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Individuals present in lower Manhattan during the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster suffered from significant physical and psychological trauma. Studies of longitudinal psychological distress among those exposed to trauma have been limited to relatively short durations of follow-up among smaller samples.
The current study longitudinally assessed heterogeneity in trajectories of psychological distress among WTC Health Registry enrollees – a prospective cohort health study of responders, students, employees, passersby, and residents in the affected area (N = 30 839) – throughout a 15-year period following the WTC disaster. Rescue/recovery status and exposure to traumatic events of 9/11, as well as sociodemographic factors and health status, were assessed as risk factors for trajectories of psychological distress.
Five psychological distress trajectory groups were found: none-stable, low-stable, moderate-increasing, moderate-decreasing, and high-stable. Of the study sample, 78.2% were classified as belonging to the none-stable or low-stable groups. Female sex, being younger at the time of 9/11, lower education and income were associated with a higher probability of being in a greater distress trajectory group relative to the none-stable group. Greater exposure to traumatic events of 9/11 was associated with a higher probability of a greater distress trajectory, and community members (passerby, residents, and employees) were more likely to be in greater distress trajectory groups – especially in the moderate-increasing [odds ratios (OR) 2.31 (1.97–2.72)] and high-stable groups [OR 2.37 (1.81–3.09)] – compared to the none-stable group.
The current study illustrated the heterogeneity in psychological distress trajectories following the 9/11 WTC disaster, and identified potential avenues for intervention in future disasters.
This article offers a revision of the chronology and settlement history of Tula, Hidalgo, synthesizing information obtained from numerous investigations and 68 radiocarbon and seven archaeomagnetic dates. Tula Chico's earliest settlement appeared while the region was under the control of Teotihuacan as one of many hilltop Coyotlatelco settlements in the region. The monumental center at Tula Grande did not appear until after Tula grew to power, presumably with the consolidation of the other Coyotlatelco polities. Extensive exposure of residential structures in numerous localities have revealed a widespread pattern of barrios containing households exhibiting a wide range of social status that enjoyed access to a wide variety of luxury items including the first reported objects of gold. Tula Grande and the Tollan phase city appear to have already been abandoned and in ruins prior to the arrival of Aztec II peoples. The Late Aztec period occupation shows a preoccupation with Tula's ruins that parallels similar evidence from the Templo Mayor excavations suggesting it was indeed the place the Aztecs called Tollan.
Deutetrabenazine, a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, is approved by the FDA for treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. Dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs) are associated with worsening of metabolic parameters, including weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and elevated blood glucose. This post hoc analysis assessed the short- and long-term effects of deutetrabenazine treatment on weight and metabolic parameters in individuals treated for TD.
Two 12-week, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of deutetrabenazine for patients with TD evaluated either fixed dosing (AIM-TD; 12, 24, or 36 mg) or dose titration (ARM-TD; max dose, 48 mg/day). Patients completing ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in an open-label extension (OLE) study, in which all patients underwent response-driven titration of deutetrabenazine from 12 mg/day up to a maximum total dose of 48 mg/day. Weight, body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were evaluated at baseline and during treatment in the RCTs and in the OLE.
In the RCTs, 282 and 133 patients received deutetrabenazine or placebo. At baseline, 77% of patients used DRAs. At Week 12, no meaningful changes in weight were observed, with mean (standard error) weight changes of 0.9–1.2 (0.3–0.5) and 0.2 (0.3) kg in the deutetrabenazine and placebo groups, respectively, and mean BMI changes of 0.3–0.5 (0.1–0.2) and 0.1 (0.1) kg/m2. 337 patients were included in the analysis of the OLE study. No meaningful changes were observed in weight (mean change: 0.4 [0.4] kg at Week 54, –0.5 [0.6] kg at Week 106, and –1.1 [0.6] kg at Week 145) or BMI (mean change: 0.1 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 54, –0.2 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 106, and –0.3 [0.2] kg/m2 at Week 145). Across the studies, no meaningful changes were observed in triglyceride, cholesterol, or glucose levels.
Deutetrabenazine does not affect common metabolic parameters in patients with TD, even during long-term exposure.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Recent excavations at Tula Chico, the monumental center for Tula's earliest settlement, revealed a long and complex history of occupation, beginning with its initial settlement in the Middle Classic period by Coyotlatelco peoples, when much of the region was under Teotihuacan's direct control. During the Epiclassic period, a program of monumental construction began that developed the monumental complex seen today over a period of about 200 years. Although Tula Chico was superseded by Tula Grande, the monumental center for the Early Postclassic city, it continued to be occupied and maintained until its destruction by fire. Tula Chico and Tula Grande show evidence of clear cultural continuity in ceramics, architecture, and sculpture, including “Toltec style” sculpture characteristic of Tula Grande that is present in temporally early contexts at Tula Chico.
The 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies in tardive dyskinesia (TD) patients showed statistically significant improvements in TD symptoms with deutetrabenazine. The completed open-label extension (OLE) study (SD-809-C−20) evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in TD.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the OLE study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score was assessed by local site raters. Treatment success was evaluated locally as patients being “much improved” or “very much improved” on Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC).
343 patients enrolled in the OLE study; 6 patients were excluded from analyses. At Week 54 (n=249; dose [mean±SE]: 38.7±0.66mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –4.8±0.28; 66% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 106 (n=194; dose: 39.3±0.75mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –5.4±0.33; 65% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 145 (n=160; dose: 39.4±0.83mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –6.6±0.37; 73% of patients experienced treatment success. Treatment was generally well tolerated across 723 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) for akathisia/restlessness were 0.01, somnolence/sedation were 0.07, and symptoms which may represent parkinsonism or depression were 0.08 each.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved sustained improvement in AIMS scores. Findings from this open-label trial with response-driven dosing suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence.
Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = −0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls.
Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.
Although no drugs are licensed for the treatment of personality disorder, pharmacological treatment in clinical practice remains common.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug use and associations with psychological service use among people with personality disorder.
Using data from a large, anonymised mental healthcare database, we identified all adult patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder and ascertained psychotropic medication use between 1 August 2015 and 1 February 2016. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed, adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors, to examine the association between psychological services use and psychotropic medication prescribing.
Of 3366 identified patients, 2029 (60.3%) were prescribed some form of psychotropic medication. Patients using psychological services were significantly less likely to be prescribed psychotropic medication (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, P<0.001) such as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants. This effect was maintained following several sensitivity analyses. We found no difference in the risk for mood stabiliser (adjusted odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.57–1.10, P = 0.169) and multi-class psychotropic use (adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07, P = 0.133) between patients who did and did not use psychological services.
Psychotropic medication prescribing is common in patients with personality disorder, but significantly less likely in those who have used psychological services. This does not appear to be explained by differences in demographic, clinical and service use characteristics. There is a need to develop clear prescribing guidelines and conduct research in clinical settings to examine medication effectiveness for this population.
Subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent than PTSD, yet its role as a potential risk factor for PTSD is unknown. To address this gap, we analysed data from a 7-year, prospective national cohort of USA veterans. Of veterans with subthreshold PTSD at wave 1, 34.3% developed PTSD compared with 7.6% of trauma-exposed veterans without subthreshold PTSD (relative risk ratio 6.4). Among veterans with subthreshold PTSD, specific PTSD symptoms, greater age, cognitive difficulties, lower dispositional optimism and new-onset traumas predicted incident PTSD. Results suggest that preventive interventions targeting subthreshold PTSD and associated factors may help mitigate risk for PTSD in USA veterans.
Applied linguistic work claims that multilinguals’ non-native languages interfere with one another based on similarities in cognitive factors like proficiency or age of acquisition. Two experiments explored how trilinguals regulate control of native- and non-native-language words. Experiment 1 tested 46 Dutch–English–French trilinguals in a monitoring task. Participants decided if phonemes were present in the target language name of a picture, phonemes of non-target language translations resulted in longer response times and more false alarms compared to phonemes not present in any translation (Colomé, 2001). The second language (English) interfered more than the first (Dutch) when trilinguals monitored in their third language (French). In Experiment 2, 95 bilinguals learned an artificial language to explore the possibility that the language from which a bilingual learns a third language provides practice managing known-language interference. Language of instruction modulated results, suggesting that learning conditions may reduce interference effects previously attributed to cognitive factors.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
The systems ecology paradigm (SEP) emerged in the late 1960s at a time when societies throughout the world were beginning to recognize that our environment and natural resources were being threatened by their activities. Management practices in rangelands, forests, agricultural lands, wetlands, and waterways were inadequate to meet the challenges of deteriorating environments, many of which were caused by the practices themselves. Scientists recognized an immediate need was developing a knowledge base about how ecosystems function. That effort took nearly two decades (1980s) and concluded with the acceptance that humans were components of ecosystems, not just controllers and manipulators of lands and waters. While ecosystem science was being developed, management options based on ecosystem science were shifting dramatically toward practices supporting sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and local to global interconnections of ecosystems. Emerging from the new knowledge about how ecosystems function and the application of the systems ecology approach was the collaboration of scientists, managers, decision-makers, and stakeholders locally and globally. Today’s concepts of ecosystem management and related ideas, such as sustainable agriculture, ecosystem health and restoration, consequences of and adaptation to climate change, and many other important local to global challenges are a direct result of the SEP.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
Ecosystem science and the systems ecology paradigm co-evolved starting in the late 1960s within the milieu of substantial research funding from the US National Science Foundation-supported US International Biological Program (IBP). Nationally, educational programs focusing on ecosystem structure and functioning, and mathematical modeling, were slow to develop except at Colorado State University (CSU). There, leaders in the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) and the Department of Range Science (DRS) established internationally recognized interdisciplinary programs and outreach in basic and applied ecosystem science and systems ecology. Operating from the sound research base within a major Land Grant University (CSU), the NREL, with IBP funding, supported many graduate students housed in the academic DRS. As the systems ecology approach expanded, other ecosystem-focused research programs developed, and graduate students entered other academic departments. Outgrowths from the early diffused educational training were innovative cross-departmental and cross-college programs addressing the systems ecology paradigm. Recently, a new Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability was established housing both graduate and undergraduate programs. As formal academic training developed on-campus, environmental literacy efforts were developed, including: training programs for K-12 students and teachers; online distance education programs; Citizen Science training; and numerous institutes, short courses, and workshops.
Problems in learning that sights, sounds, or situations that were once associated with danger have become safe (extinction learning) may explain why some individuals suffer prolonged psychological distress following traumatic experiences. Although simple learning models have been unable to provide a convincing account of why this learning fails, it has recently been proposed that this may be explained by individual differences in beliefs about the causal structure of the environment.
Here, we tested two competing hypotheses as to how differences in causal inference might be related to trauma-related psychopathology, using extinction learning data collected from clinically well-characterised individuals with varying degrees of post-traumatic stress (N = 56). Model parameters describing individual differences in causal inference were related to multiple post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom dimensions via network analysis.
Individuals with more severe PTSD were more likely to assign observations from conditioning and extinction stages to a single underlying cause. Specifically, greater re-experiencing symptom severity was associated with a lower likelihood of inferring that multiple causes were active in the environment.
We interpret these results as providing evidence of a primary deficit in discriminative learning in participants with more severe PTSD. Specifically, a tendency to attribute a greater diversity of stimulus configurations to the same underlying cause resulted in greater uncertainty about stimulus-outcome associations, impeding learning both that certain stimuli were safe, and that certain stimuli were no longer dangerous. In the future, better understanding of the role of causal inference in trauma-related psychopathology may help refine cognitive therapies for these disorders.
Manuscripts pertaining to paediatric cardiology and CHD have been published in a variety of different journals. Some of these journals are journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology, while others are focused on adult cardiology. Historically, it has been considered that manuscripts published in journals devoted to adult cardiology have greater citation potential. Our objective was to compare citation performance between manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in paediatric as opposed to adult cardiology journals.
We identified manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in five journals of interest during 2014. Of these journals, two were primarily concerned with adult cardiology, while the other three focused on paediatric cardiology. The number of citations for these identified manuscripts was gathered from Google Scholar. We compared the number of citations (median, mean, and 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles), the potential for citation, and the h-index for the identified manuscripts.
We identified a total of 828 manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and congenital heart as published in the 5 journals during 2014. Of these, 783 (95%) were published in journals focused on paediatric cardiology, and the remaining 45 (5%) were published in journals focused on adult cardiology. The median number of citations was 41 in the manuscripts published in the journals focused on adult cardiology, as opposed to 7 in journals focused on paediatric cardiology (p < 0.001). The h-index, however, was greater for the journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology (36 versus 27).
Approximately one-twentieth of the work relating to paediatric cardiology and CHD is published in journals that focus predominantly on adult cardiology. The median number of citations is greater when manuscripts concerning paediatric cardiology and CHD are published in these journals focused on adult cardiology. The h-index, however, is higher when the manuscripts are published in journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology. While such publications in journals that focus on adult cardiology tend to generate a greater number of citations than those achieved for works published in specialised paediatric cardiology journals, the potential for citation is no different between the journals. Due to the drastically lower number of manuscripts published in journals dedicated to adult cardiology, however, median performance is different.
Varied longitudinal courses of suicidal ideation (SI) may be linked to unique sets of risk and protective factors.
A national probability sample of 2291 U.S. veterans was followed over four assessments spanning 7 years to examine how a broad range of baseline risk and protective factors predict varying courses of SI.
Most veterans (82.6%) denied SI at baseline and all follow-ups, while 8.7% had new onset SI, 5.4% chronic SI, and 3.3% remitted SI. Compared to the no-SI group, chronic SI was associated with childhood trauma, baseline major depressive and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (MDD/PTSD), physical health difficulties, and recent traumatic stressors. Remitted veterans had the highest risk of a prior suicide attempt (SA) compared to no-SI [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 3.31] and chronic SI groups (RRR = 4.65); and high rates of MDD/PTSD (RRR = 7.62). New onset SI was associated with recent stressors and physical health difficulties. All symptomatic SI groups reported decrements in protective factors, specifically, social connectedness, trait curiosity/exploration, and purpose in life.
Nearly one-in-five veterans reported SI over a 7-year period, most of whom evidenced new onset or remitted SI courses. Chronic and remitted SI may represent particularly high-risk SI courses; the former was associated with higher rates of prospective SA, and psychiatric and physical distress, and the latter with increased likelihood of prior SA, and isolation from social and mental health supports. Physical disability, MDD/PTSD, and recent stressors may be important precipitating or maintaining factors of SI, while social connectedness may be a key target for suicide prevention efforts.
Froth flotation by small air bubbles has been traditionally used in industry to capture fine minerals and other hydrophobic particles. This method, however, is not efficient for capturing very small particles. The present work is motivated by a new agglomeration process that overcomes this lack of efficiency. It consists of mixing a particle suspension and saltwater-filled droplets covered with semi-permeable oil layers. This paper investigates the two-particle dynamics of a solid particle and a semi-permeable spherical drop that expands due to osmosis in an external, pure extensional flow field. A dimensionless engulfment parameter measures the relative effects of droplet growth and convective flow. The computational results from numerical integration determine a transient collision efficiency, which describes the influence of hydrodynamic interactions and osmotic flow on particle capture. The results show that drop expansion, which decays slowly with time, greatly increases particle capture rates, especially for small particles. Moreover, as the engulfment parameter increases, there is a transition from flow-dominated capture to expansion-dominated capture. For the case of a non-expanding droplet, we provide a numerical solution for the transient pair distribution function, which enables us to explain the transient particle-capture rate in terms of the microstructure of the suspension. Furthermore, we derive an analytical expression for the initial collision efficiency at zero times, which agrees with our numerical data. The numerical results for non-expanding droplets at long times show increasing collision efficiency as the permeability increases and when the size ratio is near unity, in agreement with previous steady-state calculations.