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To introduce some questionnaires related to family environment such as FAD-GFS (The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) and evaluate their validity and reliability.
Using cross-sectional design. The general questionnaire, FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from 504 parents of only children FACESII-CV and Index of General Affect were used as scale of criteria related.
The reliability and validity of FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ is: Cronbach coefficient were 0.695 to 0.749; re-test reliability were 0.712 to 0.901; The scores of the scale in those questionnaires were correlated with each factor significantly and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of those scales. The correlation between the scores of FSQ, EFQ and the scores of Index of General Affect was-0.192, 0.539; The correlation between the scores of FAD-GFS, FLQ the score of total and three factor differently and the scores of family cohesion scores (FACESII-CV) was -0.423, 0.237, 0.514, 0.302, 0.210.
FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of psychometric and is useful as a tool to evaluate the family environment.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has an important role in learning, motivation and regulation of mood. A body of research indicates that dysregulation of BDNF is found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of baseline plasma BDNF and follow-up PTSD symptoms in Chinese motor vehicle accident survivors.
Motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors were recruited from one Emergency Room of Shanghai. BDNF plasma levels were measured in 24 hours after motor vehicle accident. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was used to evaluated PTSD symptoms one month after accident. Totally, 60 MVA survivors participated in this study and 49 of them completed follow-up evaluation.
In the one month follow-up interview, 14 of the MVA survivors met the PTSD diagnosis. The PTSD MVA survivors shown lower baseline BDNF plasma level when compare with non-PTSD participants (p < 0.05).
People who show lower plasma BDNF after traumatic event may be more susceptible to PTSD, and plasma BDNF could be a predictor of PTSD.
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of PSDQ Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire, PSDQ.
443 parents whose children aged 6 to 16 who lived in Chongqing were selected. 52 of them were retested 6 weeks later in order to assess the retest reliability. Determination of reliability include:internal consistency: to calculate Cronbach coefficient; coefficient of retest reliability: to calculate Person correlation of results of the results in every subscale in twice measurements of 52 parents. Determination of validity: content validity, structural validity, discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis.
For each subscale and factor, the values of kappa for inter - rater reliability were 0.625 to 0.884 (p < 0. 05); retest reliability were 0.537 to 0.832 (p < 0. 05) ; The scores of the subscale in the PSDQ were correlated with each factor significantly (coefficient of correlation: 0.732 to 0.951,p < 0. 05) and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of this subscale(coefficient of correlation: 0.382-0.834,p < 0. 05). Maker of confirmatory factor analysis show met the criteria standard for adequacy of fit. CMIN/df: 2.218-3.745; TLI: 0.808-0.920; RMSEA: 0.052-0.079; MECVI of default model is very close to that of saturated model, most of proliferation index are more than 0.8.
Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of Psychometric is useful as a tool to evaluate the parenting styles from parents.
Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag for treatment response of classic antidepressants. The behavioral responses were assessed by the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. In the first stage of experiments, all the four treatment regimens of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once daily for 3 or 7 consecutive days, or once every 7 or 3 days, in a total 21 days) showed robust antidepressant-like effects, with no significant influence on locomotor activity and stereotype behavior in the CUMS rats. The intermittent administration regimens produced longer antidepressant-like effects than the consecutive administration regimens and the administration every 7 days presented similar antidepressant-like effects with less administration times compared with the administration every 3 days. In the second stage of experiments, the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once every 7 days) and citalopram (20 mg/kg po, once daily) for 21 days caused more rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects than citalopram administered alone. In summary, repeated sub-anesthestic doses of ketamine can redeem the time lag for the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram, suggesting the combination of ketamine and classic antidepressants is a promising regimen for depression with quick onset time and stable and lasting effects.
In the livestock husbandry compensatory growth may be explored as a means to improve nutrient utilization, to reduce gut health problems due to excess protein intake, to simplify feeding strategies and thus to improve production efficiencies. This study investigated the effects of early protein restriction (EPR) and early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, colonic bacteria, metabolites and mucosal gene expressions during the restriction phase and re-alimentation phase. A total of 64 piglets (10.04 ± 0.73 kg) were randomly divided into four treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of proteins (14% v. 20%) and two levels of antibiotics (0 v. 50 mg/kg kitasamycin and 20 mg/kg colistin sulphate). After a 30-day restriction phase with four kinds of diets, all groups were fed the same diets for another 74 days. The results showed that EPR decreased BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake in the restriction phase (P < 0.01) and increased ADG on days 66 to 104 of the late re-alimentation phase. Early protein restriction could decrease the villus height in the jejunum (P < 0.05), while shifting to the same diets restored the villus height. Meanwhile, during the re-alimentation phase, pigs in the protein restriction groups had increased concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (P < 0.05), and modified the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the colon. Furthermore, the lower microbial diversity caused by EPR was improved, and gene expression analysis indicated a better barrier function in the colon. During the whole trial, EAI had no interaction with EPR and played a dispensable role in compensatory growth. Collectively, the retardation of growth caused by EPR can be compensated for in the later stages of pig raising, and accompanied by altered intestinal morphology, microbial composition.
Predicting the magnitude of the annual seasonal peak in influenza-like illness (ILI)-related emergency department (ED) visit volumes can inform the decision to open influenza care clinics (ICCs), which can mitigate pressure at the ED. Using ILI-related ED visit data from the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net for Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, we developed (training data, 1 August 2004–31 July 2008) and tested (testing data, 1 August 2008–19 February 2014) spatio-temporal statistical prediction models of daily ILI-related ED visits to estimate high visit volumes 3 days in advance. Our Main Model, based on a generalised linear mixed model with random intercept, incorporated prediction residuals over 14 days and captured increases in observed volume ahead of peaks. During seasonal influenza periods, our Main Model predicted volumes within ±30% of observed volumes for 67%–82% of high-volume days and within 0.3%–21% of observed seasonal peak volumes. Model predictions were not as successful during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our model can provide early warning of increases in ILI-related ED visit volumes during seasonal influenza periods of differing intensities. These predictions may be used to support public health decisions, such as if and when to open ICCs, during seasonal influenza epidemics.
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are widely used for antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but real-world data on treatment patterns and long-term clinical outcomes are not always available. Using data from electronic medical records between January 2011 and December 2016 in Shanghai, China, we evaluated patient characteristics, treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with CHB. There were 6688 patients in the study cohort. The incidences of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were 41.0‰ and 6.8‰ person-years, respectively. There were more cirrhosis and HCC cases among patients who had shorter NA treatment duration (<365 days), or who were less compliant (<80%). In addition, increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC was observed in patients who did not achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis developed after antiviral treatments had a higher incidence of HCC (adjusted hazard ratio 15.86, 95% confidence interval 7.35–34.24). Good compliance with treatment and longer treatment duration significantly decreased the risk of developing cirrhosis and HCC. HBsAg loss seemed to be a protective factor for cirrhosis/HCC in NAs-treated patients with CHB, and cirrhosis was a confirmed risk factor for HCC development as expected.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a serious hospital and community-acquired infection and some strains are associated with greater severity. We investigated the clinical variability and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in Shenzhen, China through a study at nine sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. MRSA infections were classified as community-associated (CA-MRSA), healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO-MRSA). In total, 812 MRSA isolates were collected and 183 of these were selected for further study. Patients with HA-MRSA infections were generally of greater age compared to other groups. Distinct body site and clinical presentations were evident in infected patients, e.g. CA-MRSA (skin and soft tissue, 53%), HA-MRSA (respiratory tract, 22%; surgical site, 20%; trauma wounds, 20%) and HACO-MRSA (mastitis, 47%). In contrast to HA-MRSA, other categories of strains were significantly more susceptible to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline. No resistance to vancomycin or linezolid was recorded. The predominant clonal lineage within each strain category was CC59-t437-SCCmec IV/V-agr I (CA, 51·4%; HA, 28·9%; HACO, 52·9%) which exhibited characteristics of a traditional CA clone together with agr I which is more often associated with HA clones. In conclusion, for the three categories of MRSA infections, there were significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients, but the predominant clone in each category shared a similar genetic background which suggests that transmission of MRSA strains has occurred between the community and hospitals in Shenzhen.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Alkaline rock and carbonatite complexes, including the Prairie Lake complex (NW Ontario), are widely distributed in the Canadian region of the Midcontinent Rift in North America. It has been suggested that these complexes were emplaced during the main stage of rifting magmatism and are related to a mantle plume. The Prairie Lake complex is composed of carbonatite, ijolite and potassic nepheline syenite. Two samples of baddeleyite from the carbonatite yield U–Pb ages of 1157.2±2.3 and 1158.2±3.8 Ma, identical to the age of 1163.6±3.6 Ma obtained for baddeleyite from the ijolite. Apatite from the carbonatite yields the same U–Pb age of ~1160 Ma using TIMS, SIMS and laser ablation techniques. These ages indicate that the various rocks within the complex were synchronously emplaced at about 1160 Ma. The carbonatite, ijolite and syenite have identical Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions with a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~0.70254, and positive εNd(t)1160 and εHf(t)1160 values of ~+3.5 and ~+4.6, respectively, indicating that the silicate and carbonatitic rocks are co-genetic and related by simple fractional crystallization from a magma derived from a weakly depleted mantle. These age determinations extend the period of magmatism in the Midcontinent Rift in the Lake Superior area to 1160 Ma, but do not indicate whether the magmatism is associated with passive continental rifting or the initial stages of plume-induced rifting.
Attention bias modification (ABM) training has been suggested to effectively reduce depressive symptoms, and may be useful in the prevention of the illness in individuals with subthreshold symptoms, yet little is known about the spontaneous brain activity changes associated with ABM training.
Resting-state functional MRI was used to explore the effects of ABM training on subthreshold depression (SubD) and corresponding spontaneous brain activity changes. Participants were 41 young women with SubD and 26 matched non-depressed controls. Participants with SubD were randomized to receive either ABM or placebo training during 28 sessions across 4 weeks. Non-depressed controls were assessed before training only. Attentional bias, depressive severity, and spontaneous brain activity before and after training were assessed in both training groups.
Findings revealed that compared to active control training, ABM training significantly decreased depression symptoms, and increased attention for positive stimuli. Resting-state data found that ABM training significantly reduced amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the right anterior insula (AI) and right middle frontal gyrus which showed greater ALFF than non-depressed controls before training; Functional connectivity strength between right AI and the right frontoinsular and right supramarginal gyrus were significantly decreased after training within the ABM group; moreover, the improvement of depression symptoms following ABM significantly correlated with the connectivity strength reductions between right AI and right frontoinsular and right supramarginal gyrus.
These results suggest that ABM has the potential to reshape the abnormal patterns of spontaneous brain activity in relevant neural circuits associated with depression.
Necrophoric behaviour is critical sanitation behaviour in social insects. However, little is known about the necrophoric responses of workers towards different developmental stages in a colony as well as its underlying mechanism. Here, we show that Solenopsis invicta workers display distinct necrophoric responses to corpses of workers and pupae. Corpses of workers killed by freezing (dead for <1 h) were carried to a refuse pile, but pupal corpses would take at least 1 day to elicit workers’ necrophoric response. Metarhizium anisopliae-infected pupal corpses accelerated the necrophoric behaviour of resident workers, with 47.5% of unaffected corpses and 73.8% infected corpses discarded by 1 day post-treatment). We found that fungus-infected pupal corpses had a higher concentration of fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on their surface. We experimentally confirmed that linoleic and oleic acids would elicit a necrophoric response in workers. The appearance of linoleic and oleic acids appeared to be chemical signals involved in recognition of pupal corpses, and M. anisopliae infection could promote the accumulation of fatty acids on surface of pupal corpses resulting in accelerated necrophoric responses of workers.
A comparative study of the effect of dietary nitrogen (N) content [Low: 11·0; Medium-Low (MLow): 16·7; Medium-High (Mhigh): 23·1; High: 29·2 N g/kg dry matter (DM)] on apparent digestibilities, rumen fermentation and N balance was conducted in coarse wool Tibetan sheep and Gansu Alpine fine-wool sheep at Wushaoling in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It was hypothesized that responses would differ between breeds and that responses would favour Tibetan over fine-wool sheep at low N intakes. Eight wethers [four Tibetan sheep and four fine-wool sheep, 20–24 months old; body weight ± standard deviation was 52 ± 3·2 kg] were used in two concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when fed the Low, MLow and High N diets while N retention was higher when the animals were fed the Low and MLow N diets. Tibetan sheep had a higher rumen pH than fine-wool sheep; however, total volatile fatty acids were similar between breeds. Molar proportions of acetate were higher but propionate and butyrate lower in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep. In addition, Tibetan sheep had higher concentrations of ruminal free amino acid-N and soluble protein-N than fine-wool sheep. Plasma and saliva urea-N concentrations were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when supplied with the Low N diet. It was concluded that Tibetan sheep were better able to cope with low N feed than fine-wool sheep because of the higher N retention and higher DM and fibre digestibilities with Low and MLow diets.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0–0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0–0.7% in ITS1 and 0–1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0–65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3–64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods – Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony – revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.
Little is known about HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in eastern China where the HIV epidemic is spreading predominantly through sexual contact. During 2008–2011, newly HIV-diagnosed adults in Taizhou prefecture, Zhejiang province in eastern China were examined for HIVDR by amplifying and sequencing the HIV-1 pol gene. Of 447 genotyped participants, 53·7% were infected with CRF01_AE, 20·1% with CRF07_BC, 12·5% with subtype B, and 11·6% with CRF08_BC. Most of the participants had one or more minor genetic mutations in the pol gene that are associated with HIVDR. Twelve (2·7%) participants met the standard guidelines of having low to high HIVDR, suggesting that the prevalence of HIVDR in newly HIV-diagnosed adults was low in the study area and current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are likely to remain effective. However, given high frequency of minor HIVDR in HIV patients and the scaling up of ART programmes in China, larger HIVDR surveillance programmes are needed.
Coproantigen test kits for Echinococcus spp. worms in dogs, designed for commercial use, were obtained from three different Chinese producers, and were compared with a laboratory kit using reagents from New Zealand. None of the three producers would provide details of their test validation. From a known set of dog faeces obtained at necropsy from infected and uninfected dogs, and from faeces collected from dogs necropsied in the field, results differed between the kits. For field material, the Tiankang kit showed the best specificity but lacked sensitivity. The Combined kit showed best sensitivity but lacked specificity. Results for the Haitai kit were intermediate. With samples from experimentally infected dogs, both the Haitai and Combined kits lacked sensitivity. Kits will need to be validated by the user before they can be relied on to predict progress in Echinococcus spp. control in China or in other countries.
As graphene technologies progress to commercialization and large-scale manufacturing, issues of material and processing safety will need to be more seriously considered. The single word “graphene” actually represents a family of related materials with large variations in number of layers, surface area, lateral dimensions, stiffness, and surface chemistry. Many of these materials have aerodynamic diameters below 5 μm and can potentially be inhaled into the human lung. Graphene materials show several unique modes of interaction with biological molecules, tissues, and cells. The limited literature suggests that graphene materials can be either benign or harmful and that the biological response varies according to a material’s physicochemical properties and biologically effective dose. The present article reviews the current literature on the graphene–biological interface with an emphasis on the mechanisms and fundamental biological responses relevant to material safety and also to potential biomedical applications