To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This poster presented results from a detailed analysis of observed and theoretical light-curves of classical Cepheid variables in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The theoretical light-curves were based on non-linear convective hydrodynamical pulsation models; the observational data were taken from ongoing wide-field variability surveys. The variation which we found in theoretical and observed light-curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity was used to constrain the input physics to the pulsation models, such as the mass–luminosity relations obeyed by Cepheid variables. We also accounted for the variation in the convective efficiency as entered into the stellar pulsation models and its impact on the theoretical amplitudes and Period-Luminosity relations for Cepheid variables.
This poster presented results from the Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey (LMCNISS) for classical and Type II Cepheid variables that were identified in the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) catalogue. Multi-wavelength time-series data for classical Cepheid variables are used to study light-curve structures as a function of period and wavelength. We exploited a sample of ∼1400 classical and ∼80 Type II Cepheid variables to derive Period–Wesenheit relations that combine both optical and near-infrared data. The new Period–Luminosity and Wesenheit relations were used to estimate distances to several Local-Group galaxies (using classical Cepheids) and to Galactic globular clusters (using Type II Cepheids). By appealing to a statistical framework, we found that fundamental-mode classical Cepheid Period–Luminosity relations are non-linear around 10–18 days at optical and near-IR wavelengths. We also suggested that a non-linear relation provides a better constraint on the Cepheid Period–Luminosity relation in Type Ia Supernovæ host galaxies, though it has a negligible effect on the systematic uncertainties affecting the local measurement of the Hubble constant.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P<0.05). Sow–piglet interactions were more frequent in LP than FC at days 11 and 18 postpartum in both experiment 1 (day 11, 1.4% v. 1.2%; day 18, 1.7% v. 1.0% of observations; P=0.05) and 2 (day 11, 1.0% v. 0.3%; and at day 18 were 1.0% v. 0.6% of observations; P<0.01), and LP sows were more responsive in the MRT in experiment 2 (2 v. 0 median number of tests in which sows react, P<0.01). In experiment 1 piglets played more (0.7% v. 0.3% of observations, P=0.05) and manipulated others less (0.3% v. 0.7% of observations, P=0.04) in LP, but more piglets missed nursing bouts (0.2 v. 0.1 piglets/bout, P<0.01) compared with FC. There was no effect of housing on piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning in experiment 3 (0.63 and 0.64 deaths/litter for LP and FC, respectively, P>0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma often presents with lateral extensions. In countries with limited resources, selection of a cost-effective and least morbid surgical approach for complete excision is challenging.
Sixty-three patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, with lateral extensions, underwent transpalatal, transpalatal-circumaxillary (transpterygopalatine) or transpalatal-circumaxillary-sublabial approaches for resection. Clinico-radiological characteristics, tumour volume and intra-operative bleeding were recorded.
The transpalatal approach was suitable for extensions involving medial part of pterygopalatine fossa; transpalatal-circumaxillary for extensions involving complete pterygopalatine fossa, with or without partial infratemporal fossa; and transpalatal-circumaxillary-sublabial for extensions involving complete infratemporal fossa, even cheek or temporal fossa up to zygomatic arch. Haemorrhage was greatest with the transpalatal-circumaxillary-sublabial approach, followed by transpalatal approach and transpalatal-circumaxillary approach (1212, 950 and 777 ml respectively). Tumour size (volume) was greatest with the transpalatal-circumaxillary approach, followed by transpalatal-circumaxillary-sublabial approach and transpalatal approach (40, 34 and 29 mm3). There was recurrence in three cases and residual disease in two cases. Long-term morbidity included small palatal perforation (n = 1), trismus (n = 1) and atrophic rhinitis (n = 2).
These modified techniques, performed with endoscopic assistance under hypotensive anaesthesia, without embolisation, offer a superior option over other open procedures with regard to morbidity and recurrences.
Using images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have computed both parametric and non-parametric measures, and examined the evolution in size, concentration, stellar mass, effective stellar mass density and asymmetry for a sample of 600 disc galaxies from z ~ 1 till z ~ 0. We find that disc galaxies have gained more than 50 per cent of their present stellar mass over the last 8 Gyr. Also, the increase in disc size is found to be peripheral. While the average total (Petrosian) radius almost doubles from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0, the average effective (half-light) radius undergoes a marginal increase in comparison. This indicates that galaxies grow more substantially in their outskirts, and is consistent with the inside-out growth picture. The substantial increase in mass and size indicates that accretion of external material has been a dominant mode of galaxy growth, where the circumgalactic environment plays a significant role.
Observational studies suggest an inverse association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of information on the relationship of specific dairy products with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals aged 40–75 years were recruited for the Maastricht Study. All the participants filled out a 253-food item FFQ, covering fifty specific dairy items that captured differences between full-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed products, as well as fermented and non-fermented products. Glucose metabolism status was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, and participants were informed on their glucose metabolism status after returning the FFQ. Data of 2391 individuals were available to estimate OR (95 % CI) for IGM (n 470) and newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM (n 125), with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, energy intake and intakes of vegetables, fruits, meat and fish. For IGM, fully adjusted analyses revealed inverse associations, with OR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake of 0·73 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·96) for skimmed products and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·99) for fermented products. These dairy products were not associated with ND T2DM. In contrast, full-fat products were positively associated with ND T2DM (OR 2·01; 95 % CI 1·16, 3·47), whereas total dairy product intake was inversely associated with ND T2DM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·93). In conclusion, individuals with a high consumption of skimmed and fermented products had lower odds of having IGM, and individuals with a high consumption of total dairy products had lower odds of having ND T2DM. High intake of full-fat products was not related to IGM but was positively related to ND T2DM.
We report on the experimental observation of Smith–Purcell (SP) radiation generation by charged particle beam from laser–matter interactions. High-power laser pulses were focused onto a thin metal foil target to generate proton beams with energies up to 1.7 MeV via the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) process. The particle beam from the TNSA process was sent close to a periodic structure to generate SP radiation. Sub-μJ terahertz pulses were recorded using a pyroelectric detector. Simultaneous measurement of the ion spectra allowed us to estimate the power of the emitted radiation and compare it with the experimental results. The distance between the grating and the particle beam was varied and its effect on the emitted radiation was studied.
Severe feather-pecking (SFP), a particularly injurious behaviour in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is thought to be negatively correlated with range use in free-range systems. In turn, range use is thought to be inversely associated with fearfulness, where fearful birds may be less likely to venture outside. However, very few experiments have investigated the proposed association between range use and fearfulness. This experiment investigated associations between range use (time spent outside), fearfulness, plumage damage, and BW. Two pens of 50 ISA Brown laying hens (n=100) were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders (contained within silicone leg rings) at 26 weeks of age. Data were then collected over 13 days. A total of 95% of birds accessed the outdoor run more than once per day. Birds spent an average duration of 6.1 h outside each day over 11 visits per bird per day (51.5 min per visit). The top 15 and bottom 15 range users (n=30), as determined by the total time spent on the range over 13 days, were selected for study. These birds were tonic immobility (TI) tested at the end of the trial and were feather-scored and weighed after TI testing. Birds with longer TI durations spent less time outside (P=0.01). Plumage damage was not associated with range use (P=0.68). The small group sizes used in this experiment may have been conducive to the high numbers of birds utilising the outdoor range area. The RFID technology collected a large amount of data on range access in the tagged birds, and provides a potential means for quantitatively assessing range access in laying hens. The present findings indicate a negative association between fearfulness and range use. However, the proposed negative association between plumage damage and range use was not supported. The relationships between range use, fearfulness, and SFP warrant further research.
Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the development of common mental disorders, such as depression, but its role in symptom resolution is unclear.
We examined the association between IL-6 and symptom resolution in a non-clinical sample of participants with psychological distress.
Relative to high IL-6 levels, low levels at baseline were associated with symptom resolution at follow-up [age- and sex-adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.25]. Further adjustment for covariates had little effect on the association. Symptomatic participants with repeated low IL-6 were more likely to be symptom-free at follow-up compared with those with repeated high IL-6 (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.41). Among the symptomatic participants with elevated IL-6 at baseline, IL-6 decreased along with symptom resolution.
IL-6 is potentially related to the mechanisms underlying recovery from symptoms of mental ill health. Further studies are needed to examine these mechanisms and to confirm the findings in relation to clinical depression.
Depression is common and the efficacy of antidepressants is suboptimal. High plasma homocysteine has been consistently associated with depression, and treatment with certain B vitamins demonstrably reduces its concentration.
To determine whether vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid enhance response to antidepressant treatment over 52 weeks.
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram (20–40 g) together with 0.5mg of vitamin B12, 2mg of folic acid and 25mg of vitamin B6 for 52 weeks (Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: 12609000256279). Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 50 years or over with DSM-IV-TR major depression. We measured severity of symptoms with the Montgomery–åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The primary outcome was remission of the depressive episode after 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes included reduction of MADRS scores over time and relapse of major depression after recovery by week 12.
In total, 153 people were randomised (76 placebo, 77 vitamins). Remission of symptoms was achieved by 78.1 and 79.4% of participants treated with placebo and vitamins by week 12 (P = 0.840), by 76.5 and 85.3% at week 26 and 75.8 and 85.5% at week 52 (effect of intervention over 52 weeks: odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% CI 1.12–5.51). Group differences in MADRS scores over time were not significant (P = 0.739). The risk of subsequent relapse among those who had achieved remission of symptoms at week 12 was lower in the vitamins than placebo group (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.12–0.94).
B vitamins did not increase the 12-week efficacy of antidepressant treatment, but enhanced and sustained antidepressant response over 1 year. Replication of these findings would mandate that treatment guidelines adopt the adjunctive use of B vitamins as a safe and inexpensive strategy to manage major depression in middle-aged and older adults.
Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have identified alterations in gamma-band (30–80 Hz) cortical activity in schizophrenia and mood disorders, consistent with neural models of disturbed glutamate (and GABA) neuron influence over cortical pyramidal cells. Genetic evidence suggests specific deficits in GABA-A receptor function in schizoaffective bipolar disorder (SABP), a clinical syndrome with features of both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This study investigated gamma oscillations in this under-researched disorder.
MEG was used to measure induced gamma and evoked responses to a visual grating stimulus, known to be a potent inducer of primary visual gamma oscillations, in 15 individuals with remitted SABP, defined using Research Diagnostic Criteria, and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls.
Individuals with SABP demonstrated increased sustained visual cortical power in the gamma band (t35 = −2.56, p = 0.015) compared to controls. There were no group differences in baseline gamma power, transient or sustained gamma frequency, alpha band responses or pattern onset visual-evoked responses.
Gamma power is increased in remitted SABP, which reflects an abnormality in the cortical inhibitory-excitatory balance. Although an interaction between gamma power and medication can not be ruled out, there were no group differences in evoked responses or baseline measures. Further work is needed in other clinical populations and at-risk relatives. Pharmaco-magnetoencephalography studies will help to elucidate the specific GABA and glutamate pathways affected.
This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) self-report among adolescents from seven different nations.
Data for 2367 adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Serbia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Croatia were available for a series of factor analyses.
The five-factor model including original SDQ scales emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity–inattention problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour generated inadequate fit degree in all countries. A bifactor model with three factors (i.e., externalising, internalising and prosocial) and one general problem factor yielded adequate degree of fit in India, Nigeria, Turkey and Croatia. The prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms and conduct problems factor were found to be common for all nations. However, originally proposed items loaded saliently on other factors besides the proposed ones or only some of them corresponded to proposed factors in all seven countries.
Due to the lack of a common acceptable model across all countries, namely the same numbers of factors (i.e., dimensional invariance), it was not possible to perform the metric and scalar invariance test, what indicates that the SDQ self-report models tested lack appropriate measurement invariance across adolescents from these seven nations and it needs to be revised for cross-country comparisons.
In this contribution, we report the synthesis and characterization of NixFe3-xO4 and CoxFe3-xO4 redox nanomaterials using sol-gel method. These materials will be used to produce solar fuels such as H2 or syngas from H2O and/or CO2 via solar thermochemical cycles (STCs). For the sol-gel synthesis of ferrites, the Ni, Co, Fe precursor salts were dissolved in ethanol and propylene oxide (PO) was added dropwise to the well mixed solution as a gelation agent to achieve gel formation. Freshly synthesized gels were aged, dried, and calcined by heating them to 600°C in air. The calcined powders were characterized by powder x-ray diffractometer (XRD), BET surface area, as well as scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Their suitability to be used in STCs for the production of solar fuels was assessed by performing several reduction/re-oxidation cycles using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).