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Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Shoe soles have been shown to transfer infectious microorganisms to floor and ground surfaces. However, the possible modes of transmission of infectious agents from floors or ground surfaces to human contact for infection have not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review was performed on articles indexed in medical databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed) using a pre-defined search strategy and MeSH terms (date of last search: 15 March 2016). Only primary research studies in English that investigated the transmission dynamics of infectious microorganisms from floor or ground surfaces to human infection were included. Extraction of articles was performed two independent reviewers using pre-defined data fields in an Excel sheet. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria. Almost all hospital-associated microorganisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative species were identified on floor or ground surfaces. Several modes of transmission dynamics, most commonly direct contact or aerosolization, were identified. In conclusion, interventions such as efficient cleaning of floor surfaces and vectors that transfer infectious organisms to floors such as shoe soles could be an effective infection control strategy to prevent human disease.
Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.
In recent years, livestock producers have been supplementing animal diets with fish meal (FM) to produce value-added products for health conscious consumers. As components of FM have unique neuroendocrine–immunomodulatory properties, we hypothesize that livestock producers may be influencing the overall health of their animals by supplementing diets with FM. In this study, 40 pregnant ewes were supplemented with rumen protected (RP) soybean meal (SBM: control diet) or RP FM, commencing gestation day 100 (gd100), in order to evaluate the impact of FM supplementation on the innate and acquired immune response and neuroendocrine response of sheep during pregnancy and lactation. On gd135, half the ewes from each diet (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) were challenged iv with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate a systemic bacterial infection and the febrile, respiratory and neuroendocrine responses were monitored over time; the other half (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) of the ewes received a saline injection as control. On lactation day 20 (ld20), all ewes (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM) were sensitized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the serum haptoglobin (Hp) response was measured over time. The cutaneous hypersensitivity response (CHR) to HEWL challenge was measured on ld30 (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM), and blood samples were collected over time to measure the primary and secondary immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to HEWL. There was an attenuated trend in the LPS-induced febrile response by the FM treatment when compared with the SBM treatment (P = 0.06), as was also true for the respiratory response (P = 0.07), but significant differences in neuroendocrine function (serum cortisol and plasma ACTH) were not observed between treatments. Basal Hp levels were significantly lower in the FM supplemented ewes when compared with the SBM supplemented ewes (P < 0.01), and the Hp response to HEWL sensitization differed significantly over time between treatments (P < 0.01). The CHR to HEWL was also significantly attenuated in the FM treatment compared with the SBM (P < 0.01); however, treatment differences in the primary and secondary IgG responses to HEWL were not observed. These results indicate that FM supplementation differentially affects the innate and acquired immune responses in pregnant and lactating sheep compared with a typical SBM diet of commercial flocks. The long-term implications of this immunomodulation warrant further investigation.
We report an interesting property of carbon dots: they emit light under charge injection. We synthesized carbon dots in diameter about 20 nm using wet chemistry methods. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the carbon dots dissolved in water was about 11%. We observed strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from the sample. This observation of ECL from carbon dots indicates that they could be a good candidate material for carbon-based electroluminescent devices.
Alternating layers of Ni and Nb with a total thickness of 1060Å, and Ni and Cr with a total thickness of 840Å were deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon. The individual layer thicknesses were adjusted in such a way as to obtain 50/50 at% compositions of Ni-Nb and Ni-Cr; the thicknesses were around 100Å for Ni and 170Å for Nb, and 100Å of Ni and 110Å of Cr. The films were bombarded with 350 keV Cr+ ions at a dose of 2 × 10 ions cm. RBS and TEM techniques were used to study the mixing and microstructure. Almost complete mixing and amorphization have been observed for the Ni-Nb system. Ni-Cr film has revealed very little mixing compared to Ni-Nb film and the microstructure remained polycrystalline. Sputter (rf) deposited Ni-Cr film also remained polycrystalline both before and after ion irradiation. The Ni-Cr System appears to be an exception to the structural difference rule for amorphous phase formation by ion irradiation.
Selective epitaxial growth has been used to produce electronically isolated devices on patterned-oxide Si substrates. The oxide / silicon interfaces in such materials are often associated with regions of poor device performance. In this study, the extended defects at the interfacial regions are examined by transmission electron microscopy, and the defects observed are correlated to electronic behavior of diodes fabricated in the selectively grown Si region. Process modifications were made to reduce the density of these defects. The nature of the successful techniques for defect reduction suggests that a large portion of the defects were due to thermal expansion mismatch, and may be avoidable.
Dermatitis is a common side effect of radiation therapy (RT) whereas squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not. Management must include treatment options outside of RT, especially when cases are limited by extreme fibrosis. Here, we present a case in which a patient developed multiple SCC, severe radiation fibrosis, and limited neck mobility. This situation of increased risk for intubation required interdisciplinary coordination for proper therapeutic intervention, namely Mohs micrographic surgery to manage cutaneous lesions.
We explored the allelopathic potential of kudzu as a function of its phenolics. Aqueous and methanol extracts of different kudzu organs (leaf, stem, root, and seed) were assayed for allelopathy with the use of lettuce and radish seeds. Both leaf and root extracts significantly inhibited all of the measured germination indices (total germination, speed of germination, and coefficient of the rate of germination) (all P < 0.01). When treated with leaf extract, the total germination of both species was ∼ 20% less than the control. Furthermore, the leaf extract significantly reduced the speed of germination to 38 and 53% that of the lettuce and radish controls, respectively. Lettuce and radish seeds soaked in leaf and root extracts for 24 h imbibed less water (∼ 30% for both species) than those soaked in distilled water (control), suggesting that a reduction of water imbibition might be one of the mechanisms of germination retardation. Stem and seed extracts affected neither the water uptake nor the germination indices of radish and lettuce seeds. Kudzu leaves and roots contain higher amounts of total phenolics (P = 0.001) and soluble phenolics (P = 0.005) than stems and seeds, consistent with the results of the germination bioassays. In agar plate bioassays, both litter and rhizosphere soil had phytotoxic effects on the radicle growth of radish (P = 0.003) and perennial ryegrass (P = 0.001) seedlings. Perennial ryegrass and cobbler's pegs seedlings grown on leaf and root leachate-amended soil gave ∼ 40% shorter roots and shoots and ∼ 50% less dry weight than those grown in leachate-free soil. Kudzu litter was incorporated and incubated in soil for 6 wk, at which point the soluble phenolics in the soil solution were at a level (> 150 ppm) considered to be allelopathic.
To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh.
Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls.
A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <−2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <−2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; ∼10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was −0·3 (0·64) and −0·9 (0·40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0·05). Young age (12–14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0·29, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·88 and OR = 0·50, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7·40, 95 % CI 1·43, 38·29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0·05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0·43, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0·05).
Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.
Growth failure is a common yet complex problem of childhood chronic kidney disease caused by multiple factors encountered due to the primary disease or secondary to the renal impairment. This review seeks to describe the various patho-physiological mechanisms contributing to growth failure in the various stages of childhood with particular emphasis on nutritional problems and endocrine dysfunction encountered whilst managing these children. In addition, we shall examine the role of body composition in chronic kidney disease, their relationship with growth and nutrition and the potential effect of abnormalities in fat mass and lean mass on long-term morbidity and mortality.
This research set out to find ways to increase wheat production in Bangladesh. The approaches were (1) to increase the area planted to wheat, concentrating on developing a suitable management system for the very hot, often saline and hitherto largely untested fallow lands of the south; and (2) to increase economic and sustainable yield of wheat in the traditional rice-wheat zones. Five mechanized reduced tillage and planting systems were compared. They were used to enable 200 co-operating farmers at 11 locations to plant on time and avoid the reduction in yield that accompanies delays, found in this study to average 2 % d−1. Methods that placed seeds in rows were zero tillage, full or strip surface shallow till, and raised beds. A partially mechanized version of the traditional manual system called New Conventional, in which seeds and fertilizers were broadcast, was also tested. Farmers' wheat yields averaged more than 3.5 t ha−1 for the two seasons of the study. Farmers in the untested lands averaged more than 2.5 t ha−1 on their farms, well above the 0.5 t ha−1 needed to cover all costs and equal to normal production levels in traditional wheat areas. Surprisingly, full and strip till did not produce higher yields overall than New Conventional in either season. Reasons for the lack of difference are discussed in relation to other aspects of management and variation between the farmers themselves. Farmers had varying opinions and mixed success with zero till and beds. The economic consequences to farmers of using the different systems are also discussed with the suggestion that the low-tech New Conventional method will be preferable for novice wheat farmers in the historically fallow lands where the study indicated potential production is 1 million tonnes.
During 1989–2002, we studied the antimicrobial resistance of 3928 blood culture isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Overall 32% (1270) of the strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole); first detected in 1990 (rate of 8%), increased in 1994 (44%), declined in 1996 (22%, P<0·01 compared to 1994) and re-emerged in 2001 (36%) and 2002 (42%, P<0·01 compared to 1996). An increased MIC of ciprofloxacin (0·25 μg/ml) indicating decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was detected in 24 (18·2%) out of 132 randomly selected strains during 1990–2002; more frequently in MDR than susceptible strains (46·3% vs. 5·5%, P<0·001), and the proportion of them rose to 47% in 2002 from 8% in 2000 (P<0·01). Ciprofloxacin (5 μg) disk diffusion zone diameters of [les ]24 mm as break-point had 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity when compared with a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0·25 μg/ml as break-point for decreased susceptibility; being a useful and easy screen test. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone. The emergence of MDR S. Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility will further complicate the therapy of typhoid fever because of the lack of optimum treatment guidelines.
Infrasellar craniopharyngioma is an uncommon neoplasm. Rarely, it presents with epistaxis. To date, 39 cases of infrasellar craniopharyngioma have been reported in the world literature. Involvement of the maxillary sinus has only been reported once. We report a second case exclusively involving the nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus and maxillary sinus. Excision was performed using a Denker’s medial maxillectomy approach.
This study is a contribution to the further understanding of cytological patterns in Aeschynanthus(Gesneriacaeae). Chromosome numbers are reported for 12 species from six sections; nine of these are new counts. Two basic numbers, x=16 and x=15, are generally encountered. Aeschynanthus gracilis proved to be of exceptional interest, as its rare somatic number, 2n=28, confirms the occurrence of a third basic number, x=14, in the genus. Variation in chromosome number in relation to seed morphology is examined.
Lanthanum phosphate glasses were synthesized by melt quenching and characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A range of compositions near the metaphosphate composition (75 mol% P2O5) was examined. Comparison of 31P chemical shifts and shielding anisotropies of glasses with those of the crystalline phases of La(PO3)3 (metaphosphate) and LaP5O14 (pentaphosphate) were consistent with the presence of primarily chainlike Q2 phosphate groups.
A rapid and reliable method based on immuno-affinity chromatography and preparative high pressure liquid chromatography was used for extraction and purification of cAMP from the two trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer and Explanatum explanatum. The purified cAMP was quantified by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in an amount of 44 and 83 picomole/g fresh weight of Gastrothylax crumenifer and Explanatum explanatum respectively.
A comparative studs of the spectral, electrophoretic and isoelectric properties of the haemoglobins of three trematodes. Paramphistomum epiclitum. Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax erumenifer was carried out. A high absorption in the beta band region indicates that trematode haemoglobins have high oxygen affinities. Electrophoretic mobilities of all trematode and their host haemoglobins were different. The isoelectric points of trematode haemoglobins were found to focus in the acidic range except that of G. crumenifer haemoglobin I. which focused at an alkaline pH.