzed 225 participants (112 acetaminophen; 113 HBB). The mean (SD) age was 12.4 (3.0) years and 148/225 (65.8%) were females. Prior to enrollment, the median (IQR) duration of pain prior was 2 (4.5) hours and analgesia was provided to 101/225 (44.9%) of participants. The mean (SD) pre-intervention pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 62.7 (15.9) mm and 60.3 (17.3) mm, respectively. At 80 minutes, the mean (SD) pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 30.1 (28.8) mm and 29.4 (26.4) mm, respectively and there were no significant differences adjusting for pre-intervention scores (p = 0.96). The median (IQR) caregiver satisfaction was high in the acetaminophen [5 (2)] and HBB [5 (1)] groups (p = 0.79). The median (IQR) length of stay between acetaminophen [235 (101)] and HBB [234 (103)] was not significantly different (p = 0.53). The proportion of participants with a return visit for abdominal pain was 4/112 (3.5%) in the acetaminophen group and 6/113 (5.3%) in the HBB group. The most common adverse effect was nausea (9% in each group) and there were no significant differences in adverse effects between acetaminophen (26/112, 23.2%) and HBB (31/113, 27.4%) (p = 0.52). There were no missed surgical diagnoses. Conclusion: For children with presumed functional abdominal pain who present to the ED, both acetaminophen and HBB produce a clinically important (VAS < 30 mm) reduction in pain and should be routinely considered in this clinical setting.
To recount experience with cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea and temporal bone meningoencephalocele repair in a tertiary care hospital.
A retrospective review was conducted of 16 cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea and meningoencephalic herniation patients managed surgically from 1991 to 2016.
Aetiology was: congenital (n = 3), post-traumatic (n = 2), spontaneous (n = 1) or post-mastoidectomy (n = 10). Surgical repair was undertaken by combined middle cranial fossa and transmastoid approach in 3 patients, transmastoid approach in 2, oval window plugging in 1, and subtotal petrosectomy with middle-ear obliteration in 10. All patients had successful long-term outcomes, except one, who experienced recurrence after primary stage oval window plugging, but has been recurrence-free after second-stage subtotal petrosectomy with middle-ear obliteration.
Dural injury or exposure in mastoidectomy may lead to cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea or meningoencephalic herniation years later. Congenital, spontaneous and traumatic temporal bone defects may present similarly. Middle cranial fossa dural repair, transmastoid multilayer closure and subtotal petrosectomy with middle-ear obliteration were successful procedures. Subtotal petrosectomy with middle-ear obliteration offers advantages over middle cranial fossa dural repair alone; soft tissue closure is more robust and is preferred in situations where hearing preservation is not a priority.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
In search of a suitable resource conservation technology under pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop productivity and water-use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated during a 3-year study. The treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT) with planting on permanent narrow beds (PNB), PNB with residue (PNB + R), ZT with planting on permanent broad beds (PBB) and PBB + R. The PBB + R plots had higher pigeonpea grain yield than the CT plots in all 3 years. However, wheat grain yields under all plots were similar in all years except for PBB + R plots in the second year, which had higher wheat yield than CT plots. The contrast analysis showed that pigeonpea grain yield of CA plots was significantly higher than CT plots in the first year. However, both pigeonpea and wheat grain yields during the last 2 years under CA and CT plots were similar. The PBB + R plots had higher system WUE than the CT plots in the second and third years. Plots under CA had significantly higher WUE and significantly lower water use than CT plots in these years. The PBB + R plots had higher WUE than PNB + R and PNB plots. Also, the PBB plots had higher WUE than PNB in the second and third years, despite similar water use. The interactions of bed width and residue management for all parameters in the second and third years were not significant. Those positive impacts under PBB + R plots over CT plots were perceived to be due to no tillage and significantly higher amount of estimated residue retention. Thus, both PBB and PBB + R technologies would be very useful under a pigeonpea–wheat cropping system in this region.
The aluminum doped SrFe12O19 hexaferrite samples were prepared via co-precipitation method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. The effects of CTAB content (x = 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 wt. %) on the structure, morphology, and electrocapacitive behavior of the SrFe10Al2O19 nanoparticles were investigated. The use of CTAB was observed to be effective in eliminating α-Fe2O3 phase from samples. Morphological changes including grain and crystallite size was noticed with the increase in the CTAB content. With the increase in CTAB, powder particles grew in size and thickness. A concomitant increase in magnetization due to crystal growth was observed. Electrochemical performance of supercapacitors was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Highest power density of 368.09 WKg-1 and energy density of 0.916 WhKg-1 was observed for 3% and 1% CTAB samples, respectively.
A facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) microspheres. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on morphology and electrochemical properties of MoS2 microspheres was evaluated. X-ray diffraction showed presence of crystalline MoS2 structure, where content of crystalline phase was observed to increase with hydrothermal reaction time. Electrochemical properties of MoS2 were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge in 3M KOH solution. Specific capacitance of nanostructured MoS2 was observed to be between 68 F/g and 346 F/g at different scan rates along with excellent cyclic stability. High power density (∼1200 W/kg) and energy density (∼5 Wh/kg) was observed for MoS2 sample synthesized for 24 hours of hydrothermal reaction time. Overall optimal electrocapactive performance was observed for sample prepared for 24 hours of reaction time. It is demonstrated that the obtained MoS2 microspheres with three-dimensional architecture has excellent electrochemical performances as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.
Hearts in which the arterial trunks arise from the morphologically appropriate ventricles, but in a parallel manner, rather than the usual spiralling arrangement, have long fascinated anatomists. These rare entities, for quite some time, were considered embryological impossibilities, but ongoing experience has shown that they can be found in various segmental combinations. Problems still exist about how best to describe them, as the different variants are often described with esoteric terms, such as anatomically corrected malposition or isolated ventricular inversion. In this review, based on our combined clinical and morphological experience, we demonstrate that the essential feature of all hearts described in this manner is a parallel arrangement of the arterial trunks as they exit from the ventricular mass. We show that the relationship of the arterial roots needs to be described in terms of the underlying ventricular topology, rather than according to the arrangement of the atrial chambers. We then discuss the importance of determining atrial arrangement on the basis of the morphology of the appendages, following the precepts as set out in the so-called “morphological method” and distinguished according to the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions as opposed to basing diagnosis on the venoatrial connections. We show that, when approached in this manner, the various combinations can be readily diagnosed in the clinical setting and described in straightforward way.
Due to the high surface area and good bio-compatibility of nano structured ZnO, it finds good utility in biosensor applications. In this work we have fabricated highly dense ZnO nano bundles with the assistance of self assembled poly methylsilisesquoxane (PMSSQ) matrix which has been realized in a carpet like configuration with implanted ZnO nano-seeds. Such high aspect ratio structures (∼50) with carpet like layout have been realized for the first time using solution chemistry. Nanoparticles of PMMSQ are mixed with a nano-assembler Poly-propylene glycol (PPG) and Zinc Oxide nanoseeds (5-15 nm). The PPG acts by assembling the PMSSQ nanoparticles and evaporates from this film thus creating the highly porous nano-assembly of PMMSQ nanoparticles with implanted Zinc Oxide seeds. Nano-wire bundles with a high overall surface roughness are grown over this template by a daylong incubation of an aqueous solution of hexamethylene tetra amine and Zinc nitrate. Characterization of the fabricated structures has been extensively performed using FESEM, EDAX, and XRD. We envision these films to have potential of highly dense immobilization platforms for antibodies in immunosensors. The principle advantage in our case is a high aspect ratio of the nano-bundles and a high level of roughness in overall surface topology of the carpet outgrowing the zinc-oxide nanowire bundles. Antibody immobilization has been performed by modifying the surface with protein-G followed by Goat anti salmonella antibody. Antibody activity has been characterized by using 3D profiler, Bio-Rad Protein assay and UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
Bidirectional reflectance of a surface is defined as the ratio of the scattered radiation at the detector to the incident irradiance as a function of geometry. Accurate knowledge of the bidirectional reflection function for layers composed of discrete, randomly positioned scattering particles is essential for many remote sensing, engineering, and biophysical applications, as well as for different areas of astrophysics. Computations of bidirectional reflection functions for plane parallel particulate layers are usually reduced to solving the radiative transfer equation by the existing techniques. In this work we present our laboratory data on bidirectional reflectance versus phase angle for two sample sizes of alumina, 0.3 and 1 μm, for the He–Ne laser at wavelengths of 632.8 nm (red) and 543.5 nm (green). The nature of the phase curves of the asteroids depends on the parameters like particle size, composition, porosity, roughness, etc. In the present study we analyze data which are being generated using a single scattering phase function, that is, Mie theory of treating particles as a compact sphere. The well-known Hapke formula, along with different particle phase functions such as Mie and Henyey–Greenstein, will be used to model the laboratory data obtained at the asteroid laboratory of Assam University.
A new technology to size nanoparticles in liquids is presented. The technique is based on aerosol technology coupled to a nanoparticle nebulizer. This allows number concentration measurements in the size range ca. 5 to 500 nm with high peak resolution.
The most abundant biopolymer, cellulose, occurs as a supra-molecular organisation of poly-glucan chains. The cellulose produced by bacteria has been characterised by various techniques including SEM, AFM, PXRD and SAXS, to elucidate the multi-level organisation. A model has been developed to relate this organisation to the cellulose biosynthetic machinery in bacteria.
Cotton–wheat (CW) is the second most important cropping system after rice–wheat in South Asia. Sowing of wheat after cotton is usually delayed due to late pickings coupled with time needed for seedbed preparation, resulting in low wheat yield. Lack of suitable machinery is a major constraint to direct drilling of wheat into the heavy cotton stubbles. An innovative approach with much promise is the ‘2-wheel tractor-based self-propelled relay seeder’ with seed-cum-fertilizer attachment. On-farm trials were conducted at four locations during 2009–2010 and at 10 locations during 2010–2011 to evaluate the following four wheat establishment methods in CW-dominated areas of south-western Punjab, India: (1) zero till seeding in standing cotton using a self-propelled relay seeder, (2) relay seeding in standing cotton with a manual drill without prior tillage (2010 only), (3) relay broadcast seeding in standing cotton following light manual tillage and (4) conventional sowing of wheat after cotton harvest (conventional tillage and sowing with a seed–fertilizer drill). Planting of wheat under conventional practice was delayed by 20–44 days compared with relay seeding. Seed cotton yield was also significantly higher with relay seeding due to opportunity for one additional picking. Yield of wheat sown with the self-propelled relay seeder was 41.2% and 11.8% higher than with conventional practice in 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 respectively. The increase in wheat yield under relay seeding of wheat was primarily due to higher spike density and more grains per spike. The net income from the CW system was 28.2% higher for the self-propelled relay seeder than with conventional sowing.
At the present time, there is a trend towards performing open heart surgery at a younger age. Myocardium of infants has been thought to be more vulnerable to cardiopulmonary bypass in comparison with adults. For this study, we evaluated the degree of myocardial injury by measurement of cardiac troponin levels in infants in comparison with older children for similar surgeries.
Serum was collected before bypass, after bypass, and daily after surgery and serum cardiac troponin I level (micrograms per litre). The demographic data, cardiac diagnoses, types of surgery performed, and peri-operative parameters were collected.
Of the 21 children enrolled consecutively, five were infants. Among the 21 patients, four patients had post-operative peak troponin values greater than 100 (three were infants) and all four patients survived and had normal left ventricular systolic function upon discharge echocardiogram. The five infants had peak troponin levels of 222.3, 202, 129, 26.7, and 82.3. The post-operative peak troponin levels were significantly higher in infants (mean 132.5 with a standard deviation of 81.6) than in the older children (mean 40.3 with a standard deviation of 33.4), although there was no significant difference in bypass time, bypass temperature, cross-clamp time, or the length of stay in the intensive care unit between the two age groups.
Higher troponin release is seen in infants in comparison with older children after bypass for similar surgeries. A troponin level greater than 100 after bypass does not necessarily predict death or a severe cardiovascular event in the very young.
In this article, we investigated the effect of Sn grain structure on the electromigration (EM) reliability of Sn–2.5Ag (wt%) solder joints used in flip-chip packages. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was applied to characterize the Sn grain size and orientation of the solder joints. Failure analyses on Sn–2.5Ag solder joints after EM tests showed that the Sn grain structure was important in controlling the kinetics of the intermetallic compound growth and void formation under EM. Further microstructural analysis revealed that the grain sizes and orientations of the solder joints after multiple solder reflows were statistically different from those with a single solder reflow and resulted in an improved EM reliability. Thermal annealing effect was also investigated to separate the thermal effect from the EM-induced effect. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that EM reliability of Pb-free solder joints could be improved by optimization of the Sn grain structure.