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Colonial hosts offer unique opportunities for exploitation by endoparasites resulting from extensive clonal propagation, but these interactions are poorly understood. The freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana, and the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, present an appropriate model system for examining such interactions. F. sultana propagates mainly asexually, through colony fragmentation and dormant propagules (statoblasts). Our study examines how T. bryosalmonae exploits the multiple transmission routes offered by the propagation of F. sultana, evaluates the effects of such transmission on its bryozoan host, and tests the hypothesis that poor host condition provokes T. bryosalmonae to bail out of a resource that may soon be unsustainable, demonstrating terminal investment. We show that infections are present in substantial proportions of colony fragments and statoblasts over space and time and that moderate infection levels promote statoblast hatching and hence effective fecundity. We also found evidence for terminal investment, with host starvation inducing the development of transmission stages. Our results contribute to a growing picture that interactions of T. bryosalmonae and F. sultana are generally characterized by parasite persistence, facilitated by multiple transmission pathways and host condition-dependent developmental cycling, and host tolerance, promoted by effective fecundity effects and an inherent capacity for renewed growth and clonal replication.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
In the current research, we have utilized sol-gel electrophoresis technique to grow PbTiO3 nanotube arrays in porous anodic alumina template channels. By using this method high quality and more condense nanotubes are obtained compared with other usual sol-gel methods. Also, the effect of the anodizing parameters on the diameter of the template pores, and effect of electrophoresis voltage on wall thickness were investigated.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
Pentacene-based ferroelectric gate transistors with croconic acid (CrA) thin film was fabricated for the first time. The memory window (MW) of 1.9 V was obtained from the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Al/CrA(50 nm)/SiO2/Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) diode, where the deposition temperature of CrA was room temperature (RT). Butterfly type C-V characteristics was observed for Al/CrA(50 nm)/Al/SiO2/ Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) diode. Furthermore, a pentacene-based p-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with CrA gate insulator was fabricated, and clockwise hysteresis loop was observed in ID-VG characteristic, which is attributed to the ferroelectric properties of CrA gate insulator.
In this paper, we explore the interfacial effects appearing in highly strained La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) ultra-thin films (10-12nm) grown on BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric substrates. The strong tendency to phase separation of this optimally doped manganite contributes to the exotic phenomena observed in magnetism and transport experiments: the so-called Matteucci magnetic loops, magnetic granularity and a second metal insulator transition are observed between 50K and the LCMO Curie temperature, 180K. All these properties define the multiferroic character of these heterostructures, which in LCMO//BTO system is strongly linked to magnetoelastic coupling.
Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration.
Limited information is available on mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas arising in the head and neck.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 20 patients who were histologically diagnosed with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and treated at our institution between January 1990 and December 2009.
Treatment consisted of surgical resection alone in two patients (10 per cent), surgical resection with consecutive radiotherapy in one (5 per cent), and radiotherapy alone in eight (40 per cent). Three patients (15 per cent) were treated with systemic chemotherapy, and three (15 per cent) received chemoradiotherapy. Three patients (15 per cent) were informed of the diagnosis but not treated for their condition.
All of the 20 patients were still alive after a mean follow-up period of 50.8 months. Local treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the head and neck should be the first choice in early-stage disease. However, prolonged follow up is important to determine these patients' long-term response to treatment.
Experiments are performed on the flow past a sphere moving vertically at constant speeds in a salt-stratified fluid. Shadowgraph method and fluorescent dye are used for the flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry is used for the velocity measurement in the vertical plane. Vertical ‘jets’ or columnar structures are observed in the shadowgraph for all the Froude numbers Fr(0.2 ≲ Fr ≲ 70) investigated, and the wake structures in the whole parameter space of Fr and the Reynolds number Re(30 ≲ Re ≲ 4000) are classified into seven types, five of which are newly found. Those include two types of thin jets, one of which is short with its top disturbed by internal waves to have a peculiar ‘bell-shaped’ structure, while the other has an indefinitely long length. There are two other new types of jet with periodically generated ‘knots’, one of which is straight, while the other has a spiral structure. A simply meandering jet has also been found. These wake structures are significantly different from those in homogeneous fluids except under very weak stratification, showing that the stratification effects on vertical motion are much more significant than those on horizontal motion.
The fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in whole, unbroken eggs was monitored during storage at fixed or changing temperatures after inoculation with 20–47 c.f.u. of SE. Eggs stored at 10°C and 20°C showed little or no bacterial growth over 6 weeks, while egg storage at 30°C increased the percentage of the eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 3 weeks. Egg storage at 20°C for 5 days followed by 10°C caused only a few eggs with >106 c.f.u. after 2 weeks, whereas storage at 22–30°C or 27–35°C for 5 days followed by 25°C induced a rapid increase of eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Therefore, egg storage at 10°C and 20°C can control SE growth, although the temperature during egg storage and transportation from farm to table should also be taken into consideration.
We used Monte Carlo simulation code DEGAS and studied the neutral particle behavior in the Compact Helical System (CHS) three-dimensionally. In contrast to other helical devices, the CHS plasma in the standard configuration has contact with the inner vacuum vessel wall like the material limiter used in many Tokamaks and the neutral recycling becomes dominant there. As the intensity of neutral recycling changes also along toroidal direction, we extended our previous simulation model geometry three-dimensionally and compared the results of these models. We found the variation of the gap between the vacuum wall and main plasma enhanced toroidal transport of hydrogen molecules and atoms. As the formation of the edge transport barrier (EBT) discovered recently in CHS is characterized by a clear drop in Hα emissions, it is interesting to study the relationship with the profile of atomic/molecular hydrogen and the Hα emission profile. We estimated emission not only from excited hydrogen atoms but also from dissociated molecules with a collisional radiation model. We found that our Hα detector signal in CHS mostly came from excited atoms and that the emission profile largely changed with the ETB formation.
Confinement and loss properties of tangentially co-injected beam ions have been studied for a standard configuration of the Compact Helical System (Rax/Bt=0.921 m/1.9 T) by use of the global particle simulation code DELTA5D. Both ripple transport and collisions with a background plasma are taken into account. It has appeared that partially thermalized, pitch-angle scattered beam ions are dominantly lost at the small major radius side. It has also been shown that the negative potential can enhance beam ions losses.
Forearc peridotite is generally characterized by low Mg# (= Mg/[Mg + Fe2+] atomic ratio) at a given Cr# (= Cr/[Cr + Al] atomic ratio) of chromian spinel compared to common abyssal peridotite. This may be due to (1) smaller modal abundance of spinel and/or (2) lower equilibrium temperature, for the forearc peridotite. Forearc peridotite has the same amount of spinel as abyssal peridotite, eliminating the first possibility. Spinel in harzburgite and dunite from the Hahajima Seamount at the Izu-Bonin forearc, has a large Cr#, >0.57, and the Mg# is slightly variable towards low values at a given Cr#. The Mg# of spinel cores decreases strongly with a decrease in size. This is due to cooling along with hydration, which gave rise to a compositional variation of Ca-amphibole, from edenitic hornblende (high-temperature) to tremolite (low-temperature) in the Hahajima peridotite. The average two- pyroxene temperature of the Hahajima peridotite, 921°C, is less than that of the abyssal peridotite (1138°C), which is not consistent with a size-dependent Mg# of spinel for the latter. Forearc peridotite has been cooled effectively by H2O released from the subducted slab, causing a small Mg# of their spinels.
An elongated ERO with R - K′ = 7.5 behind the cluster A851 at z=0.4 was found to lie at z = 1.5 both by the photometric redshift and by a cross correlation method of its H-band SED with local E/SO spectra. the luminosity profile is well represented by a seeing convolved exponential disk, and the lack of redshifted H-alpha emission indicates that it has a dynamically relaxed disk with an old stellar population. Gravitational lensing of the cluster is not strong enough to stretch the image and cannot convert the de Vaucouleurs law into an exponential law.
Adhesion strength in sputter-deposited Cu thin films on various types of barrier layers was investigated by scratch test. The barrier layers were Ta1-xNx with varied nitrogen concentration of 0, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5. Microstructure observation by TEM indicated that each layer consists of mixed phases of β;-Ta, bcc-TaN0.1, hexagonal-TaN, and fcc-TaN, depending on the nitrogen concentration. A sulfur- containing amorphous phase was also present discontinuously at the Cu/barrier interfaces in all samples. Scratch test showed that delamination occurred at the Cu/barrier interface and that the overall adhesion strength increased with increasing the nitrogen concentration. A good correlation was found between the measured adhesion strength and the composing phases in the barrier layer.
A new efficient injection method from a laser ion source to
a Radio Frequency Quadropole (RFQ) was proposed and is being
tested in RIKEN, Japan. A laser plasma is induced just before
the entrance of the RFQ and is injected directly into the RFQ
channel. Using an existing RFQ, first verification tests have
been completed successfully. Finally, the preliminary
specifications for the first RFQ dedicated to the new injection
scheme are presented.
A pair of emission-line galaxies with separation 7.1 arcseconds was found from the survey of the UK Schmidt objective-prizm plates. The spectroscopic observations by the 1.88m reflector of the Okayama Observatory show the same emission-line features with Z=0.0441.
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