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The systems ecology paradigm (SEP) emerged in the late 1960s at a time when societies throughout the world were beginning to recognize that our environment and natural resources were being threatened by their activities. Management practices in rangelands, forests, agricultural lands, wetlands, and waterways were inadequate to meet the challenges of deteriorating environments, many of which were caused by the practices themselves. Scientists recognized an immediate need was developing a knowledge base about how ecosystems function. That effort took nearly two decades (1980s) and concluded with the acceptance that humans were components of ecosystems, not just controllers and manipulators of lands and waters. While ecosystem science was being developed, management options based on ecosystem science were shifting dramatically toward practices supporting sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and local to global interconnections of ecosystems. Emerging from the new knowledge about how ecosystems function and the application of the systems ecology approach was the collaboration of scientists, managers, decision-makers, and stakeholders locally and globally. Today’s concepts of ecosystem management and related ideas, such as sustainable agriculture, ecosystem health and restoration, consequences of and adaptation to climate change, and many other important local to global challenges are a direct result of the SEP.
Behavioural therapy often involves self-monitoring techniques to increase awareness about mood and stressful events. In turn, emotional self-awareness is likely to decrease symptoms of depression. Self monitoring also has potential as an early intervention tool for young people, particularly when mobile phones are used as a medium. Previous qualitative research indicates that self-monitoring via mobile phones increase emotional self-awareness with five categories proposed: awareness, identification, communication, contextualisation and decision-making.
This RCT investigates the relationships between self-monitoring, emotional self-awareness and depression using an early intervention mobile phone self-monitoring tool with young people at risk of developing depression.
Young people (between 14 and 24 years of age) identified by their GP as being at risk of depression were recruited by GPs in rural and metropolitan Victoria and randomly assigned to either the intervention group (where they monitored their mood, stress and daily activities) or the comparison group (where the questions about mood and stress were excluded). Participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of depression as well as measures of emotional self-awareness.
Results will be presented on the effects of self-monitoring on emotional self-awareness, the effects of self-monitoring on depression, anxiety and stress and the relationship between emotional self-awareness and depression, anxiety and stress.
Emotional self-awareness as a mediator in the relationship between self-monitoring and depression will be discussed focusing on the relationships between
(ii) emotional self-awareness and
(iii) symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.
Possible avenues for early intervention are suggested.
Modafinil was tested for efficacy in facilitating abstinence in cocaine-dependent patients, compared to placebo.
This is a double-blind placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. 210 treatment-seekers with DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence consented and enrolled. 72 participants were randomized to placebo, 69 to modafinil 200mg, and 69 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants attended the clinic three times per week for assessments and urine drug screens, and had one hour of individual psychotherapy once per week. The primary outcome was the increase in weekly percentage of non-use days. Secondary outcomes included: decrease in the weekly median log of urine benzoylecgonine, subgroup analyses of balancing factors and co-morbid conditions, self-report of alcohol use, addiction severity, craving, and risk behaviors for HIV.
125 participants completed 12 weeks of treatment (60%). The GEE regression analysis showed that for the total sample, the difference between modafinil groups and placebo in the weekly percentage of cocaine non-use days over the 12-week treatment period was not statistically significant (p=0.95). A post-hoc analysis showed a significant effect for modafinil, only in the subgroup of cocaine patients without alcohol dependence. Modafinil 200mg also showed significant effects of an increase in the total number of consecutive non-use days for cocaine (p=0.02), and a reduction in craving (p=0.04).
These data suggest that modafinil, in combination with individual behavioral therapy, was effective for increasing cocaine non-use days in participants without co-morbid alcohol dependence, and in reducing craving.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
The purpose of this study was to identify the self-report physical activity (PA) tool best suited for assessment of PA in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). PA can positively influence physical and psychological health in this population. Although self-report PA tools exist, little is known about the psychometric properties and feasibility of using these tools in older adults with MCC. A systematic literature review from 2000 to 2018 was conducted of studies reporting on the psychometric properties and feasibility of 18 self-report PA tools for community-dwelling older adults (≥ 65 years) to determine the suitability of these tools for use in older adults with MCC. Based on an assessment of the available evidence for the psychometric properties and feasibility of 18 different self-report PA tools, the Physical Activity Assessment Scale for the Elderly (PASE) is recommended as the best-suited self-report PA tool for older adults with MCC.
The residual closure of a subgroup H of a group G is the intersection of all virtually normal subgroups of G containing H. We show that if G is generated by finitely many cosets of H and if H is commensurated, then the residual closure of H in G is virtually normal. This implies that separable commensurated subgroups of finitely generated groups are virtually normal. A stream of applications to separable subgroups, polycyclic groups, residually finite groups, groups acting on trees, lattices in products of trees and just-infinite groups then flows from this main result.
Introduction: Identification of latent safety threats (LSTs) in the emergency department is an important aspect of quality improvement that can lead to improved patient care. In situ simulation (ISS) takes place in the real clinical environment and multidisciplinary teams can participate in diverse high acuity scenarios to identify LSTs. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence that the profession of the participant (i.e. physician, registered nurse, or respiratory therapist) has on the identification of LSTs during ISS. Methods: Six resuscitation- based adult and pediatric simulated scenarios were developed and delivered to multidisciplinary teams in the Kingston General Hospital ED. Each ISS session consisted of a 10- minute scenario, followed by 3-minutes of individual survey completion and a 7- minute group debrief led by ISS facilitators. An objective assessor recorded LSTs identified during each debrief. Surveys were completed prior to debrief to reduce response bias. Data was collected on participant demographics and perceived LSTs classified in the following categories: medication; equipment; resources and staffing; teamwork and communication; or other. Two reviewers evaluated survey responses and debrief notes to formulate a list of unique LSTs across scenarios and professions. The overall number and type of LSTs from surveys was identified and stratified by health care provider. Results: Thirteen ISS sessions were conducted with a total of 59 participants. Thirty- four unique LSTs (8 medication, 15 equipment, 5 resource, 4 communication, and 2 miscellaneous issues) were identified from surveys and debrief notes. Overall, MDs (n = 12) reported 19 LSTss (n = 41) reported 77 LSTs, and RTs (n = 6) reported 4 LSTs based on individual survey data. The most commonly identified category of LSTs reported by MDs (36.8%) and RTs (75%) was equipment issues while RNs most commonly identified medication issues (36.4%). Participants with □5 years of experience in their profession, on average identified more LSTs in surveys than participants with >5 years experience (1.9 LSTs vs 1.5 LSTs respectively). Conclusion: Nursing staff identified the highest number of LSTs across all categories. There was fairly unanimous identification of major LSTs across professions, however each profession did identify unique perspectives on LSTs in survey responses. ISS programs with the purpose of LST identification would benefit from multidisciplinary participation.
This paper represents an interim report of the Burnswark Project that has utilised the techniques of battlefield archaeology to locate and accurately identify missiles across a substantial field of conflict in SW Scotland. The distribution, characteristics, dating and proposed historical context of these missiles are argued to support their use in a dramatic episode of ‘exemplary force’ by the Roman army. The magnitude of the event might be seen to be compatible with an emperor establishing his legitimacy as a military leader.
Both elevated blood pressure and/or depression increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This study in treated elderly hypertensive patients explored the incidence of depression, its association (pre-existing and incident) with mortality and predictors of incident depression.
Data from 6,083 hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study were used. Participants were followed for a median of 10.8 years (including 4.1 years in-trial) and classified into: “no depression,” “pre-existing” and “incident” depression groups based on either being “diagnosed with depressive disorders” and/or “treated with an anti-depressant drug” at baseline or during in-trial period. Further, we redefined “depression” restricted to presence of both conditions for sensitivity analyses. For the current study, end-points were all-cause and any cardiovascular mortality.
313 (5%) participants had pre-existing depression and a further 916 (15%) participants developed depression during the trial period (incidence 4% per annum). Increased (hazard-ratio, 95% confidence-interval) all-cause mortality was observed among those with either pre-existing (1.23, 1.01–1.50; p = 0.03) or incident (1.26, 1.12–1.41; p < 0.001) depression compared to those without. For cardiovascular mortality, a 24% increased risk (1.24, 1.05–1.47; p = 0.01) was observed among those with incident depression. The sensitivity analyses, using the restricted depression definition showed similar associations. Incident depression was associated with being female, aged ≥75 years, being an active smoker at study entry, and developing new diabetes during the study period.
This elderly cohort had a high incidence of depression irrespective of their randomised antihypertensive regimen. Both pre-existing and incident depression were associated with increased mortality.
In sub-Saharan Africa, there are limited data on burden of non-alcohol substance abuse (NAS) and depressive symptoms (DS), yet potential risk factors such as alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV) are common and NAS abuse may be the rise. The aim of this study was to measure the burden of DS and NAS abuse, and determine whether alcohol use and IPV are associated with DS and/or NAS abuse. We conducted a cross-sectional study at five sites in four countries: Nigeria (nurses), South Africa (teachers), Tanzania (teachers) and two sites in Uganda (rural and peri-urban residents). Participants were selected by simple random sampling from a sampling frame at each of the study sites. We used a standardized tool to collect data on demographics, alcohol use and NAS use, IPV and DS and calculated prevalence ratios (PR). We enrolled 1415 respondents and of these 34.6% were male. DS occurred among 383 (32.3%) and NAS use among 52 (4.3%). In the multivariable analysis, being female (PR = 1.49, p = 0.008), NAS abuse (PR = 2.06, p = 0.02) and IPV (PR = 2.93, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with DS. Older age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, p < 0.001)], female (OR = 0.48, p = 0.036) were protective of NAS but current smokers (OR = 2.98, p < 0.001) and those reporting IPV (OR = 2.16, p = 0.024) were more likely to use NAS. Longitudinal studies should be done to establish temporal relationships with these risk factors to provide basis for interventions.
We present multi–epoch VLBI observations of the methanol and water masers in the high–mass star formation region G 339.884−1.259, made using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). Our sub–milliarcsecond precision measurements trace the proper motions of individual maser features in the plane of the sky. When combined with the direct line–of–sight radial velocity (vlsr), these measure the 3 D gas kinematics of the associated high–mass star formation region, allowing us to probe the dynamical processes to within 1000 AU of the core.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
We present polarimetric observations of the 4 ground-state transitions of OH, toward a sample of maser-emitting planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This sample includes confirmed OH-emitting PNe, confirmed and candidate H2O-maser-emitting PNe. Polarimetric observations provide information related to the magnetic field of these sources. Maser-emitting PNe are very young PNe and magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the early evolution and shaping process of PNe. Our preliminary results suggest that magnetic field strengths may change very rapidly in young PNe.
Through the observations and the analysis of maser polarization it is possible to measure the magnetic field in several astrophysical environments (e.g., star-forming regions, evolved stars). In particular from the linearly and circularly polarized emissions we can determine the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field, respectively. In these proceedings the implications, on observed data, of the new estimation of the Landé g-factors for the CH3OH maser are presented. Furthermore, some example of the most recent results achieved in observing the polarized maser emission from several maser species will also be reported.
The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) participated in a number of survey programs to search for and image common class I methanol masers (at 36 and 44 GHz) with high angular resolution. In this paper, we discuss spatial and velocity distributions revealed by these surveys. In particular, the number of maser regions is found to fall off exponentially with the linear distance from the associated young stellar object traced by the 6.7-GHz maser, and the scale of this distribution is 263±15 milliparsec. Although this relationship still needs to be understood in the context of the broader field, it can be utilised to estimate the distance using methanol masers only. This new technique has been analysed to understand its limitations and future potential. It turned out, it can be very successful to resolve the ambiguity in kinematic distances, but, in the current form, is much less accurate (than the kinematic method) if used on its own.
We present the results from an ongoing long-term monitoring of the 22 GHz H2O maser in W49N with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope from February 2014 to September 2017. The unique Effelsbergs spectral line observation capability provides a broad velocity range coverage from −500 to +500 km s−1 with a spectral resolution better than 0.1 km/s. Following the strong major outburst in W49N in late 2013, we have started a long-term monitoring programme at Effelsberg. The major outburst feature (up to 80,000 Jy at VLSR − 98 km s−1) faded away by June 2014. However, we found that the site is still active with several high velocity outbursts (both blue and redshifted). Some features appear at extremely high velocities (up to ±280 km s−1) and show rapid flux variations within a 1-2 month period. This sub-year scale variability implies that the water masers could be excited by episodic shock propagation caused by a high-velocity protostellar jet.
Theoretical simulations have shown that magnetic fields play an important role in massive star formation: they can suppress fragmentation in the star forming cloud, enhance accretion via disc and regulate outflows and jets. However, models require specific magnetic configurations and need more observational constraints to properly test the impact of magnetic fields. We investigate the magnetic field structure of the massive protostar IRAS18089-1732, analysing 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser MERLIN observations. IRAS18089-1732 is a well studied high mass protostar, showing a hot core chemistry, an accretion disc and a bipolar outflow. An ordered magnetic field oriented around its disc has been detected from previous observations of polarised dust. This gives us the chance to investigate how the magnetic field at the small scale probed by masers relates to the large scale field probed by the dust.
The Hubble constant is a key cosmological parameter that sets the present-day expansion rate as well as the age, size, and critical density of the Universe. Intriguingly, there is currently a tension in the measurements of its value in the standard flat ΛCDM model – observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background with the Planck satellite lead to a value of the Hubble constant that is lower than the measurements from the local Cepheids-supernovae distance ladder and strong gravitational lensing. Precise and accurate Hubble constant measurements from independent probes, including water masers, are necessary to assess the significance of this tension and the possible need of new physics beyond the current standard cosmological model. We present the progress toward an accurate Hubble constant determination.
Observations at low frequencies (<8GHz) are dominated by distinct direction dependent ionospheric propagation errors, which place a very tight limit on the angular separation of a suitable phase referencing calibrator and astrometry. To increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements an effective calibration strategy of the systematic ionospheric propagation effects that is widely applicable is required. The MultiView technique holds the key to the compensation of atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two dimensional interpolation. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ~100micro-arcseconds astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit.
We report on the astrometric registration of VLBI images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic Proto-Planetary Nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the KVN and Source/Frequency Phase Referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the AGB star, which drives the bi-lobe structure with the water masers in the out-flow.