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We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
The observation of 8B solar Neutrinos in the Kamiokande-II detector is presented. Based on 450 days of data in the time period of January 1987 through May 1988, the measured flux obtained with Ee ≥ 9.3 MeV was 0.46 ± 0.13 (stat) ± 0.08 (sys) of the value predicted by the standard solar model. The detector and analysis methods were improved since June 1988 and the background level has been decreased by a factor of about three since then.
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2010. We investigated the impact of PCV7 on childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Children aged <5 years living in Chiba city, Japan, who were admitted to hospitals were enrolled to estimate the incidence of CAP based on the mid-year population. PP was determined by the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cultured blood and/or sputum samples of CAP patients. The incidence of CAP and S. pneumoniae isolated from PP patients was compared before (April 2008–March 2009) and after (April 2012–March 2013) the introduction of PCV7 immunization. The annual incidence of CAP was reduced [incidence rate ratio 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·73–0·90]. When comparing post-vaccine with pre-vaccine periods, the odds ratio for PP incidence was 0·60 (95% CI 0·39–0·93, P = 0·024). PCV7-covered serotypes markedly decreased (66·6% in pre-vaccine vs. 15·6% in post-vaccine, P < 0·01), and serotypes 6C, 15A, 15C and 19A increased. Multidrug-resistant international clones in the pre-vaccine period (Spain6B-2/ST90, Taiwan19F-14/ST236) decreased, while Sweden15A-25/ST63 was the dominant clone in the post-vaccine period. A significant reduction in the incidence of both CAP hospitalizations and culture-confirmed PP of vaccine serotypes was observed at 2 years after PCV7 vaccination.
In order to evaluate the role of the RAD51 G135C genetic polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori infection, we determined allele frequency and genotype distribution of this polymorphism in Bhutan – a population documented with high prevalence of gastric cancer and extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. The status of RAD51 G135C was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified fragments and sequencing. Histological scores were evaluated according to the updated Sydney system. G135C carriers showed significantly higher scores for intestinal metaplasia in the antrum than G135G carriers [mean (median) 0·33 (0) vs. 0·08 (0), P = 0·008]. Higher scores for intestinal metaplasia of G135C carriers compared to those of G135G carriers were also observed in H. pylori-positive patients [0·3 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] and H. pylori-positive patients with gastritis [0·4 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] but were not found in H. pylori-negative patients. Our findings revealed that a combination of H. pylori infection and RAD51 G135C genotype of the host showed an increasing score for intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, RAD51 G135C might be the important predictor for gastric cancer of H. pylori-infected patients.
Silicon-based films have gained much interest as protective coatings for transparent polymeric materials. In this study, SiOC(–H) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) or Si substrates from trimethylsilane (TrMS) gas diluted with He gas by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced CVD (AP-PECVD) method with varying substrate temperature, and transparency and hardness of the films were investigated. The films exhibited a good optical transparency with an optical transmittance of about 90% irrespective of the substrate temperature, and the hardness increased from 0.6 to 1.3 GPa as the substrate temperature increased from 60 to 140°C. The results are discussed in terms of chemical structural changes in the films according to the substrate temperature.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Vanadium dioxide thin films (VO2) have been deposited by laser ablation. The temperature dependence of resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for each deposition condition were investigated. It was clarified that the TCR at room temperature (RT) can be optimized by controlling the oxygen pressure introduced during deposition as the deposition parameter. In the result, larger TCR's at RT were observed for the oxygen deficient condition of VO2 than for oxygen-richer samples. Obtained TCR values were 0.072/K and 0.045/K at 25°C for VO2 thin films deposited onto R-cut sapphire and SiO2/Si, respectively.
High-iron bustamite and apatite occur as subhedral large crystals up to 1 to 2 cm wide and 10 cm long in close association with spessartine in the disseminated sphalerite- and galena-bearing diopside-roepperite-calcite skarn at the New Broken Hill Consolidated mine (N.B.H.S.), New South Wales, Australia. Complete chemical analyses of the minerals have been made, together with physical, optical, and X-ray studies.
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