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A rocket experiment was carried out to search for the extra-galactic background light at 1–5 μm. After subtracting the foreground radiation, there still remains an appreciable amount of isotropic diffuse radiation with a complex spectral feature which is possibly attributed to extragalactic origin.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
The aims of this study were to show the existence of individual differences in the distribution of sperm acrosome-associated 1 (SPACA1) among male patients of infertile couples and to examine their possible impact on the outcomes of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The spermatozoa were collected from male patients of infertile couples, washed by centrifugation, collected by the swim-up method, and then used for clinical treatments of conventional IVF. The surplus sperm samples were fixed and stained with an anti-SPACA1 polyclonal antibody for the immunocytochemistry. In the clinical IVF treatments, fertilization rates and blastocyst development rates were evaluated. The immunocytochemical observations revealed that SPACA1 were localized definitely in the acrosomal equatorial segment and variedly in the acrosomal principal segment. Specifically, the detection patterns of SPACA1 in the acrosomal principal segment could be classified into three categories: (A) strong, (B) intermediate or faint, and (C) almost no immunofluorescence. The SPACA1 indexes were largely different among male patients with the wide range from 13 to 199 points. The SPACA1 indexes were significantly correlated with developmental rates of embryos to blastocysts (r = 0.829, P = 0.00162), although they were barely associated with fertilization rates at 19 h after insemination (r = 0.289, P = 0.389). These results suggest that the distribution of SPACA1 in sperm affects the outcomes of conventional IVF. In conclusion, this study provides initial data to promote large-scale clinical investigation to demonstrate that the SPACA1 indexes are valid as molecular biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of conventional IVF of infertile couples.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
In general, solitary right aortic arch carries the left-sided ductus arteriosus communicating between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries or the right-sided ductus connecting the descending aorta to the left pulmonary artery. Serial sections of fifteen 5- to 6-week-old embryos and ten 8- to 9-week-old fetuses suggested that the pathogenesis was unrelated to inversion due to dysfunction in gene cascades that control the systemic left/right axis. With inversion, conversely, the ductus or the sixth pharyngeal arch artery should connect to the right pulmonary artery. The disappearance of the right aortic arch started before the caudal migration of the aortic attachment of the ductus. Sympathetic nerve ganglia developed immediately posterior to both aortae, with a single embryonic specimen showing a large ganglion at the midline close to the union of the aortic arches. These ganglia may interfere with blood flow through the distal left arch, resulting in the ductus ending at the descending aorta behind the oesophagus. In another fetus examined, a midline shift of the ductus course resulted in the trachea curving posteriorly. Therefore, solitary right arch is likely to accompany abnormalities of the surrounding structures. The timing and site of the obstruction should be different between types: an almost midline obstruction near the aortic union needed for the development of the left-sided ductus and a distal obstruction near the left subclavian arterial origin needed for the development of the right-sided ductus. A mass effect of the sympathetic ganglia may explain the pathogenesis of any type of anomalous ductus arteriosus shown in previous reports of the solitary right arch.
Recently, the issue of sustainable resource management has been increasingly recognized.
Economic growth of human activity is associated with a rapid rise in the use of resources
in our economy, and society has a potential environmental impact. The UNEP International
Resource Panel (IRP) pointed out the importance of decoupling resource use and negative
environmental impacts from economic activity (UNEP IRP 2011). In order to
optimize the material cycles and increase resource efficiency, material flow analysis
(MFA) is a powerful tool to understand the resource consumption and material cycle in the
national economy. In this study, we present the results of global material flow analysis
of nickel, which is one of the important resources for reducing energy use and
CO2 emission in
our society, and discuss the importance and possibility of controlling its resource
logistics. This study also introduces the challenge of identifying the land-use changes in
nickel mining sites by a remote-sensing technique, and knowledge to increase the resource
efficiency in metal recycling based on the metallurgical thermodynamic approach. The
results indicated the importance of recovery of nickel in recycling policies for
end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and
implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed.
Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and
introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources.
Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying
elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
In this study, aluminized, boronized, chromized and siliconized gray cast iron plate specimens were prepared, and their microstructures and tribological properties were investigated. The surfaces of the aluminized, boronized, chromized and siliconized specimens mainly consisted of FeAl, Fe2B, (Cr, Fe)23C6 and FeSi phases, respectively. Also, the surface of the boronized specimen exhibited the highest microvickers hardness of all the specimens. The aluminized, boronized and chromized specimens exhibited friction coefficients as low as the non-coated specimens when sliding against AISI 52100 steel ball specimens in poly-alpha-olefin. In addition, the boronized and chromized specimens exhibited much higher wear resistance than the non-coated specimens.
Today I am a researcher at Google and one of a handful of employees, out of a global workforce of more than 30,000, the with a PhD in political science. But less than two years ago, I was a tenure track professor of political science at a research university and could barely have imagined the unusual path my professional life would take. That path has been incredibly rewarding, as well as instructive both of the broad value a PhD in political science (and the social sciences more generally) and of the growing role for quantitative research outside of the academy. I recount much of that path below, with the hope that it might prove useful for those graduate students, post-docs, and professors who might be inclined to apply the knowledge and skills they have acquired in unconventional professional paths of their own.
Using an ab initio density functional theory (DFT), we study thin film electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs) based on ternary compounds of Tl (thallium) and Bi (bismuth). We consider TlBiX2 (X=Se, Te) and Bi2X2Y (X, Y=Se, Te) compounds. Here we discuss the nature of surface states, their locations in the Brillouin Zone (BZ) and their interactions within the bulk region. Our calculations suggest a critical film thickness to maintain the Dirac cone which is smaller than that in binary Bi-based compounds. Atomic relaxations are found to affect the Dirac cone in some of these compounds. We discuss the penetration depth of surface states into the bulk region.
The nodal SDW order parameter on a cylindrical Fermi surface is thought to create the Dirac cone in the metallic ground state of iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides. Confirming appearance of the Dirac cone in DFT-GGA solutions of FeSe, we discuss origin of the bulk SDW order parameter in the stacked two-dimensional electronic system. In a layered system with vanishingly small inter-layer single-particle hopping processes, the exchange channels derived for the inter-plane magnetic interaction is the super-exchange counterpart of the two-particle Coulomb scattering for the pair-hopping channel in the layered superconductivity. The fluctuation reference method of the multi-reference density functional theory concludes existence of the inter-layer super-exchange interaction by the Coulomb off-diagonal elements among orbitals in the semi-metallic band structure. Thus a proof of 2D nature of the third generation Dirac cone in iron pnictides induced by SDW also promotes understanding of the high-temperature superconductivity.
Melting and crystallization experiments of InGaSb were done under the reduced gravity condition (10−2G) in an airplane and at the normal gravity condition (1G) in the laboratory. Crystallized InGaSb was found to contain many needle crystals in both the cases. Reduced gravity condition was found to be more conducive for crystal growth than the normal gravity condition. Formation of spherical projections on the surface of InGaSb during its crystallization was in-situ observed using a high speed CCD camera in the drop experiment. Spherical projections showed dependence of gravity during its growth. Indium compositions in the spherical projections were found to vary depending on the temperature.
Melting and crystallization experiments of InGaSb were done under the reduced gravity condition (10–2G) in an airplane and at the normal gravity condition (1G) in the laboratory. Crystallized InGaSb was found to contain many needle crystals in both the cases. Reduced gravity condition was found to be more conducive for crystal growth than the normal gravity condition. Formation of spherical projections on the surface of InGaSb during its crystallization was in-situ observed using a high speed CCD camera in the drop experiment. Spherical projections showed dependence of gravity during its growth. Indium compositions in the spherical projections were found to vary depending on the temperature.
Magnetic properties of Co-doped rutile (Ti1-xCoxO2) film in combinatorial composition-spread form have been surveyed by means of a Scanning Superconducting-quantum-interference-device Microscope (SSM). As a consequence, we found magnetic domains in the spatial regions with x>0.05 without external field, giving strong evidence for ferromagnetism with finite spontaneous magnetization. The magnetic moment was monotonously increased with increasing doping level x from 0.05 to ∼ 0.13. On the other hand, it was almost unchanged for x > ∼ 0.13, suggesting that Co does not dissolve into rutile film beyond x ∼ 0.13. The SSM results on the rutile Ti0.95Co0.05O2 thin films with different thickness showed that the magnetic moment is proportional to film thickness, leading to a conclusion that the presently observed ferromagnetism does not result from Co or Co-based oxide particles on the film surface.
Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) possesses charge and spin degrees of freedom leading to their interplay promising for novel devices. DMSs based on II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors have been extensively studied so far. Recently, the oxide semiconductors doped with transition metal magnetic impurity have attracted much attention for the possible high ferromagnetic Curie temperature. Here, we overview recent studies of the transparent oxide based DMSs, ZnO, TiO2, and SnO2 doped with 3d transition metals, by using the combinatorial materials synthesis and the high throughput screening.