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Cyg X-3 underwent a series of giant radio outbursts beginning on September 28, 1982 (Geldzahler et al. 1983). The flux densities at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz (11.1, 3.71 cm respectively, see Figure 1) were measured with the 2.4 km baseline of the Green Bank interferometer once every three days before October 5, 1982 (= JD 244 5248) and three times daily thereafter.
In Table I we present the list of 38 celestial objects that have been observed since January 1978 at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz with the Green Bank interferometer. The sources fall naturally into three categories: radio stars, possibly Galactic sources, and extragalactic sources. SS433, Cyg X-3, and each extrgalactic source is measured several times per day while the other sources are measured once every three days. Reports on the entire program will be found in Geldzahler et al. (1983a), and on specific sources: SS433—Johnston et al. (1983a), BL Lac—Johnston et al. (1983b), Cyg X-3—Geldzahler et al. (1983b) and elsewhere in this volume), and CTA 26—Spencer et al. (1983).
The U.S. Naval Observatory is responsible for the determination and prediction of UT1-UTC. An investigation was begun to determine if atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) data could be useful in the National Earth Orientation Service (NEOS) combined solution and in the prediction of UT1-UTC. The investigation found AAM data to be useful possibly in the combined solution, but predictions of UT1-UTC were adversely affected when predictions of AAM data were introduced.
For this review we have chosen to concentrate on recent progress concerning the model atmosphere analysis of stellar winds in central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). Since there is another review in these proceedings (by W.R. Hamann) devoted specifically to Wolf-Rayet type CSPNs, we will not consider them here. The reader interested in recent work on windless model atmospheres applied to CSPNs is referred to reviews by Napiwotzki (1995) and Werner et al. (1996). There is also an interesting paper by Werner (1996) on the Balmer line problem.
We are engaged in using the HIRES echelle spectrograph (Vogt et al. 1994) on the 10 m Keck I Telescope to significantly increase the number of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) studied spectroscopically at high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. With Keck we are able to extend our previous work (Méndez et al. 1988, 1992; McCarthy 1988) to much fainter magnitudes. In short, comparisons of the observed HI Balmer, HeI, and He II line profiles to the Munich grid of plane-parallel non-LTE model atmosphere line profiles provide distance- and nebula-independent determinations of CSPN effective temperature, surface gravity, and helium abundance. For CSPN showing wind emission, the comparisons are made to new “unified” models (reviewed by Kudritzki et al., this meeting) which include radiation-driven winds. The first results of this on-going program are shown below.
Küstner (1921) catalogued K648 in his photographic survey of M15, but it was not recognized as a PN central star until Pease (1928) discovered the nebula, denoted Ps1. As one of very few PN known in globular clusters — it was the only known until Gillet et al. (1989) reported the discovery of a second in M22 and Jacoby et al. (this meeting) announced two new but very faint objects — K648 offers one of the better opportunities to study the post-AGB evolution of extreme Pop. II stars. Previous investigations of the nebula and star (Adams et al. 1984; Peña, Torres-Peimbert, & Ruiz 1992; Heber, Dreizler, & Werner 1993) all concluded that the stellar temperature is slightly less than 40000 K. Heber et al. also concluded the photospheric He and C abundances were 3 × and 5 × higher than solar.
This report will try to review briefly the work achieved from 1982 to 1984 in different “subjects to be considered by Commission 31 Time” as adopted in Grenoble 1976. It contains also information provided by Commission members, for which hearty thanks are to be given. The limitation of space required the abbrevation of some institution reports.
The burden and aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its microvascular complications may be influenced by varying behavioural and lifestyle environments as well as by genetic susceptibility. These aspects of the epidemiology of T2D have not been reliably clarified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), highlighting the need for context-specific epidemiological studies with the statistical resolution to inform potential preventative and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, as part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, we designed a multi-site study comprising case collections and population-based surveys at 11 sites in eight countries across SSA. The goal is to recruit up to 6000 T2D participants and 6000 control participants. We will collect questionnaire data, biophysical measurements and biological samples for chronic disease traits, risk factors and genetic data on all study participants. Through integrating epidemiological and genomic techniques, the study provides a framework for assessing the burden, spectrum and environmental and genetic risk factors for T2D and its complications across SSA. With established mechanisms for fieldwork, data and sample collection and management, data-sharing and consent for re-approaching participants, the study will be a resource for future research studies, including longitudinal studies, prospective case ascertainment of incident disease and interventional studies.
The Durban Diabetes Study (DDS) is a population-based cross-sectional survey of an urban black population in the eThekwini Municipality (city of Durban) in South Africa. The survey combines health, lifestyle and socioeconomic questionnaire data with standardised biophysical measurements, biomarkers for non-communicable and infectious diseases, and genetic data. Data collection for the study is currently underway and the target sample size is 10 000 participants. The DDS has an established infrastructure for survey fieldwork, data collection and management, sample processing and storage, managed data sharing and consent for re-approaching participants, which can be utilised for further research studies. As such, the DDS represents a rich platform for investigating the distribution, interrelation and aetiology of chronic diseases and their risk factors, which is critical for developing health care policies for disease management and prevention. For data access enquiries please contact the African Partnership for Chronic Disease Research (APCDR) at email@example.com or the corresponding author.
To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia
A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology
Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends.
The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods.
Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):398–403
The United States Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are collaborating in a program to apply radio interferometric techniques to the determination of variations in Earth rotation, polar motion, and improved astronomical position reference systems. Investigations of VLBI and connected interferometer techniques and radio sources for astrometic application have been in progress for several years as part of the NRL radio astronomy program, and currently NRL and NAVOBSY are carrying out experimental programs to investigate VLBI time transfer techniques and UT determination using the connected element interferometer of the NRAO in Green Bank. Some previous results of observations using the Green Bank interferometer and proposed plans for operation as a dedicated system over a period of time to evaluate effectiveness for precise determination of Earth rotation parameters are discussed.