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Blazar OJ287 exhibits large thermal flares at least twice every 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully using the model of a quasi-Keplerian eccentric black hole binary where the secondary impacts the accretion disk of the primary, creating the thermal flares. New measurements of the historical light curve have been combined with the observations of the 2015 November/December flare to identify the impact record since year 1886, and to constrain the orbit of the binary. The orbital solution shows that the binary period, now 12.062 years, is decreasing at the rate of 36 days per century. This corresponds to an energy loss to gravitational waves that is 6.5 ± 4 % less than the rate predicted by the standard quadrupolar gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that the difference is due to higher order gravitational radiation reaction terms that include the dominant order tail contributions.
Blazar OJ 287 is one of the best observed extragalactic objects. It's historical light curve goes back to 1890′s. Based on the historical behaviour Sillanpää et al. (1988) showed that OJ 287 displays large periodic outbursts, with a period of 11.7 years. We have monitored OJ 287 intensively for two years, during the OJ-94 project. This project was created for monitoring OJ 287 during its predicted new outburst in 1994. In the data archive we have over 7000 observations on OJ 287, in the radio, infrared and optical bands. This data archive contains the best ever obtained light curves for any extragalactic object. The optical light curve shows continuous variability down to time scales of tens of minutes. The variability observed in OJ 287 can be broken down to (at least) four different categories:
Hippocampal volume reductions in major depression have been frequently reported. However, evidence for functional abnormalities in the same region in depression has been less clear. We investigated hippocampal function in depression using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological tasks tapping spatial memory function, with complementing measures of hippocampal volume and resting blood flow to aid interpretation.
A total of 20 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a matched group of 20 healthy individuals participated. Participants underwent multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): fMRI during a spatial memory task, and structural MRI and resting blood flow measurements of the hippocampal region using arterial spin labelling. An offline battery of neuropsychological tests, including several measures of spatial memory, was also completed.
The fMRI analysis showed significant group differences in bilateral anterior regions of the hippocampus. While control participants showed task-dependent differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, depressed patients did not. No group differences were detected with regard to hippocampal volume or resting blood flow. Patients showed reduced performance in several offline neuropsychological measures. All group differences were independent of differences in hippocampal volume and hippocampal blood flow.
Functional abnormalities of the hippocampus can be observed in patients with MDD even when the volume and resting perfusion in the same region appear normal. This suggests that changes in hippocampal function can be observed independently of structural abnormalities of the hippocampus in depression.
We have obtained new optical spectra of the radio galaxy 3C 129 and the giant galaxy close to it. From these spectra we deduce a relative radial velocity of 710 km s−1 between the two galaxies. Using the orbit calculations of Byrd & Valtonen (1978) and the new observations we obtain a new value, 3.3 × 1014M⊙, for the mass of the system.
In this paper the feasibility to extract the proportion of pigs located in different areas of a pig pen by advanced image analysis technique is explored and discussed for possible applications. For example, pigs generally locate themselves in the wet dunging area at high ambient temperatures in order to avoid heat stress, as wetting the body surface is the major path to dissipate the heat by evaporation. Thus, the portion of pigs in the dunging area and resting area, respectively, could be used as an indicator of failure of controlling the climate in the pig environment as pigs are not supposed to rest in the dunging area. The computer vision methodology utilizes a learning based segmentation approach using several features extracted from the image. The learning based approach applied is based on extended state-of-the-art features in combination with a structured prediction framework based on a logistic regression solver using elastic net regularization. In addition, the method is able to produce a probability per pixel rather than form a hard decision. This overcomes some of the limitations found in a setup using grey-scale information only. The pig pen is a difficult imaging environment because of challenging lighting conditions like shadows, poor lighting and poor contrast between pig and background. In order to test practical conditions, a pen containing nine young pigs was filmed from a top view perspective by an Axis M3006 camera with a resolution of 640×480 in three, 10-min sessions under different lighting conditions. The results indicate that a learning based method improves, in comparison with greyscale methods, the possibility to reliable identify proportions of pigs in different areas of the pen. Pigs with a changed behaviour (location) in the pen may indicate changed climate conditions. Changed individual behaviour may also indicate inferior health or acute illness.
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe.
Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection.
Multi-centre, European study.
Persons (n 36 970) aged 35–74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants.
The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries.
Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.
To identify clinical cues indicative of depression in medical records of cases in primary care with undetected depression.
Depressive disorders are common; the lifetime risk for men and women is 27% and 45%, respectively. Despite effective treatment methods such as antidepressants and cognitive behavioural therapy, depression often remains undiscovered in primary care, with great implications both on the individual and societal level.
Clinical cues indicating depression were sought in medical records the year before an opportunistic screening for depression in primary care. In a previous study of 221 patients in the waiting room of a primary care centre during 10 randomly selected days, 45 (20%) showed signs of depression (MADRS-S ⩾ 12) and 60% of these were verified as having depressive disorders (Prime-MD). These 45 patients constitute the cases in the present study. Age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those who scored below the chosen cut-off level.
Seventeen (38%) of the 45 cases compared with eight (18%) of the 45 controls had one or more cues [odds ratio (OR) 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–7.43]. Sleep disturbance showed the greatest difference between cases and controls (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 1.17–17.55). A significant relationship was found between severity of depression, frequency of cues and lower functional level. Cues were twice as common in patients with undetected depression and their functional level was lower. A two-stage procedure, screening and a structured diagnostic interview, is recommended when sleep disturbances and lowered function are present.
Studies suggest a role for cardiovascular fitness in the prevention of
To determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 is associated with
future risk of serious affective illness.
Population-based Swedish cohort study of male conscripts
(n = 1 117 292) born in 1950–1987 with no history of
mental illness who were followed for 3–40 years. Data on cardiovascular
fitness at conscription were linked with national hospital registers to
calculate future risk of depression (requiring in-patient care) and
In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with
increased risk for serious depression (hazard ratios (HR)=1.96, 95%, CI
1.71–2.23). No such association could be shown for bipolar disorder
(HR=1.11, 95% CI 0.84–1.47).
Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 was associated with increased risk
of serious depression in adulthood. These results strengthen the theory
of a cardiovascular contribution to the aetiology of depression.
An increasing amount of medical equipment is brought to the scene of a medical emergency. Most of these apparatus seem to be only slightly modified versions of equipment originally designed to be used inside the hospital. This equipment has to function in various extreme environmental conditions.
Stainless steels are among the most important engineering materials, finding their principal scope in industry, specifically in cutlery, food production, storage, architecture, medical equipment, etc. Austenitic stainless steels form the largest sub-category of stainless steels having as the main building blocks the paramagnetic substitutional disordered Fe-Cr-Ni-based alloys. Because of that, austenitic steels represent the primary choice for non-magnetic engineering materials. The presence of the chemical and magnetic disorder hindered any previous attempt to calculate the fundamental electronic, structural and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels from first-principles theories. Our ability to reach an ab initio atomistic level approach in this exciting field has become possible by the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals (EMTO) method. This method, in combination with the coherent potential approximation, has proved an accurate tool in the description of the concentrated random alloys. Using the EMTO method, we presented an insight to the electronic and magnetic structure, and micromechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel alloys. In the present contribution, we will discuss the role of magnetism on the stacking fault energies and elastic properties of paramagnetic Fe-based alloys.
Communication and information are cornerstones of management during major incidents and disasters. To support medical command and control, the Web-based support system called Paratus Major Incident can be used. The Paratus Major Incident system can provide management staff with online information from the incident area, and support management and patient handling at both single and mass-casualty incidents. The purpose of the Web-based information technology (IT) system is to ensure communication and information between the medical management at the scene, hospital management, and regional medical command and control (gold level).
In the region of Östergötland, Sweden, Paratus Major Incident system is used in operating topics such as: (1) information dissemination from the incident area; (2) communication between prehospital, regional, and hospital management; (3) continuous updates between the dispatch centre and medical commanders at all levels; (4) digital log-files for medical management and patient records; (4) database used for follow-up studies and quality control.
During 2,161 incidents, 746 “first incident reports” from ambulance on scene were sent to regional medical command and control within 2 minutes. Four hundred and fifty-six “verification reports” were sent within 10 minutes. During 15 incidents, the designated duty officer on regional level confirmed “major incident” directly via the digital system, thereby notifying all arriving ambulance resources and involved medical managements.
This Web-based IT system successfully has been used daily within prehospital management since 2005. The system includes medical command and control at the regional level and all involved hospitals in a major incident.
On 11 June 2009, an Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). The Major Medical Incident Regional Command and Control Protocol in the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden was activated. After vaccinations were competed, it was decided that the operation should be evaluated in a retrospective study. This study aims to increase knowledge regarding regional management of a pandemic flu.
All protocols from regional command meetings were studied together with central data regarding, logistics, vaccination site reports, incident reports, and all written correspondence between involved departments. Information from results of a questionnaire that was distributed to all vaccination site managers were summarized and studied. In addition, an interview was performed with the chief of medical operations.
Out of the approximately 426,000 inhabitants of the county, a total of 224,780 (53%) were vaccinated during a five and a half month period. The mean pace was 1,246 vaccinated per day (range 0–9643). Regional command had 41 recorded meetings resulting in a collected number of about 740 working hours. Three hundred sixty-six employees were involved in the vaccination, working 38,741 hours. Twenty-eight safety and 52 security incidents were reported. Uncertainty about vaccine delivery and keeping the public's interest were reported to be of concern for the management.
Even with the large scale of the operation, there were only a few security and safety issues. Although the goal of vaccinating 75–80% of the inhabitants was not reached, it could be assumed that the pandemic was dampened. Given the public's high initial interest, it could be considered that vaccination should not start until a large number of doses have been delivered.
The medical incident command structure and protocol successfully can be adapted to a mass vaccination event. Information from the Östergötland County Council operation yielded significant experience for future mass vaccinations.
Disaster medicine is a young discipline and there is a need for the development of methods for evaluation and research. This includes full-scale disaster exercises that are quite costly. Within each organization these exercises are seldom conducted. If there was a standardized concept on how to conduct as well as evaluate these exercises, this could lead to better knowledge and cost effectiveness. The aim of this study was to increase awareness of the possibility to develop and conduct full-scale exercises in different settings using performance indicators combined with indicators related to patient outcome serving as a basis for comparison and evaluation process.
Two full-scale exercises in different organizations were studied. Identical panorama with the same number and type of casualties was used. Sets of performance indicators combined with indicators for unfavorable patient outcome, according to the Emergo Train System®, were recorded as well as all transportation times and the patient distribution to selected hospitals. Qualified observers scored the results on predetermined locations; on the scene, hospital and strategic command and control.
The lowest scored performance indicators were “first report to dispatch”, “second report from scene” and “first patient evacuated”. Due to insufficient response and evacuation times of victims to the receiving hospitals the unfavourable patient outcome, regarding preventable deaths and preventable complications were 28% (n = 18) and 41% (n = 17), respectively.
Standardized full-scale exercises where the same type of results is recorded can be conducted. This combination of performance indicators and Emergo Train System® leads to probabilities of development and better command and control response. Future use of the same concept may demonstrate important results that will lead to new and better knowledge that can be applied during real incidents.
We present Monte Carlo based calculations of transport parameters useful in the simulation of III-nitride and SiC based devices. The calculations are performed using a full band ensemble Monte Carlo model that includes numerical formulations of the phonon scattering rates and impact ionization transition rates. Calculations are made for the wurtzite and zincblende phases of GaN, the wurtzite phase of InN, and the 3C (cubic) and 4H phases of SiC. The basic transport parameters determined are saturation drift velocity, and the ionization coefficients as a function of applied electric field. Results from the various materials are finally compared.
High Tc superconducting (HTSC) films synthesis for demanding applications requires epitaxial c-axis growth without high angle grain boundaries. Electron channeling pattern (ECP) analysis using a scanning electron microscope is a non-destructive, fast, direct,and economical tool to determine the orientation and crystallinity of epitaxial films. We have successfully employed this technique to examine our in-situ laser ablated YBa2Cu307−δ superconducting thin films grown on LaAI03 (100) substrates. By changing the energy of the incident electron beam, we can also monitor the film quality vs. depth. The surface bending of YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films due to the cubic-rhombohedral transition of LaAI03 substrates is also visiblewhen sharp ECPs are present. For films with rough surfaces, the ECP contrast is obscured by unwanted contrast arising from surface features. This unwanted contrast can be minimized by defocusing the electron beam.
In this investigation, surfactant-mediated growth of SiGe/Si single quantum-well structures is studied by photoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The samples were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and Sb was used as a surfactant. The photon energy of the SiGe-related near-band-edge photoluminescence was used to probe the action of Sb as a surfactant to promote two-dimensional growth and to reduce segregation of Ge during growth. First, the "growth-temperature window" at which Sb acts preferentially as a surfactant was determined. Then, at this optimized temperature of 700°C, the influence of different Sb coverages was investigated and it was found that 0.5 monolayer was a sufficient coverage to obtain full surfactant action. Ge concentration depth profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed the effect of surfactant-mediated growth and, in addition, the unintentional incorporation of the Sb surfactant during growth was determined quantitatively. In a final experiment the effect of deposition of Sb on either the lower or the upper heterointerface is addressed.