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Massive stars in a certain mass range (20 – 40M⊙) may form low mass black holes after supernova explosions. In such massive stars, fall back of ~ 0.1M⊙ materials onto a black hole is expected due to a deep gravitational potential or a reverse shock propagating back from the outer composition interface. We study hydrodynamical disk accretion onto a new-born low mass black hole in a supernova using the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method.
Infratemporal fossa abscess following odontogenic infection is not rare, and usually occurs as a sequela of dental disease. Infratemporal fossa abscess was previously treated with the combination of buccal incision and temporal incision, or via a transoral approach.
This paper reports a case of infratemporal fossa abscess in a 51-year-old female.
The abscess was drained transnasally via an endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy approach, preserving the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. The pain remitted the next day and trismus had diminished in one week.
The transnasal approach with endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is a direct, minimally invasive method that provides a direct field of view for drainage of infratemporal fossa abscess. This approach is recommended for infratemporal fossa abscess.
We synthesized viscous precursors to indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) using three kinds of alcoholamines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), by a simple process. The viscous precursors are obtained just by vigorous stirring of alcoholamine and urea in an aqueous solution containing the metal nitrates during heating at 150-160 °C. The precursor containing EA (EA-precursor) is a pale-orange suspension containing aggregates of the metal hydroxides and shows pseudoplastic flow. The precursors containing DEA (DEA-precursor) and TEA (TEA-precursor) are transparent pale-yellow and dark-orange sols, respectively. They give Newtonian flow in the lower shear rate and pseudoplastic flow in the higher shear rate. Higher concentration of metal salts leads to higher viscosity of the precursors. According to thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) for the EA- and DEA-precursors, evaporation of alcoholamine occurs at around each boiling point and subsequently formation of metal oxides occur at around 300 °C. In the case of the TEA-precursor, formation of metal oxides occurs before pyrolysis of TEA attributed to the higher boiling point of TEA. The thin IGZO film, which is prepared by spin-coating of the diluted DEA-precursor and subsequent sintering at 450 °C for 30 min, shows 0.02 cm2 ·V-1s-1 of the mobility and 10-5 of the on/off ratio. The highly viscous DEA-precursor containing high concentration of metal ions allows patterning in an area of 100 cm2 onto a surface of a silicon wafer with screen printing.
Infrared water line emission from protoplanetary disks, recently observed by the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes, is thought to trace the surface layer of the inner to outer regions of the disks. We have modelled the water abundance profile and line emission, especially focusing on the effects of dust size growth and turbulent mixing. Comparison between model calculations and observations suggests a small grain model with turbulent mixing is preferred.
Hot core chemistry, characterized by the evaporation of icy mantle molecules from dust grains and subsequent gas-phase chemistry, seems ubiquitous in hot, dense clouds. Hot core molecules have been observed, not only in high-mass star-forming regions, but also in protoplanetary disks, shocks in young stellar outflows, and so on. Here, we study grain-surface chemistry and chemistry in hot gas in disks and outflows. Our results suggest that observations of molecular lines by the forthcoming ALMA and other facilities will give us information on, for example, grain-surface chemistry in the outer disk, turbulent mixing in the inner disk, and the physical and chemical conditions at the launching points of outflows.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Carrier transport properties and electronic structure of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, were investigated using single-crystalline thin films. Room-temperature Hall mobility strongly depends on carrier concentration, and rapidly increased from ∼ 2 cm2(Vs)-1 to > 10 cm2(Vs)-1 around the carrier concentration (Nth ∼3 × 1018 cm−3. This change is associatedwith insulator-metal transition. These results are explained by a model similar to Anderson localization, in which shallow semi-localized states are formed originating from random distribution of Ga3+ and Zn2+ ions in the intrinsic crystal structure of InGaO3(ZnO)5. The present conclusion suggests that electron densities larger than Nth are necessary to attain high performances in drift carrier devices fabricated using InGaO3(ZnO)5. It was demonstrated that transparent filed-effect transistors exhibited good performances such as a “normally-offcharacteristics”, an on/off current ratios as large as 105 and a field-effect mobility ∼80 cm2(Vs)-1when high-k material, amorphous HfOx, was used as a gate insulator.
A novel characterization method is applied to study the evolution of microstructures during densification of silicon nitride ceramics. This characterization method involves an immersion liquid for making green and sintered bodies transparent, and a subsequent direct optical microscopic examination. Granules were prepared with the spray drying processand formed into green bodies by CIP. After sintering at various temperatures, the specimens were examined for microstructural evolution. Large pores were located at the center and boundary regions of granules left in the green bodies; they were not removed by densification and resulted in large pores in the sintered body, possibly forming fracture origin in ceramics.
SiO2 thin firms were fabricated in a remote electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma by tctraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silicon source. Oxygen was used as the plasma gas. A mesh was placed between the TEOS gas outlet and the substrate. In the present investigation a-SiO2 films were deposited with and without the mesh and film properties were studied comparatively. The deposition rate increased when the mesh was attached. The optimum deposition rate is observed when the mesh voltage was zero, that is the mesh was grounded. The deposition rates of both methods were also dependnt on the TEOS flow rate, applied microwave power and the substrate temperature. These three parameters have significant roles in controlling the film quality. Good quality SiO2 films can be obtained with a higher deposition rate when a mesh is attached.
In this paper, new synthetic routes have been investigated for the preparation of Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer membranes consisting of SiO2 /PTMO(polytetramethylene oxide) hybrids and novel proton conducting materials. These materials have been synthesized through sol-gel processes in flexible, ductile, free-standing thin membrane form. The hybrid membrane has been found to be thermally stable up to 160 C and possesses proton conductivities of approximately 10−4 S/cm from a room temperature to 160 C.
Transparent metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were fabricated using a single-crystalline thin film of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, a homologous compound InGaO3(ZnO)5, grown by a reactive solid phase epitaxy method. The transparent MISFET exhibited good performances with “normally-off characteristics”, “an on/off current ratio as large as 105” and “insensitivity to visible light”. Field-effect mobility was about 2 cm2(Vs)-1, which is larger than those reported previously for MISFETs fabricated in transparent oxide semiconductors. These improved performance is thought to result from the low defect density and intrinsic-level carrier concentration of the single-crystalline InGaO3(ZnO)5 film.
We have developed a novel growth method for single-crystalline film of natural superlattice oxides and named the method “Reactive Solid-Phase Epitaxy (R-SPE).” Single-crystalline thin films of homologous series In-GaO3(ZnO)m (m=integer) are fabricated by the R-SPE method and its growth mechanism, especially a role of ZnO epitaxial layer, is clarified. High-temperature annealing of bi-layer films consisting of an amorphous InGaO3(ZnO)5 layer deposited at room temperature and an epitaxial ZnO layer on YSZ substrate allows for the growth of single-crystalline film with a controlled chemical composition. The ZnO layer plays an essential role in determining the crystallographic orientation, while the thickness ratio between the two layers controls the film composition.
In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction total reflection angle X-ray spectroscopy (RHEED-TRAXS) was performed to monitor alloy composition at the surface during growth of nitrides by RF-MBE for the first time. TRAXS signal of the GaLα line is found to be more sensitive to the composition at the surface than the GaKαline. A difference in the composition of layer adsorbed on the surface and the solid alloy layer has been identified.
Silica film coatings were demonstrated using photo-chemical vapor deposition with a 172-nm Xe excimer lamp. Tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) molecules were successfully dissociated into SiO2+2C2H5-OH+;(residual C and H) with the 7.2-eV photons. The films were deposited onto a quartz or Al203 single crystal substrate with the deposition rate of 1 nm/min. The films were uniform and smooth enough for optical applications.
SiO2 thin films were deposited on automobile plastics at low temperatures using a microwave activated ECR plasma. Oxygen was used as the plasma gas while tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as the source gas which was introduced into the downstream. In the present investigation high quality SiO2 films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP) substrates with and without a mesh and the characteristics of hard coating films were studied. The film growth rate increases with the decrease of substrate temperature when a mesh is inserted into the plasma. The irregularities of polymer surfaces could be planarized by the deposition of 1.0 μm thick SiO2 film. The dynamic hardness of PC and PP are increased by the deposition of SiO2 film, however, films deposited on PP is seen to be cracked while that of on PC is crack-free.
Ultrasonic spray-assisted mist deposition techniques have been developed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly deposition method for oxide and organic thin films. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a variety of oxide thin films having unique functions, such as Cr2O3, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and Al2O3 thin films, has been demonstrated as well as high-quality ZnO and Ga2O3 films ever reported. In addition to the films deposition by the CVD process, the deposition of organic material thin films from the source solution has also been achieved; as examples we have shown the patterned deposition of water-soluble fluorescent polymers with a metal mask. This may substitute the spin-coating technique and contribute to increase the source consumption efficiency in the thin film deposition. We appeal that the mist deposition is a unique and promising technique as a green chemical route for film deposition.
Only a few benign tumours of the middle ear have been reported to lead to the development of facial palsy. Here, we describe a patient with middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma and facial palsy.
Single case study.
A 61-year-old man presented with left-sided hearing impairment and incomplete left facial palsy. A tumour was confirmed to be occupying the epi- to mesotympanum and to be joined to the facial nerve. The tumour was removed along with facial nerve tissue, which was resected at its horizontal portion, and the remaining facial nerve was fixed by end-to-end anastomosis. Complete facial paralysis occurred after the operation, but the patient's House–Brackmann grade gradually improved to grade III. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the lymphangioma into the facial nerve tissue, together with mild neural atrophy of the facial nerve.
These findings suggested that tumour invasion was the cause of facial palsy in this patient.
We have modelled a detailed physical structure of protoplanetary disks, taking into account X-ray and UV irradiation from a central star, as well as dust size growth and settling towards the disk midplane. In addition, we have calculated the level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen in the disks. As a result, we reproduce the observed strong H2 line flux if the disks are influenced by strong UV and X-ray irradiation. Also, the dust evolution changes the physical properties of the disk, and thus the H2 line ratios.
We have studied the effect of the gas accretion flow on the distribution
of molecules in hot inner regions of young circumstellar disks.
The gas-phase reactions initiated by evaporation of icy mantle on
dust grains are calculated along the accretion flow, and
the molecular line emission is simulated using the obtained
Our results have shown that some evaporated molecules keep high
abundances and emit strong transition lines only when the accretion
velocity is high enough.
The Josephson map describes the nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by the standard map with a uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase-space portrait of the Josephson map are examined here on the basis of the associated tangent map. A numerical investigation of stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is compared with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated using the characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at far smaller values of the stochastic parameter than is the case of the standard map.