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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Gac is a dioecious tropical and perennial climber. The fruit is a rich source of carotenoids and is used in traditional cuisine and medicine. Improving propagation methods using simple techniques would increase production and improve conservation in regional areas. This study evaluated temperature requirements for seed germination, the use of rooting hormones to strike female cuttings and the grafting of female scions onto seedling rootstock. Seed germination was optimised between 25 and 35 °C, with a maximum germination percentage of 91% at 30 °C. However, increasing storage time from 6 to 18 months under laboratory conditions (21 ± 1°C and 60% relative humidity) reduced germination and this was associated with seed weight loss, highlighting the need to develop storage guidelines, particularly for the higher temperature and humidity conditions where Gac is grown. Survival of softwood cuttings was improved from 53 to 77% with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (3–5 g/L) and semi-hardwood cuttings did not require IBA treatment. Both splice and wedge grafting techniques achieved a survival rate > 53% and with the youngest rootstock (4 and 8 weeks) this increased to > 85%. Further work could investigate the production potential of crops using cuttings and grafted plants.
The proper choice of an analyzing crystal sometimes makes It possible to suppress second-order reflections which interfere with X-ray fluorescence analysis. Some of the problems associated with the analysis of small amounts of hafnium in zirconium, using a silicon crystal and a pulse-height analyzer, are discussed.
Yarn-type supercapacitors should have high energy density in small given spaces, and the one attempt among many is to comprise the electrodes asymmetrically. However, the low capacitance of conventional materials causes the widened operating voltage useless. In this study, we have utilized a novel material MXene with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make highly loaded MXene/CNT yarn electrodes, which exhibited a remarkable areal capacitance. With MnO2/CNT biscrolled cathode and PVA/LiCl gel electrolyte, the plied asymmetric yarn supercapacitor had energy density of 100 µWh/cm2. The yarn supercapacitor could operate under mechanical deformations without performance degradation.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and dietary modification.
A systematic review was conducted. The data sources for the study were PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Articles were independently extracted by two authors according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The outcome focus was laryngopharyngeal reflux improvement through diet or dietary behaviour.
Of the 372 studies identified, 7 met our inclusion criteria. In these seven studies, laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms improved following dietary modifications. However, the studies did not present the independent effect of each dietary factor on laryngopharyngeal reflux. Moreover, only one of the seven studies had a randomised controlled study design.
The reference studies of dietary modification for laryngopharyngeal reflux patients are not sufficient to provide recommendations.
Early institutional rearing is associated with increased risk for subsequent peer relationship difficulties, but the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Friendship characteristics, social behaviors with peers, normed assessments of social problems, and social cue use were assessed in 142 children (mean age = 10.06, SD = 2.02; range 7–13 years), of whom 67 were previously institutionalized (PI), and 75 were raised by their biological families. Anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, often elevated among PI children, were examined as potential mediators of PI status and baseline social functioning and longitudinal follow-ups (2 and 4 years later). Twenty-seven percent of PI children fell above the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems cutoff. An examination of specific social behaviors with peers indicated that PI and comparison children did not differ in empathic concern or peer social approach, though parents were more likely to endorse aggression/overarousal as a reason that PI children might struggle with friendships. Comparison children outperformed PI children in computerized testing of social cue use learning. Finally, across these measures, social difficulties exhibited in the PI group were mediated by ADHD symptoms with predicted social problems assessed 4 years later. These findings show that, when PI children struggle with friendships, mechanisms involving attention and behavior regulation are likely contributors.
Background: We have previously shown that low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS), a noninvasive mechanical stimulus, inhibits brain edema formation induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) or treatment with glutamate, a mediator of OGD-induced edema, in acute rat hippocampal slice model in vitro. Methods: In this study, we treated the rat hippocampal slices with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) or (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) to determine whether these different glutamate receptor agonists induce edema. The hippocampal slices were then either sonicated with LIUS or treated with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, namely, MK-801 and ketamine, and observed their effects on edema formation. Results: We observed that treatment with NMDA, an agonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, induced brain edema at similar degrees compared with that induced by OGD. However, treatment with DHPG, an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors, did not significantly induce brain edema. Treatment with the NMDAR antagonists MK-801 or ketamine efficiently prevented brain edema formation by both OGD and NMDA in a concentration-dependent manner. N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced brain edema was alleviated by LIUS in an intensity-dependent manner when ultrasound was administered at 30, 50, or 100 mW/cm2 for 20 minutes before the induction of the edema. Furthermore, LIUS reduced OGD- and NMDA-induced phosphorylation of NMDARs at Y1325. Conclusion: These results suggest that LIUS can inhibit OGD- or NMDA-induced NMDAR activation by preventing NMDAR phosphorylation, thereby reducing a subsequent brain edema formation. The mechanisms by which LIUS inhibits NMDAR phosphorylation need further investigation.
The asymptotic phase θ of an initial point x in the stable manifold of a limit cycle (LC) identifies the phase of the point on the LC to which the flow φt(x) converges as t → ∞. The infinitesimal phase response curve (iPRC) quantifies the change in timing due to a small perturbation of a LC trajectory. For a stable LC in a smooth dynamical system, the iPRC is the gradient ∇x(θ) of the phase function, which can be obtained via the adjoint of the variational equation. For systems with discontinuous dynamics, the standard approach to obtaining the iPRC fails. We derive a formula for the iPRCs of LCs occurring in piecewise smooth (Filippov) dynamical systems of arbitrary dimension, subject to a transverse flow condition. Discontinuous jumps in the iPRC can occur at the boundaries separating subdomains, and are captured by a linear matching condition. The matching matrix, M, can be derived from the saltation matrix arising in the associated variational problem. For the special case of linear dynamics away from switching boundaries, we obtain an explicit expression for the iPRC. We present examples from cell biology (Glass networks) and neuroscience (central pattern generator models). We apply the iPRCs obtained to study synchronization and phase-locking in piecewise smooth LC systems in which synchronization arises solely due to the crossing of switching manifolds.
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) have been detected in human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. In 2005, HBoV was also discovered in infants and children with infections of the lower respiratory tract. Recently, several genotypes of this parvovirus, including HBoV genotype 2 (HBoV2), genotype 3 (HBoV3) and genotype 4 (HBoV4), were discovered and found to be closely related to HBoV. HBoV2 was first detected in stool samples from children in Pakistan, followed by detection in other countries. HBoV3 was detected in Australia and HBoV4 was identified in stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia and the USA. Recently, HBoV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighbouring South Korea; however, there have been very few studies on Korean strains. In this study, we characterised the whole genome and determined the phylogenetic position of CUK-BC20, a new clinical HBoV strain isolated in South Korea. The CUK-BC20 genome of 5184 nucleotides (nt) contains three open-reading frames (ORFs). The genotype of CUK-BC20 is HBoV2, and 98.77% of its nt sequence is identical with those of other HBoVs, namely Rus-Nsc10-N386. Especially, the ORF3 amino acid sequences from positions 212–213 and 454 corresponding to a variable region (VR)1 and VR5, respectively, showed genotype-specific substitutions that distinguished the four HBoV genotypes. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of HBoV in South Korea, this information will provide a valuable reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemics and development of diagnosis methods for HBoV.
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected.
Data from the 2006–2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model.
Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p < 0.001] than those who had good hearing. Those with vision impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p < 0.001) than those with good vision. When the interactions between hearing and vision were considered, participants with dual sensory impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p < 0.001) than those with good hearing and vision. The effect of a single and dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants.
Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.
This study evaluated the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and analysed the trend in annual per cent changes (APC) by using national claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment of Korea, 2007–2015. We also estimated the socio-economic burden and co-morbidities of AGW. All analyses were performed based on data for primary A63.0, the specific diagnosis code for AGW. The socio-economic cost of AGW was calculated based on the direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost and indirect cost. The overall AGW prevalence and socio-economic burden has increased during the last 9 years. However, the prevalence of AGW differed significantly by sex. The female prevalence increased until 2012, and decreased thereafter (APC + 3·6%). It would fall after the introduction of routine HPV vaccination, principally for females, in Korea. The male prevalence increased continuously over time (APC + 11·6%), especially in those aged 20–49 years. Referring to the increasing AGW prevalence and its disease burden, active HPV infection control surveillance and prevention in males are worth consideration.
Fluid–structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The set-up comprises a sphere connected to a spring located inside a tapering cylindrical channel. The spring is aligned with the central axis of the channel and a pressure drop is applied across the sphere, thus forcing the liquid through the narrow gap between the sphere and the channel walls. The sphere’s equilibrium position is determined by a balance between spring and hydrodynamic forces. Since the gap thickness changes with the sphere’s position, the system has a pressure-dependent hydraulic resistance. This leads to a nonlinear relation between applied pressure and flow rate: flow initially increases with pressure, but decreases when the pressure exceeds a certain critical value as the gap closes. To rationalize these observations, we propose a mathematical model that reduced the complexity of the flow to a two-dimensional lubrication approximation. A closed-form expression for the pressure drop/flow rate is obtained which reveals that the flow rate
depends on the pressure drop
, sphere radius
, gap thickness
, and viscosity
, where the critical pressure
scales with the spring constant
. These predictions compared favourably to the results of our experiments with no free parameters.
Haemodynamically unstable patients can experience potentially hazardous changes in vital signs related to the exchange of depleted syringes of epinephrine to full syringes. The purpose was to determine the measured effects of epinephrine syringe exchanges on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of haemodynamic disturbances in the hour after an exchange event (study) relative to the hours before (control).
Materials and methods
Beat-to-beat vital signs recorded every 2 seconds from bedside monitors for patients admitted to the paediatric cardiovascular ICU of Texas Children’s Hospital were collected between 1 January, 2013 and 30 June, 2015. Epinephrine syringe exchanges without dose/flow change were obtained from electronic records. Time, magnitude, and duration of changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were characterised using Matlab. Significant haemodynamic events were identified and compared with control data.
In all, 1042 syringe exchange events were found and 850 (81.6%) had uncorrupted data for analysis. A total of 744 (87.5%) exchanges had at least 1 associated haemodynamic perturbation including 2958 systolic blood pressure and 1747 heart-rate changes. Heart-rate perturbations occurred 37% before exchange and 63% after exchange, and 37% of systolic blood pressure perturbations happened before syringe exchange, whereas 63% occurred after syringe exchange with significant differences found in systolic blood pressure frequency (p<0.001), duration (p<0.001), and amplitude (p<0.001) compared with control data.
This novel data collection and signal processing analysis showed a significant increase in frequency, duration, and magnitude of systolic blood pressure perturbations surrounding epinephrine syringe exchange events.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory infections, second only to influenza virus. In order to know RSV's genetic changes we examined 4028 respiratory specimens from local hospital outpatients in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea over six consecutive years by real-time one-step RT–PCR; 183 patients were positive for RSV infection. To investigate the specific distribution of RSV genotypes, we performed partial sequencing of the glycoprotein gene. Of the 131 RSV-A specimens sequenced, 61 (43·3%) belonged to the ON1 genotype, 66 (46·8%) were NA1 genotype, 3 (2·1%) were GA5 genotype, and 1 (0·7%) belonged to the GA1 genotype. Of the 31 RSV-B specimens sequenced, 29 were BA9 genotype (87·9%) and 2 were BA10 genotype (6·1%). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, cough, nasal discharge, and phlegm; multiple logistic regression analysis showed that RSV-positive infection on pediatric patients was strongly associated with cough (OR = 2·8, 95% CI 1·6–5·1) and wheezing (OR = 2·8, 95% CI 1·7–4·4). The ON1 genotype was significantly associated with phlegm (OR = 11·8, 95% CI 3·8–46·7), while the NA1 genotype was associated with the pediatric patients’ gender (males, OR = 2·4, 95% CI 1·1–5·4) and presence of chills (OR = 5·1, 95% CI 1·1–27·2). RSV subgroup B was showed association with nasal obstruction (OR = 4·6, 95% CI 1·2–20·0). The majority of respiratory virus coinfections with RSV were human rhinovirus (47·2%). This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular epidemiological characteristics of RSV, which promotes the potential for improving RSV vaccines.
Children live in rapidly changing times that require them to constantly adapt to new economic, social, and cultural conditions. In this book, a distinguished, interdisciplinary group of scholars explores the issues faced by children in contemporary societies, such as discrimination in school and neighborhoods, the emergence of new family forms, the availability of new communication technologies, and economic hardship, as well as the stresses associated with immigration, war, and famine. The book applies a historical, cultural, and life-course developmental framework for understanding the factors that affect how children adjust to these challenges, and offers a new perspective on how changing historical circumstances alter children's developmental outcomes. It is ideal for researchers and graduate students in developmental and educational psychology or the sociology and anthropology of childhood.
The goal of this chapter is to address how urban dynamics at the neighborhood level are linked to children’s development. We first review trends in the spatial concentration of poverty and inequality in the United States in recent decades. Then, we turn to theoretical models describing how local communities, with a focus on urban settings, influence children’s development. We then cover methodological issues and focus on one critical issue, selection bias, and then briefly review study designs as related to this challenge. Finally, we provide an overview of empirical studies linking neighborhood, socioeconomic conditions, and children’s development, notably their educational, behavioral, and socioemotional outcomes.