To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rumen-protected betaine (RPB) can enhance betaine absorption in the small intestine of ruminants, while betaine can alter fat distribution and has the potential to affect the meat quality of livestock. Hence, we hypothesized that RPB might also affect the meat quality of lambs. Sixty male Hu sheep of similar weight (30.47 ± 2.04 kg) were selected and randomly subjected to five different treatments. The sheep were fed a control diet (control treatment, CTL); 1.1 g/day unprotected-betaine supplemented diet (UPB); or doses of 1.1 g/day (low RPB treatment; L-PB), 2.2 g/day (middle RPB treatment; M-PB) or 3.3 g/day (high RPB treatment; H-PB) RPB-supplemented diet for 70 days. Slaughter performance, meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, shoulder muscle (SM) and gluteus muscle (GM) were measured. Compared with CTL, betaine (including UPB and RPB) supplementation increased the average daily weight gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.01) of lambs. Rumen-protected betaine increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with UPB. With increasing RPB doses, the eye muscle area of the lambs linearly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation decreased water loss (P < 0.05) in SM and increased pH24 in the SM (P < 0.05) and GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB decreased water loss in the GM (P < 0.01), decreased shear force (P < 0.05) in the LD and SM and increased the pH of the meat 24 h after slaughter (pH24). With increasing RPB doses, the shear force and b* value in the LD linearly decreased (P < 0.05), and the pH24 of the meat quadratically increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the LD (P < 0.05) and increased the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids and UFA/SFA ratio in the LD (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, the content of histidine in the LD increased with betaine supplementation. Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation increased the content of total free amino acids and flavor amino acids in the LD of lambs (P < 0.05). With increasing RPB, the isoleucine and phenylalanine contents in the LD linearly increased (P < 0.05). Overall, the data collected indicated that the meat quality of lambs (especially in the LD) improved as a result of betaine supplementation, and RPB showed better effects than those of UPB.
In this paper, the occurrence of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and its effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compression in FC-40 are investigated. As the experimental medium, the characteristics of FC-40 are suitable for pulse compression. Firstly, the frequency shifts and the threshold of SRS in FC-40 are studied with a mode-locked laser system as pump source, without taking the SBS effect into account. On the basis of the experimental results, the competition between SRS and SBS as well as its effect on pulse compression is investigated. Results show that SRS gets higher gain and grows rapidly with the increase of the laser intensity by pump effect, which will result in decreasing of SBS energy reflection.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption may have beneficial effects on mood disorders. However, no study has been reported on this issue in young adults to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in Japanese undergraduate students.
The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. A total of 4190 completed questionnaires (from 2124 men and 2066 women) were received for analysis.
Multivariate logistic analysis showed that fish intake was inversely associated with risk of depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. After adjustment for possible confounders, the odds-ratios (95% confidence intervals) for fish intake 1–2 times/month, 1–2 times/week, 3–4 times/week, and almost every day (compared with “almost never”) were 0.78 (0.62–0.99), 0.70 (0.56–0.87), 0.67 (0.53–0.85) and 0.65 (0.46–0.92), respectively. This association tended to be stronger in women than in men.
Frequent fish consumption in undergraduate students seems to moderate depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to clarify the causality.
We hypothesized that presence of the short allele in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter would moderate the effect of early cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk on epigenetic change among African American youth. Contrasting hypotheses regarding the shape of the interaction effect were generated using vulnerability and susceptibility frameworks and applied to data from a sample of 388 African American youth. Early cumulative SES risk assessed at 11–13 years based on parent report interacted with presence of the short allele to predict differential methylation assessed at age 19. Across multiple tests, a differential susceptibility perspective rather than a diathesis–stress framework best fit the data for genes associated with depression, consistently demonstrating greater epigenetic response to early cumulative SES risk among short allele carriers. A pattern consistent with greater impact among short allele carriers also was observed using all cytosine nucleotide–phosphate–guanine nucleotide sites across the genome that were differentially affected by early cumulative SES risk. We conclude that the short allele is associated with increased responsiveness to early cumulative SES risk among African American youth, leading to epigenetic divergence for depression-related genes in response to exposure to heightened SES risk among short allele carriers in a “for better” or “for worse” pattern.
Gattini and CSTAR have been installed at Dome A, Antarctica, which provide time-series photometric data for a large number of pulsating variable stars. We present the study for several variable stars with the data collected with the two facilities in 2009 to demonstrate the scientific potential of observations from Dome A for asteroseismology.
Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth (Saunders et al. 2009). We used the CSTAR telescope (Yuan et al. 2008) to obtain time-series photometry of 104 stars with i>14.5 mag during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter season (Wang et al. 2011). During the 2010 season we observed 2 × 104 stars with i>15 mag for 183 days (Wang et al. 2012). We detected a total of 262 variables, a 6 × increase relative to previous surveys of the same area and depth carried out from temperate sites (Pojmanski 2004). Our observations show that high-precision, long-term photometry is possible from Antarctica and that astronomically useful data can be obtained during 80% of the winter season.
The phylogenetic and epidemic relationships of 104 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile from three hospitals of different geographical and population sources in China were investigated by multilocus sequence typing. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) were identified, four of which, ST117, ST118, ST119 and ST129, were novel. No geographically specific and host population-specific phylogenetic lineages were found and there was no correlation between geographical origin or host population and strain genotype. ST37 was the dominant type in our survey but the four novel STs underline the high genetic diversity and unique polymorphisms in C. difficile from China.
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
We investigated defects in CdZnTe crystals produced from various conditions and their impact on fabricated devices. In this study, we employed transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM and STEM), because defects at the nano-scale are not observed readily under an optical or infrared microscope, or by most other techniques. Our approach revealed several types of defects in the crystals, such as low-angle boundaries, dislocations and precipitates, which likely are major causes in degrading the electrical properties of CdZnTe devices, and eventually limiting their performance.
Residual impurities in manganese (Mn) are a big obstacle to obtaining high- performance CdMnTe (CMT) X-ray and gamma-ray detectors. Generally, the zone-refining method is an effective way to improve the material’s purity. In this work, we purified the MnTe compounds combining the zone-refining method with molten Te that has a very high solubility. We confirmed the improved purity of the material by glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). We also found that CMT crystals from a multiple refined MnTe source, grown by the vertical Bridgman method, yielded better performing detectors.
Genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene coded by the HLA-II region may be associated with outcomes of HBV infection. We conducted a case-control study to test the hypothesis, including a persistent group of 155 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 36 healthy carriers, a recovered group of 165 individuals spontaneously recovered from HBV infection, and an uninfected group of 278 healthy normal controls. Genotypes of eight polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene were analysed by PCR–RFLP. A logistic regression model was used to analyse statistical differences in polymorphisms or haplotypes in different groups. Of the eight polymorphisms, two (TAP1 codon 637 and LMP7 codon 145) were observed to have statistically significant association with outcomes of HBV infection (P<0·05). The two-locus haplotype constructed with two such polymorphisms was analysed. The frequencies of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were found to be increased significantly in the persistent group, compared to healthy controls (OR 2·26, 95% CI 1·62–3·15, P<0·001; OR 2·37, 95% CI 1·69–3·32, P<0·001; OR 4·38, 95% CI 1·78–10·77, P=0·001, respectively). The prevalence of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were also significantly higher in the persistent infectious group than in the recovered group (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·81–3·98, P<0·001; OR 2·40, 95% CI 1·62–3·55, P<0·001; OR 3·03, 95% CI 1·22–7·55, P=0·017, respectively). These findings indicated that genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene might be an important factor in determining the outcome of HBV infection.
PLATO is a fully-robotic observatory designed for operation in
Antarctica. It generates its own electricity (about 1 kW), heat
(sufficient to keep two 10-foot shipping containers comfortably above
0°C when the outside temperature is at -70°C), and
connects to the internet using the Iridium satellite system (providing
~30 MB/day of data transfer). Following a successful first year of
operation at Dome A during 2008, PLATO was upgraded with
new instruments for 2009.
In January 2005, members of a Chinese expedition team were the first
humans to visit Dome A on the Antarctic plateau, a site
predicted to be one of the very best astronomical sites on earth. In 2006, the Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy (CCAA) was founded
to promote the development of astronomy in Antarctica, especially at
Dome A. CCAA has since taken part in two traverses to Dome A, organized
by the Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC), in the austral
summers of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. These traverses resulted in the
installation of many site-testing and science instruments, supported
by the PLATO observatory. The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR)
has produced excellent results from Dome A. Our future plans include further site-testing work, and the following
full-scale science instruments: three 0.5-m Antarctic Schmidt
Telescopes (AST3), and a proposed 4-m telescope for wide-field
infrared high spatial-resolution surveys. The first AST3 telescope is
under construction and is scheduled for installation in 2011.
PLATO is a 6 tonne completely self-contained robotic observatory that provides its own heat, electricity, and satellite communications. It was deployed to Dome A in Antarctica in January 2008 by the Chinese expedition team, and is now in its second year of operation. PLATO is operating four 14.5cm optical telescopes with 1k × 1k CCDs, a wide-field sky camera with a 2k × 2k CCD and Sloan g, r, i filters, a fibre-fed spectrograph to measure the UV to near-IR sky spectrum, a 0.2m terahertz telescope, two sonic radars giving 1m resolution data on the boundary layer to a height of 180m, a 15m tower, meteorological sensors, and 8 web cameras. Beginning in 2010/11 PLATO will be upgraded to support a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor and three AST3 0.5m schmidt telescopes, with 10k × 10 CCDs and 100TB/annum data requirements.
Two aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass systems, a lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride and a lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride, doped with different TbF3 concentrations, have been fabricated and investigated. By appropriate heat treatment of the as-prepared glasses above, transparent glass-ceramics (TGC) were obtained. The glass-ceramics contain Tb:Pb(Cd)F2 or Tb:LaF3 nano-crystals in the glass-matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Raman scattering, and luminescence under both UV and β-particle excitation have been investigated on as-prepared glasses and glass-ceramics. It has been found that the terbium-doped lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass exhibits good UV excited luminescence and β-induced luminescence. The luminescence yield increases for glass-ceramic compared to that of the as-prepared glass. The including of LaF3 in the glass-matrix is beneficial for a higher Tb-doping concentration and a high light yield. The light yield of lithium-lanthanum-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic is comparable to that of Schott IQI-301 product. However, the terbium-doped lead-cadmium-aluminosilicate oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramic have a detrimental luminescence performance. The lead cations in the glass-matrix may create non-bridging oxygen defects, which are a strong source of charge traps, and correlated to a strong Raman “Boson” peak.
Dome A, the summit of the Antarctic plateau, is expected to have even
better atmospheric conditions for ground-based astronomy than Dome C.
Instruments to evaluate and exploit Dome A's astronomical potential
must operate within logistical constraints, which are currently
very stringent. Instrumentation now at Dome A exemplifies the
techniques and solutions required by this environment. Future
instrumentation and infrastructure will allow the qualities of the site
to be exploited much more fully.
A study of Si-doped and Mg-doped AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % and the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths at 340 nm and 290 nm are reported. By using grading super-lattices (SLs) before n-type AlGaN growth, surface roughness is much improved. Resistivity of 2.9×10-2 Ωcm and free electron concentrations of 2.9×10 cm- are achieved for n-type Al0.45Ga0.55N. The viability of effective p-type doping is defined by a minimum concentration of Mg required to offset the background impurities and, more importantly, a maximum limit above which inversion domains and structural defects start to nucleate, accompanied by a rapid degradation of electrical transport. Resistivity of 10 Ωcm and free hole concentrations above 1017 cm−3 are achieved for AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % within an optimum window of Mg incorporation. Output powers up to 1.5 mW from small area 340 nm LEDs (< 100 μm diameter) and 110 μW from 290 nm LEDs (100 μm diameter) directly off a planar chip have been achieved under DC condition. For large area encapsulated lamp (1×1 mm2 device area and 0.52 mm2 mesa area), output power of 79 mW from 340 nm LEDs and 8.5 mW from 290 nm LEDs are achieved under pulse mode (1kHz, 2% duty factor).
A detailed understanding of the physics of space-charge-dominated
beams is vital in the design of heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF)
drivers. In that regard, low-energy, high-intensity electron
beams provide an excellent model system. The University of Maryland
Electron Ring (UMER), currently being installed, has been designed
to study the physics of space-charge-dominated beams with extreme
intensity in a strong focusing lattice with dispersion. At 10
keV and 100 mA, the beam from the UMER injector has a generalized
perveance as much as 0.0015, corresponding to that of proposed
HIF drivers. Though compact (11 m in circumference), UMER will
be a very complex device by the time of its completion (expected
2003). We present an update on the construction as well as recent