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Dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal phospholipids metabolism in the brain has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, mood disorder. This study was conducted to determine whether essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) levels in the erythrocyte membrane are correlate with severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as cognitive function, in subjects with AD.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Toyama School of Medicine.
Thirty out-patients (male/female = 6/24) with AD (n = 23) or amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 7) participated in the study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to assess cognitive function and severity of BPSD respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Fatty acids levels were analyzed using a gas chromatography system.
Concentrations of EPUFAs and ω-3 fatty acids were positively correlated with MMSE score. Also, EPUFAs levels were negatively correlated with the NPI Global and caregiver scores. Specifically, EPUFAs levels predicted dysphoria, euphoria and apathy scores of NPI.
These results suggest that abnormal phospholipids metabolism provided a biological basis for BPSD and cognitive impairments of AD.
Several cross-sectional studies, but no prospective studies, have reported an association between an abnormal lipid profile and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that an abnormal lipid profile might predict risk for developing PTSD. In this prospective study, we analyzed data from 237 antidepressant-naïve severely injured patients who participated in the Tachikawa Cohort of Motor Vehicle Accident Study. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline were significantly lower in patients with PTSD than those without PTSD at 6 months after motor vehicle accident (MVA) and were inversely associated with risk for PTSD. In contrast, triglycerides (TG) at baseline were significantly higher in patients with PTSD than in those without PTSD at 6 months post-MVA and were positively associated with risk for PTSD. There was no clear association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or total cholesterol and risk for PTSD. In conclusion, low HDL-C and high TG may be risk factors for PTSD. Determining lipid profiles might help identify those at risk for PTSD after experiencing trauma.
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
The mode of onset and the course of schizophrenia illness exhibit substantial individual variations. Previous studies have pointed out that the mode of onset affects the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical outcomes, such as cognitive and social functioning. This study attempted to clarify the association between the DUP and clinical features, taking the different modes of onset into consideration, in a prospective longitudinal study examining patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
This study was conducted in six areas of Japan. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were followed for over 18 months. Cognitive function, psychopathology, and social functioning were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-up points.
We identified 168 patients and sufficient information was available to determine the DUP and the mode of onset for 156 patients (92.9%): 79 had an acute onset, and 77 had an insidious onset. The DUP was significantly associated with quality of life (QOL), social functioning, and cognitive function at most of the follow-up points in the insidious-onset group. The DUP and negative symptoms at baseline were significant predictors of cognitive function at the 18-month follow-up in the insidious-onset group.
The present results further support the hypothesis that the DUP affects QOL, social functioning, and cognitive function over the course of illness, especially in patients with an insidious onset. Effective strategies for detecting and caring for individuals with insidious onset early during the course of schizophrenia will be essential for achieving a full patient recovery.
Ice rises play key roles in buttressing the neighbouring ice shelves and potentially provide palaeoclimate proxies from ice cores drilled near their divides. Little is known, however, about their influence on local climate and surface mass balance (SMB). Here we combine 12 years (2001–12) of regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2) output at high horizontal resolution (5.5 km) with recent observations from weather stations, ground-penetrating radar and firn cores in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, to describe climate and SMB variations around ice rises. We demonstrate strong spatial variability of climate and SMB in the vicinity of ice rises, in contrast to flat ice shelves, where they are relatively homogeneous. Despite their higher elevation, ice rises are characterized by higher winter temperatures compared with the flat ice shelf. Ice rises strongly influence SMB patterns, mainly through orographic uplift of moist air on the upwind slopes. Besides precipitation, drifting snow contributes significantly to the ice-rise SMB. The findings reported here may aid in selecting a representative location for ice coring on ice rises, and allow better constraint of local ice-rise as well as regional ice-shelf mass balance.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
In order to study magnetic states in Fe-hydride under pressure, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe K-edge has been measured up to 27.5 GPa. As a result, hydrogenation from bcc-Fe to dhcp-FeH occurs within a narrow region of 3.2-3.8 GPa, which is clearly observed by the dichroic profile in dhcp-FeH differing from that in bcc-Fe. Influence of H atoms on Fe 3d and 4p electronic states is discussed using the pressure-dependent XMCD and the first-principles calculation.
The cumulus–oocyte–complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.
We consider the number of trophic levels in a food chain given by the
equilibrium state for a simple mathematical model with ordinary differential
equations which govern the temporal variation of the energy reserve in each
trophic level. When a new trophic level invades over the top of the chain,
the chain could lengthen by one trophic level.
We can derive the condition that such lengthening could
occur, and prove that the possibly longest chain is globally stable.
In some specific cases, we find that the possibly longest chain is such that
the lower trophic level has a greater energy reserve than the higher has,
so that the distribution of energy reserves can be regarded to have a
pyramid shape, whereas, if any of its trophic levels is removed, the pyramid
shape cannot be maintained.
Further, we find the condition that arbitrary long chain can be established.
In such unbounded case, we prove that any chain could not have
the pyramid shape of energy reserve distribution.
Prior to attempting the in vitro production of embryos in the Bryde's whale (Balaenoputera edeni), we investigated whether spermatozoa can retain the capacity for oocyte activation and pronucleus formation as well as chromosomal integrity under cryopreservation by using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into mouse oocytes. Regardless of motility and viability, whale spermatozoa efficiently led to the activation of mouse oocytes (90.3–97.4%), and sperm nuclei successfully transformed into male pronucleus within activated ooplasm (87.2–93.6%). Chromosome analysis at the first cleavage metaphase (M) of the hybrid zygotes revealed that a majority (95.2%) of motile spermatozoa had the normal chromosome complement, while the percentage of chromosomal normality was significantly reduced to 63.5% in immotile spermatozoa and 50.0% in dead spermatozoa due to the increase in structural chromosome aberrations. This is the first report showing that motile Bryde's whale spermatozoa are competent to support embryonic development.
Phase-change memory is promising because it has a simple structure and has scalability that originates from its unique operating mechanism. However, the programming current should be reduced in accordance with the scaling of cell size [1,2]. We previously reported PCM (Phase Change Memory) cells that operate under 1.5-V/100-μA writing pulses [3, 4]. This PCM had a cell structure composed of 180-nm-W (tungsten) bottom contact to an O-GST (Oxygen-doped GeSbTe) film. Its low-power characteristic is suitable for 0.13-μm generation embedded applications. In the present study, we introduced a new W/O-GST/TaO/W cell structure and found further decrease of programming current the improved stability in the fabrication process. We analyzed the mechanism by which oxygen in GST and the additional TaO layer reduce the power consumption during SET/RESET operations.
Confinement and loss properties of tangentially co-injected beam ions have been studied for a standard configuration of the Compact Helical System (Rax/Bt=0.921 m/1.9 T) by use of the global particle simulation code DELTA5D. Both ripple transport and collisions with a background plasma are taken into account. It has appeared that partially thermalized, pitch-angle scattered beam ions are dominantly lost at the small major radius side. It has also been shown that the negative potential can enhance beam ions losses.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and the utility of the Japanese version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5-J) in the context of detecting suicidal ideation in elderly community residents.
Methods: A sample of 696 subjects aged 70 years or over who completed a set of questionnaires was examined.
Results: Cronbach's α was 0.87 and Loevinger's coefficient was 0.64. The total score was significantly correlated with the number of cohabitants, the number of physical illnesses, physical functioning, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms. Subjects with suicidal ideation had significantly lower scores on the WHO-5-J. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the scale significantly discriminated the subjects with suicidal ideation. When combined with the assessment of a lack of perceived social support (PSS), a standard cut-off criterion of “a total score ≤ 12 or answering 0 or 1 to any of the five items” more appropriately identified elderly subjects with suicidal ideation: sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 75%, negative predictive value = 99%, and positive predictive value = 10%.
Conclusions: In combination with PSS, the scale has predictive utility to detect suicidal ideation in elderly community residents.
The behaviour of dioxin in several arc furnaces was studied in detail in relation with the
specifications for various types of organic and inorganic gas. After a pilot plant study has
been carried out to know the effect of secondary combustion and rapid cooling on the reduction of
dioxin in the arc fumace, ways to lower dioxin below regulation levels were proposed. To
understand the reactions, laboratory studies and thermodynamic calculations have been done.
The effects of gas temperature gradient, pulse discharge modulation, hydrogen dilution, gas flow, and substrate materials on growth of clusters below about 10 nm in size in silane parallelplate RF discharges are studied using a high-sensitivity photon-counting laser-light-scattering (PCLLS) method. Thermophoretic force due to the gas temperature gradient between the electrodes drives neutral clusters above a few nm in size toward the cool RF electrode. Pulse discharge modulation is much more effective in reducing the cluster density when it is combined with the gas temperature gradient, and clusters above a few nm in size cannot be detected by the PCLLS method even for the discharge over a few hours. Hydrogen dilution and gas flow are also effective in suppressing growth of clusters, when the H2/SiH4 concentration ratio is above about 5 and the flow velocity is above about 6 cm/s, respectively. Cluster growth rate with a glass or Si substrate is found to be considerably higher than that without the substrate.
There is disagreement concerning the role of nitric oxide (NO) in general anaesthesia. The present study was conducted to determine whether the anaesthetic drug isoflurane alters levels of NO metabolites, NOx (NO2 and NO3), in the hippocampus of rats during and after anaesthesia. Results showed resting hippocampal NOx levels of about 20 pmol in freely moving control rats. Five minutes after the induction of isoflurane anaesthesia (4.72%=4 minimum alveolar concentrations, detected by righting reflex), there was loss of the righting reflex coincident with a significant elevation in hippocampal NOx levels. During isoflurane anaesthesia, the maximum NOx concentration rose ≈2.4-fold higher than control levels; the NO3 level increased about 5-fold higher than resting levels. NOx levels returned to control levels following discontinuation of the anaesthetic. When rats were pre-treated with L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase-inhibitor, the isoflurane-induced increases in NOx were markedly suppressed. D-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester was ineffective in preventing these neurochemical changes, thus indicating the stereoselective nature of the inhibition by L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester. Furthermore, L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester pre-treatment likewise prevented increases in both NO2 and NO3 levels. When rats were exposed to 80% nitrous oxide in oxygen, there was loss of the righting reflex but no change in hippocampal NOx levels. These findings indicate that isoflurane increases production of hippocampal NO and that this may be pertinent to general anaesthetic drug effects.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
Migration and development of the larvae of Gnathostoma nipponicum in the rat as second intermediate or paratenic host and the weasel as definitive host were examined to clarify the pathogenesis in each animal. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) given orally to rats remained in the stomach for 12 h post-infection (PI). After that, larvae transiently invaded various organs and finally moved into the muscle within 48 h. The percentage of eosinophils in the blood taken from the jugular vein of rats infected with AdL3 reached a maximum (about 6%) on day 20 PI and then decreased. IgG antibody titre for G. nipponicum measured by ELISA began to increase on day 5 PI and reached a plateau on day 20 PI. The AdL3 given orally to weasels moved from the stomach into the muscle and then increased in size. Half of them invaded the muscle within 5 days, whereas the majority of them invaded the muscles within 20 days PI. Morphology of worms which invaded the muscles indicated that they were still the larval form with three rows of hooklets on the head bulb. The larvae in the muscles developed to young adult worms with seven rows of hooklets on the head bulb within 40 days PI. These young adult worms invaded the oesophageal wall and formed a tumour within 60 days PI. It was presumed that worms invaded the oesophageal wall though the adventitia. Ferret and mink were shown to be potential final hosts of G. nipponicum.