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SiO maser emission from the Bulge IRAS sources has been searched by the v=1, J=1−0 and v=2, J=1—0 transitions to investigate the kinematics of the Galactic Bulge, resulting in a sample of 124 line-of-sight velocities. The rotation velocity, velocity dispersion, and velocity offset at l = 0° for the sample are found to be , and —18.2±9.7 km s−1, respectively (80% confidence interval). Furthermore we find trends for the rotation velocity and velocity dispersion to decrease with distance from the galactic plane. These trends are supported by a larger sample constructed by incorporating other available velocity data on the Bulge IRAS sources. The rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are expressed as 15.6—1.23x|b(deg)| km s−1 deg−1 and 101−3.6x |b(deg)| km s−1, respectively. The implications of the observed quantities are discussed.
Evidence for the bar structure in our Galaxy has been shown by Blitz and Spergel (1991b) based on the near-infrared maps of the bulge, by Nakada et al. (1991) based on IRAS point source catalogue, and more clearly by recent COBE maps. However, no clear “dynamical” signature of the bulge bar has been found yet. At optical wavelengths, stellar radial velocities of the bulge stars were observed only at the optical windows and were not observed for the entire region of the bulge because of the dust extinction in this direction.
In a recent important paper, Hoffstein and Hulse [Multiple Dirichlet series and shifted convolutions, arXiv:1110.4868v2] generalized the notion of Rankin–Selberg convolution
-functions by defining shifted convolution
-functions. We investigate symmetrized versions of their functions, and we prove that the generating functions of certain special values are linear combinations of weakly holomorphic quasimodular forms and “mixed mock modular” forms.
There are only very few reports of cervical toxoplasma lymphadenitis being diagnosed exclusively via fine-needle aspiration cytology (with serology).
We describe a case of toxoplasma lymphadenitis that was successfully diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology. The case involved a male patient who was immunocompromised as a result of recurrent acute myelogenous leukaemia with cervical lymphadenopathy. The biopsy showed typical features of a well-defined pseudocyst containing Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.
Toxoplasma lymphadenitis is a common cause of lymph node enlargement. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a useful method for diagnosing and differentiating toxoplasma lymphadenitis from more serious causes of lymphadenopathy, such as metastatic lymphadenopathy or lymphoma.
Oxygen-doped germanium crystals were used to demonstrate the interaction between implanted hydrogen or nitrogen atoms and the oxygen-related defects. The electron trap at Eo-0.26eV associated with the germanium A-center was found to be formed by electron irradiation. Another level at Eo-0.21eV also was observed on annealing at 120 °C. As for the sample implanted with hydrogen ions following electron irradiation, the trap concentration is four times as large as that for electron irradiation alone. It is probable that the germanium A-centers produced by electron irradiation capture hydrogen atoms and increase electrically active centers. After nitrogen implantation following electron irradiation, the Eo-0.26eV level almost annealed out at 140 °C and the trap at Eo-0.21eV wasn't observed. We propose that the reduction in the oxygen-related defect growth is due to the prevention of defect migration with nitrogen atoms.
Room temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied across the thickness of the Ge nanocrystalline films, prepared by the cluster beam evaporation technique. The films thus prepared are deposited either at room temperature (Ge-RT) or at liquid nitrogen temperature (Ge-LNT). Ge-LNT nanofilm is subjected to oxidation while Ge-RT did not get oxidized. Steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the thin Ge- LNT samples suggesting the Coulomb Blockade effect.
Thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition at low temperature tend to be less dense than bulk material and typically require high temperature post deposition annealing for densification and removal of unreacted precursor ligands. We have found that improved film densification can be achieved by interval annealing, in which in-situ moderate temperature (∼420°C) rapid thermal anneals are performed after every n deposition cycles. HfO2 film density and refractive index were found to increase with decreasing anneal interval (more frequent annealing). The highest density films could be achieved only by every-cycle annealing and could not be achieved by post deposition annealing. The densified every cycle annealed films have been shown to have improved equivalent thickness and leakage and decreased interfacial layer thickness.
New ALD processes for hafnium silicate films have been developed at Aviza Technology by co-injection of tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)silicon precursors. Alternating pulses of the Hf/Si precursor vapor mixture and ozone allow process temperatures below 400°C to grow HfxSi1-xO2 films. Film characterization, including film density, crystallinity, and thermal anneal effect, was performed on five 20 nm thick HfxSi1-xO2 films where x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0. X-ray measurements revealed the film densities and thicknesses for the as-deposited and 1000°C annealed samples. The densification with anneals seen in the optical measurements were confirmed. The as-deposited amorphous HfO2 and Hf0.8Si0.2O2 were crystallized after a 600°C anneal. The HfO2 formed the well known monoclinic phase while the silicate formed a face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure. This fcc phase has only recently been mentioned in the literature .
Two methods are employed in the gas evaporation technique to form Ge nanocrystals with the Si-passivated surface. One uses one boat with a SiGe alloy as a source, and the other uses two boats each with Si and Ge. As a result of characterization by the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, Raman scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it is found that Ge nanocrystals with the Si-passivated surface were formed by coevaporation of Si and Ge from two boats, while SiGe alloy nanocrystals were formed by evaporation of the Si-Ge alloy source from one boat.
The ultrafine particles with diameters in the order of 10 nm were deposited onto Si and SiO2 substrates by evaporation of Ge in a pure hydrogen atmosphere. Although the as-deposited Ge ultrafine particles do not show any detectable luminescence, they emit blue light after being exposed to the UV light for a long time. The blue light is strong enough to be seen with the naked eye even under a room light. The photooxidation, unique to the Ge ultrafine particles, has been identified as a major factor contributing to the blue light emission.
Anisotropic etching of n+ poly-Si is achieved using a hot Cl2 molecular beam and a sidewall protection technique. A hot molecular beam is produced by a free jet expansion of a gas heated in a furnace. A nitrogen radical beam is used to prevent the sidewall etching. The etch rate of n+ poly-Si is 4.3 nm/min at the anisotropic etching condition.
Control of epitaxial relationship of CaF2 films grown on Si(111) substrates was considered to be important to improve surface morphology and crystallini ty of GaAs films on CaF2/Si(111) structures. We successfully grew CaF2 films with the “type-A” epitaxial relationship on Si(111) substrates, that is, the crystallographic orientation of the CaF2 films were aligned in the same direction as that of the Si(111) substrates. These “type-A” CaF2 films were grown by a two step growth method. It was found that surface morphology of GaAs films on the CaF2/Si(111) structures was drastically improved by growth of the “type-A” CaF2 films.
The structure and density of amorphous S1O2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or thermal oxidation are studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption, neutron diffraction, and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements. CVD oxides, formed in an atmospheric-pressure CVD reactor with a SiH4-O2 gas mixture at 400 °C, are compared with thermal oxides, grown at 980 °C in H2-O2 atmosphere. The average Si-O-Si bond angle deduced from the stretching frequency of FT-IR is found to be smaller in CVD oxides than in thermal oxides, and the density revealed by RBS measurements is found to be a little lower in CVD oxides than in thermal oxides. These differences are explained by the medium-range structural disorder revealed by FT-IR measurements as well as by neutron diffraction measurements. The medium-range structural disorder in CVD oxides is responsible for large silanol content in the oxides and is the origin in difference between CVD and thermal oxides.
Germanium (Ge) films were deposited on substrates whose temperature was kept at room (Ge-RT) or liquid nitrogen temperature (Ge-LNT) by the cluster-beam evaporation technique. The Raman spectra of both films with a double peak suggest that the crystal structure is not the ordinary diamond but the tetragonal one. The critical temperature for the phase transformation from the tetragonal into the diamond structure is found much higher than that for the Ge nanostructures deposited by the gas-evaporation technique. The Ge-LNT sample exhibits photooxidation and photoluminescence (PL) when it is exposed to the UV light. Their PL and optical absorption characteristics are strongly influenced by a combination of the photo-oxidation and thermal annealing treatments.
Si nanocrystals were deposited in a helium atmosphere by the gas-evaporation technique. Their average size is 3.5 nm, much smaller than those of the Si nanocrystals deposited in an argon atmosphere. The PL spectra of the as-deposited and the HF-treated Si nanocrystals were compared. A great increase in the PL intensity of the HF-treated Si nanocrystals is attributed to the hydrogen passivation of Si surface dangling bonds. A good correlation between the amount of Si-O bonds and the PL intensity suggests that the oxygen-passivation of dangling bonds is required for the red-band PL. The PL spectra of the HF-treated Si nanocrystals resemble those of porous Si and clearly indicate that the HF-treated Si nanocrystals well simulate the porous Si.
We have fabricated and tested YBCO step-edge SNS Josephson junctions on silicon substrates. The silicon step edges were patterned photolithographically and reactively ion etched using an SF6 plasma. The structures were fabricated through sequential angled pulsed laser deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia, YBCO, and gold layers, followed by photolithographic patterning and ion milling. The completed devices showed resistively shunted junction (RSJ)-like current voltage characteristics and microwave induced Shapiro steps. Critical currents as large as 84 PA and resistances of order 0.5 Ω were obtained. Measurable critical currents were observed up to 76 K. We report on the fabrication and properties of these junctions.
The oxygen-containing silicon (Si) ultrafine particles have been deposited onto Si and SiO2 substrates by evaporation of Si powder in an oxygen-containing argon atmosphere. The asdeposited Si ultrafine particles exposed to the ultraviolet light emit blue light, which is strong enough to be seen with the naked eye. The blue light emission is associated with a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak at 2.7 eV, which is attributed to radiative recombination via a radiative recombination center. The proposed model with one radiative and two nonradiative recombination centers well explains the temperature-dependent PL peak intensity.
We demonstrate a new method for determining the frequency-dependent dielectric properties of thin-film materials at microwave frequencies using coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line measurements. The technique makes use of the complex propagation constant determined from multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibrations for CPW transmission lines to determine the distributed capacitance and conductance per unit length. By analyzing data from CPW transmission lines of different geometries, we are able to determine the complex permittivity of the dielectric thin film under study as a function of frequency from 1 to 40 GHz. By performing these measurements under an applied bias voltage, we are able in addition to determine the tuning and figure of merit that are of interest for voltage-tunable dielectric materials over the frequency range 1 to 26.5 GHz. We demonstrate this technique with measurements of the permittivity, loss tangent, tuning, and figure of merit for a 0.4 µm film of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 at room temperature.