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Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides unique information on the age, turnover and source of this important greenhouse gas, raising the prospect of novel scientific investigations into a range of natural and anthropogenic processes. To achieve these measurements, cartridges containing zeolite molecular sieves are a reliable and convenient method for collecting CO2 samples. At the NERC Radiocarbon Facility (East Kilbride) we have been refining our molecular sieve methods for over twenty years to achieve high-quality, reproducible and precise measurements. At the same time, we have been developing novel field sampling methods to expand the possibilities in collecting gas from the atmosphere, soil respiration and aquatic environments. Here, we present our latest improvements to cartridge design and procedures. We provide the results of tests used to verify the methods using known 14C content standards, demonstrating reliability for sample volumes of 3 mL CO2 (STP; 1.6 mg C) collected in cartridges that had been prepared at least three months earlier. We also report the results of quality assurance standards processed over the last two years, with results for 22 out of 23 international 14C standards being within measurement uncertainty of consensus values. We describe our latest automated procedures for the preparation of cartridges prior to use.
In toroidal magnetic confinement devices, such as tokamaks and stellarators, neoclassical transport is usually an order of magnitude larger than its classical counterpart. However, when a high-collisionality species is present in a stellarator optimized for low Pfirsch–Schlüter current, its classical transport can be comparable to the neoclassical transport. In this letter, we compare neoclassical and classical fluxes and transport coefficients calculated for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and Large Helical Device (LHD) cases. In W7-X, we find that the classical transport of a collisional impurity is comparable to the neoclassical transport for all radii, while it is negligible in the LHD cases, except in the vicinity of radii where the neoclassical transport changes sign. In the LHD case, electrostatic potential variations on the flux surface significantly enhance the neoclassical impurity transport, while the classical transport is largely insensitive to this effect in the cases studied.
The physiology of mesophotic Scleractinia varies with depth in response to environmental change. Previous research has documented trends in heterotrophy and photosynthesis with depth, but has not addressed between-site variation for a single species. Environmental differences between sites at a local scale and heterogeneous microhabitats, because of irradiance and food availability, are likely important factors when explaining the occurrence and physiology of Scleractinia. Here, 108 colonies of Agaricia lamarcki were sampled from two locations off the coast of Utila, Honduras, distributed evenly down the observed 50 m depth range of the species. We found that depth alone was not sufficient to fully explain physiological variation. Pulse Amplitude-Modulation fluorometry and stable isotope analyses revealed that trends in photochemical and heterotrophic activity with depth varied markedly between sites. Our isotope analyses do not support an obligate link between photosynthetic activity and heterotrophic subsidy with increasing depth. We found that A. lamarcki colonies at the bottom of the species depth range can be physiologically similar to those nearer the surface. As a potential explanation, we hypothesize sites with high topographical complexity, and therefore varied microhabitats, may provide more physiological niches distributed across a larger depth range. Varied microhabitats with depth may reduce the dominance of depth as a physiological determinant. Thus, A. lamarcki may ‘avoid’ changes in environment with depth, by instead existing in a subset of favourable niches. Our observations correlate with site-specific depth ranges, advocating for linking physiology and abiotic profiles when defining the distribution of mesophotic taxa.
Introduction: There is an opioid epidemic which has seen an increased mortality rate of 200% related to opioid use over the past decade. Prescription practices amongst ED physicians may be contributing to this problem. Our objective was to analyze ED physician prescription practices for patients discharged from the ED with acute fractures. Methods: We conducted a health records review of ED patients seen at two campuses of a tertiary care hospital with total annual census of 160,000 visits. We evaluated a consecutive sample of patients with acute fractures (January 1 2016–April 15 2016) seen and discharged by ED physicians. Patients admitted to hospital or discharged by consultant services were excluded. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients discharged with an opioid prescription. We collected data using a screening list, review of electronic records, and interobserver agreement for measures. We calculated simple descriptive statistics and estimated 4 months would be required to enroll 250 patients receiving opioid prescriptions. Results: We enrolled 816 patients, with 442 females (54.2%), median CTAS score of 3, and median pain score at triage of 6/10. The most common fractures were wrist/hand (35.2%) and foot excluding ankle (14.8%). An ED pain directive was used at triage for 21.2% and 281 patients (34.4%) received an opioid during ED stay, with tramadol (21.2%) being the most common. Overall, 250 patients (30.6%) were discharged with the following opioid prescriptions and median total dosages: hydromorphone (N = 114, median dosage 23mg, range 1–120mg), tramadol (N = 86, 1000mg, 200–2000mg), oxycodone (N = 33, 100mg, 10–170mg), codeine (N = 20, 600mg, 360–1200mg), and morphine (N = 9, 100mg, 25–200mg). Of patients prescribed hydromorphone, 61 (53.5%) were prescribed > 20mg. Overall, 35 patients (4.3%) had a pain related ED visit <1 month after discharge, of which 14 (40%) received an opioid prescription on initial discharge, and 12 (34.2%) received an opioid prescription upon subsequent discharge. Conclusion: Amongst patients presenting to the ED with acute fractures, the majority were not discharged home with an opioid prescription from ED physicians. Hydromorphone was the most common opioid prescribed, with large variations in total dosage. Despite only a minority of patients receiving opioid prescriptions, there were very few return to ED visits. To limit potential abuse, we recommend standardization of opioid prescribing in the ED, with attention to limiting the total dosage given.
impurities in magnetic-confinement devices are prone to develop density variations on the flux surface, which can significantly affect their transport. In this paper, we generalize earlier analytic stellarator calculations of the neoclassical radial impurity flux in the mixed-collisionality regime (collisional impurities and low-collisionality bulk ions) to include the effect of such flux-surface variations. We find that only in the homogeneous density case is the transport of highly collisional impurities (in the Pfirsch–Schlüter regime) independent of the radial electric field. We study these effects for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) vacuum field, with simple analytic models for the potential perturbation, under the assumption that the impurity density is given by a Boltzmann response to a perturbed potential. In the W7-X case studied, we find that larger amplitude potential perturbations cause the radial electric field to dominate the transport of the impurities. In addition, we find that classical impurity transport can be larger than the neoclassical transport in W7-X.
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infects 95% of the global population and is associated with up to 2% of cancers globally. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to EBV have been shown to be heritable and associated with developing malignancies. We, therefore, performed a pilot genome-wide association analysis of anti-EBV IgG traits in an African population, using a combined approach including array genotyping, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to a panel with African sequence data. In 1562 Ugandans, we identify a variant in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1, rs9272371 (p = 2.6 × 10−17) associated with anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 responses. Trans-ancestry meta-analysis and fine-mapping with European-ancestry individuals suggest the presence of distinct HLA class II variants driving associations in Uganda. In addition, we identify four putative, novel, very rare African-specific loci with preliminary evidence for association with anti-viral capsid antigen IgG responses which will require replication for validation. These findings reinforce the need for the expansion of such studies in African populations with relevant datasets to capture genetic diversity.
The accumulation of impurities in the core of magnetically confined plasmas, resulting from standard collisional transport mechanisms, is a known threat to their performance as fusion energy sources. Whilst the axisymmetric tokamak systems have been shown to benefit from the effect of temperature screening, that is an outward flux of impurities driven by the temperature gradient, impurity accumulation in stellarators was thought to be inevitable, driven robustly by the inward pointing electric field characteristic of hot fusion plasmas. We have shown in Helander et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 118, 2017a, 155002) that such screening can in principle also appear in stellarators, in the experimentally relevant mixed collisionality regime, where a highly collisional impurity species is present in a low collisionality bulk plasma. Details of the analytic calculation are presented here, along with the effect of the impurity on the bulk ion flow, which will ultimately affect the bulk contribution to the bootstrap current.
Personality disorders commonly coexist with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but there is conflicting evidence on their association with treatment outcomes.
To determine the size and direction of the association between personality disorder and the outcome of treatment for AUD.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials and longitudinal studies.
Personality disorders were associated with more alcohol-related impairment at baseline and less retention in treatment. However, during follow-up people with a personality disorder showed a similar amount of improvement in alcohol outcomes to that of people without such disorder. Synthesis of evidence was hampered by variable outcome reporting and a low quality of evidence overall.
Current evidence suggests the pessimism about treatment outcomes for this group of patients may be unfounded. However, there is an urgent need for more consistent and better quality reporting of outcomes in future studies in this area.
With the changing distribution of infectious diseases, and an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases, low- and middle-income countries, including those in Africa, will need to expand their health care capacities to effectively respond to these epidemiological transitions. The interrelated risk factors for chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases and the need for long-term disease management, argue for combined strategies to understand their underlying causes and to design strategies for effective prevention and long-term care. Through multidisciplinary research and implementation partnerships, we advocate an integrated approach for research and healthcare for chronic diseases in Africa.
Toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 have caused cholera epidemics, but other serogroups – such as O75 or O141 – can also produce cholera toxin and cause severe watery diarrhoea similar to cholera. We describe 31 years of surveillance for toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 infections in the United States and map these infections to the state where the exposure probably originated. While serogroups O75 and O141 are closely related pathogens, they differ in how and where they infect people. Oysters were the main vehicle for O75 infection. The vehicles for O141 infection include oysters, clams, and freshwater in lakes and rivers. The patients infected with serogroup O75 who had food traceback information available ate raw oysters from Florida. Patients infected with O141 ate oysters from Florida and clams from New Jersey, and those who only reported being exposed to freshwater were exposed in Arizona, Michigan, Missouri, and Texas. Improving the safety of oysters, specifically, should help prevent future illnesses from these toxigenic strains and similar pathogenic Vibrio species. Post-harvest processing of raw oysters, such as individual quick freezing, heat-cool pasteurization, and high hydrostatic pressurization, should be considered.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus affects over 2.7 million Canadians, with 90% being Type-2 diabetes (CDA 2010). Complications of diabetes are major causes for emergency department (ED) visits, adversely affecting patients’ health and costing the health system. Improving diabetes self-management can lead to avoidance of ED visits and revisits after discharge. Recent developments in mobile Health (mHealth), such as home health monitoring with sensors, social media, and text messaging, have shown promise in supporting patients in chronic disease self-management. This project tested the feasibility of these tools to support self-management for people with type-2 diabetes. Methods: Forty-three people with type-2 diabetes took part in a three month program that provided: health information via text messages, online access to curated resources and a facilitated discussion board, and access to wireless monitoring devices. Participants were outfitted with a wireless blood pressure monitor and weight scale, standard blood glucose monitor, and online access to their physiological data. Data collected included pre and post-self-reported health measures, tracking of physiological changes, website and discussion board use, cost survey, and interviews. Results: Participants reported significantly less health distress and an increase in diabetes empowerment. HbA1c levels decreased from an average of 7.41 to 6.77. Average weight and blood glucose also decreased over the study period. Interview and cost survey findings revealed most participants felt mDAWN provided good value; 78% expressed interest in continuing all or parts of the program. Interview findings revealed that participants developed self-management routines, and experienced increased self-awareness of, and ownership over, their health achievements. Conclusion: mHealth tools provided participants with their own physiologic information, connection with peers, and evidence informed advice. Participants highly valued this combination and improved their self-management and health outcomes. Equipping patients with similar tools for self-management post ED discharge holds great promise for decreasing revisits and improving health outcomes. This study has stimulated a clinical trial now underway to evaluate the effectiveness of home monitoring to facilitate the transition of patients between acute care and community settings.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
Le Président évoque la mémoire du Dr C. E. Saint John, décédé peu de temps avant le Congrès et qui, alors qu’il présidait la Commission groupant toutes les recherches de Physique solaire, portait un intérêt très vif aux travaux dont s’occupe maintenant la Commission n.
Deux demandes de subventions ont été soumises à la Commission: l’une, de M. le Prof. G. Abetti, pour continuer la publication des Immagini spettroscopiche del bordo solare; l’autre, de M. E. Esclangon, pour poursuivre celle des Cartes synoptiques de la chromosphère établies à Meudon. Les demandes de subventions sont approuvées par la Commission.
In western Canada, more money is spent on wild oat herbicides than on any
other weed species, and wild oat resistance to herbicides is the most
widespread resistance issue. A direct-seeded field experiment was conducted
from 2010 to 2014 at eight Canadian sites to determine crop life cycle, crop
species, crop seeding rate, crop usage, and herbicide rate combination
effects on wild oat management and canola yield. Combining 2× seeding rates
of early-cut barley silage with 2× seeding rates of winter cereals and
excluding wild oat herbicides for 3 of 5 yr (2011 to 2013) often led to
similar wild oat density, aboveground wild oat biomass, wild oat seed
density in the soil, and canola yield as a repeated canola–wheat rotation
under a full wild oat herbicide rate regime. Wild oat was similarly well
managed after 3 yr of perennial alfalfa without wild oat herbicides.
Forgoing wild oat herbicides in only 2 of 5 yr from exclusively summer
annual crop rotations resulted in higher wild oat density, biomass, and seed
banks. Management systems that effectively combine diverse and optimal
cultural practices against weeds, and limit herbicide use, reduce selection
pressure for weed resistance to herbicides and prolong the utility of
threatened herbicide tools.
One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child.
– Carl Jung
Actively caring for people (AC4P) of course includes children we commonly refer to as “preschoolers,” ages 3–5 years. How do we best launch these children for lifelong success? Kindergarten can be exciting, yet perhaps overwhelming or possibly scary – especially today, as many scholars cite the academic rigor of kindergarten. The mission is no longer simply learning to play and relate with others. Now kindergarten children must master certain academic requirements.
More children are engaged in preschool activities today, perhaps due to increased kindergarten entry requirements. Currently, no federal or state mandates for preschool exist, but approximately half of U.S. children aged 3–4 are enrolled in some sort of preschool/daycare experience. Critical questions arise: How important is the preschool experience, and what characteristics define an effective preschool program?
THE IMPORTANCE OF PRESCHOOL
This chapter explores the AC4P behaviors of teachers that can promote early learning in preschool settings. We discuss how teachers can learn to create an AC4P culture in their classrooms to effectively promote early childhood development. Consistent with the theme of this book, information contained in this chapter clearly aligns with the basic principles of the AC4P Movement introduced in Chapter 2.
Children of preschool age differ considerably in their readiness or ability to learn to read and do math. These skills are highly predictive of later educational success. With regard to reading, for example, early elementary years appear to be critical for learning basic reading skills. In later grades, elementary school teachers transition from teaching students how to read to expecting students to acquire knowledge and learn through reading.
Perhaps you recall how your fifth- and-sixth-grade teachers began asking you to read longer sections of textbooks as homework and to learn new and exciting information in domains such as science and history through the process of reading. Imagine that experience had you not yet learned how to read.
Epidemiological data regarding group A streptococcal (GAS) infections in South East Asia are scarce with no information from Laos. We characterized emm types, emm clusters and the antibiotic resistance profile of 124 GAS isolates recovered in Laos during 2004–2013. Most strains were recovered from skin and invasive infections (76% and 19%, respectively). Thirty-four emm types were identified as belonging to 12 emm clusters and no novel emm types were identified. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of emm types or emm clusters according to age or site of recovery (skin or invasive infections). There was moderate strain diversity in this country but considerable differences in emm-type distribution between Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Vaccine coverage was high for the J8 vaccine candidate. The theoretical coverage for the 30-valent vaccine candidate needs further investigation. Antibiotic resistance was moderate to erythromycin and chloramphenicol (8% and 7%, respectively) and low to ofloxacin (<1%).
Field stars provide important constraints for the late stages of stars' angular momentum evolution. We measured rotation periods ranging from 0.1 to 150 days for approximately 450 mid-to-late M dwarfs using photometry from the MEarth transiting planet survey. We use parallaxes, proper motions, and radial velocities to calculate galactic kinematics for these solar neighborhood M dwarfs. The velocity dispersions increase towards longer rotation periods, indicating that there is a relationship between rotation and age for these stars.
We have mapped cold atomic gas in 21cm line H i self-absorption (HISA) at arcminute resolution over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have compared our HISA distribution with CO J = 1-0 line emission. Few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA has overlapping CO. But many apparent inner-Galaxy HISA-CO associations can be explained as chance superpositions, so most inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Since standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain the very cold H i in many HISA features without molecules being present, these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2.