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Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common complication following strabismus surgery. This randomized and double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of midazolam alone or in combination with dexamethasone in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus repair.
One hundred ASA I children, aged 4–12 yr, scheduled to undergo elective strabismus surgery, were enrolled. No premedication was given. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. After induction, fentanyl 2 μg kg−1 and cisatracurium 0.1 mg kg−1 were administered and an endotracheal tube was inserted. After induction of anaesthesia and before start of surgery, patients were randomly allocated into one of four groups of 25 children each to receive placebo, midazolam 50 μg kg−1, dexamethasone 0.5 mg kg−1 or a combination of midazolam 50 μg kg−1 and dexamethasone 0.5 mg kg−1. Episodes of nausea, and retching and vomiting were recorded during the first 24 h after surgery.
The incidence of postoperative nausea was 48%, 32%, 12% and 0% with placebo, dexamethasone, midazolam and the midazolam–dexamethasone combination, respectively. The incidence of vomiting was 52% and 32% with placebo and dexamethasone, respectively; no child vomited with midazolam alone, or with the midazolam–dexamethasone combination.
Prophylactic midazolam with or without dexamethasone reduces the incidence of PONV in children undergoing strabismus repair.
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