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Numerical calculations of spiral shocks in the gas discs of galaxies (1,2,3) usually assume that the disc is flat, i.e. the gas motion is purely horizontal. However there is abundant evidence that the discs of galaxies are warped and corrugated (4,5,6) and it is therefore of interest to consider the effect of the consequent vertical motion on the structure of spiral shocks. If one uses the tightly wound spiral approximation to calculate the gas flow in a vertical cut around a circular orbit (i.e the ⊝ -z plane, see Nelson & Matsuda (7) for details), then for a gas disc with Gaussian density profile in the z-direction and initially zero vertical velocity a doubly periodic spiral potential modulation produces the steady shock structure shown in Fig. 1. The shock structure is independent of z, and only a very small vertical motion appears with anti-symmetry about the mid-plane.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Position-controlled InP nanowires (NWs) with separations of 10-100 μm were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au-deposited SiO2-mask-patterned InP substrates. Excess indium species diffused from the large mask region formed plural tilted NW-like structures from single openings in addition to the vertical VLS NWs formed by Au catalyst. The introduction of HCl gas during the NW growth was found to efficiently suppress the tilted NW-like structures. Vertical InP NWs without anomalous growth were successfully formed by controlling the HCl flow rate. Moreover, single InP/InAsP/InP quantum wells (QWs) with wurtzite crystal phase structure were epitaxially grown on the sidewall of the position-controlled InP NWs, and two-dimensional arrayed patterns of photoluminescence (PL) coming from the radial QWs were clearly observed in the 1.3-μm wavelength region at room temperature.
A meta-analysis of the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonist of the azapirone class as an anxiolytic drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not previously been reported.
We carried out a systematic review of the literature available in PubMed, the Cochrane Library database and PsycINFO up to 12 October 2013, and conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo and RCTs of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies for MDD treatment. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), number needed to treat (NNT)/number needed to harm (NNH) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Fifteen RCTs comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo (total n = 2469, four studies with buspirone, seven with gepirone, three with ipsapirone and one with zalospirone) were identified. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists had significantly more responders (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65–083, p < 0.00001, NNT = 6, 12 trials, n = 1816) than placebo. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists were superior to placebo in discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR 0.49, p = 0.02, NNH = 16, p = 0.03, 10 trials, n = 1494) but were inferior to placebo in discontinuation due to side-effects (RR 1.88, p < 0.0001, NNH = 17, p = 0.001, 13 trials, n = 2196). However, all-cause discontinuation was similar in both groups (RR 0.99, p = 0.85, 14 trials, n = 2402). Four 5-HT1A agonist augmentation studies were identified (total n = 365, three buspirone studies and one tandospirone study). There were no statistically significant effects of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies on response rate (RR 0.98, p = 0.85, four trials, n = 341). 5-HT1A agonist-related side-effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness, insomnia, palpitation, paresthesia and sweating were greater than with placebo (p < 0.00001 to p = 0.03).
Our results suggest that 5-HT1A agonist has a more beneficial effect on MDD than placebo, but has several side-effects.
A seroprevalence survey on measles, mumps, rubella and varicella was conducted on healthcare workers (HCWs) at Shimane University Hospital, Japan utilizing an enzyme immunoassay. Of 1811 HCWs tested, 91·8% were seropositive to measles, 92·1% to mumps, 89·5% to rubella and 96·3% to varicella. Sex-related differences in seroprevalence were found in rubella (males vs. females: 84·7 vs. 92·2%, P < 0·001). Moreover, males aged 30–39 years were most susceptible to rubella (22·4%), which may be attributed to the design of childhood immunization programmes in Japan. Individuals aged ⩽29 years were more susceptible to measles (14·3%) and mumps (10·9%), compared to other age groups. There were no significant sex- and age-related differences in varicella seroprevalence. The physician occupational group was more susceptible to rubella, but no significant occupational-related difference was observed in the other diseases. Susceptible subjects, with negative or equivocal serological results were given a vaccine which induced seroconversion in most vaccinees. Seroconversion occurred more frequently in the equivocal group than in the negative group. These findings provide a new insight for the seroprevalence survey of vaccine-preventable diseases in Japanese HCWs with special reference to vaccine efficacy.
We examined the influence of momentary annealing on the nanoscale surface morphology of NiO(111) epitaxial thin films deposited on atomically stepped sapphire (0001) substrates at room temperature in O2 at 1.3 × 10−3 and 1.3 × 10−6 Pa using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The NiO films have atomically flat surfaces (RMS roughness: approximately 0.1–0.2 nm) reflecting the step-and-terrace structures of the substrates, regardless of the O2 deposition pressure. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the NiO(111) epitaxial film deposited at 1.3 × 10−3 Pa O2, a periodic straight nanogroove array related to the atomic steps of the substrate was formed on the film surface for 60 s. In contrast, the fabrication of a transient state in the nanogroove array formation was achieved with RTA of less than 1 s. However, when the O2 atmosphere during PLD was 1.3 × 10−6 Pa, random crystal growth was observed and resulted in a disordered rough surface nanostructure after RTA.
We have investigated an InAs channel Hall-bar structure with ferromagnetic spin injector in one of the current terminals. After magnetizing the Fe electrode, spin polarized electrons are injected through the edge of the isolation mesa structure and the anomalous Hall voltage is observed, when electrons are injected from the ferromagnetic terminal. However, when electrons are injected from the non-magnetic metal (Ti/Au) of opposite terminal, the Hall voltage disappeared to the variation error level due to the fabrication imperfections. This result suggests the possibility that out-of-plane spin injection from the channel edge lead to perpendicular nuclear magnetic field. It is presumably caused by nuclear spin polarization in InAs channel near the spin source edge through Overhauser effect. The estimated internal magnetic field was 2000 Gauss.
We examined pertussis hospitalizations among infants aged <1 year between 2006 and 2008 using the nationwide inpatient database in Japan. A total of 660 infants hospitalized for pertussis were identified. Peak incidence occurred at age 1 month and infants aged 0–2 months (too young for pertussis vaccination) and ⩾3 months (eligible for at least one dose of vaccination) accounted for 44·5% and 55·5% of hospitalizations, respectively. Complications related to pertussis were found in 165 (25·0%) cases, including one death; the age at admission did not differ significantly between patients with and those without complications (mean age 4·1 vs. 4·5 months, P=0·12). Seventeen patients required mechanical ventilation. Of the 17 cases, 14 infants were aged <3 months and three infants were aged ⩾3 months. Our findings highlight that the vaccination schedule against pertussis may often be delayed in Japan.
Growth process of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) using plasma-enhanced chemicalvapor- deposition method under high-rate-growth condition has been studied for the control of optoelectronic properties in the resulting materials. We have found two important things for the spatial-defect distribution in the resulting μc-Si:H through a precise dangling-bond-density measurement, e. g., (1) dangling-bond defects are uniformly distributed in the bulk region of μc- Si:H films independent of their crystallite size and (2) large number of dangling bonds are located at the surface of μc-Si:H especially when the film is deposited at high growth rate. Starting procedure of film growth has been investigated as an important process to control the dangling-bond-defect density in the bulk region of resulting μc-Si:H through the change in the electron temperature by the presence of particulates produced at the starting period of the plasma. Deposition of Si-compress thin layer on μc-Si:H grown at high rate followed by thermal annealing has been proposed as an effective method to reduce the defect density at the surface of resulting μc-Si:H. Utilizing the starting-procedure-controlling method and the compress-layerdeposition method together with several interface-controlling methods, we have demonstrated the fabrication of high conversion-efficiency (9.27%) substrate-type (n-i-p) μc-Si:H solar cells whose intrinsic μc-Si:H layer is deposited at high growth rate of 2.3 nm/sec.
Two types of shape and contrast features of superconducting vortices in a Lorentz micrograph were obtained by the newly developed 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8(Bi-2212) thin specimen containing tilted columnar defects. The shape and contrast features could be consistently interpreted by the simulation that some vortices were pinned along tilted columnar defects and others were unpinned. The interesting property for temperature change of vortex core inside the material was also observed.
A single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8 which has columnar defects in its inside are observed by Lorentz microscopy using the newly developed 1-MV field emission electron microscope at the first time. The superconducting vortices are observed with higher contrast than ever. Simultaneous observation of vortices and columnar defect is succeeded in real time.
The drift and diffusion in the presence of charged defects and photocarriers trapped in the tail states is re-examined. In continuity equations, diffusive and drift currents are related to free particles while the Poisson equation includes all charges. In order to make use of ambipolar diffusion approximation, the mobilities and diffusion coefficients should be attributed to the total electron and hole populations making them strongly particle-number dependent. Due to the asymmetry of the conduction and valence band tails, almost all trapped electrons reside in negatively charged defects (D−). A simple model of photocarrier traffic via tail and defect states allows to establish the effective mobility values and coefficients in Einstein relations. In a photocarrier grating experiment, grating of D− is counterbalanced by the grating of trapped holes. Nevertheless, electrons remain majority carriers, allowing the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length, but analysis is needed to relate the latter with μτ product.
Deuterium dilution instead of hydrogen has been studied in microcrystalline silicon growth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with monosilane. It was found that the crystallinity for D2 dilution is significantly improved as compared to that for H2 dilution at the same growth rate. Optical emission spectroscopy measurement shows that the electron temperature of SiH4 + D2 plasma is lower than that of SiH4 + H2, indicating that the bombarding ion energy is reduced for D2 dilution. It was also found that the H-D exchange reaction on the surface has a certain threshold number of events and that microcrystalline formation occurs only above the threshold. The role of atomic hydrogen originating from a diluent in crystal formation is discussed.
Degradation properties of a-Si:H and a-Si:D by pairs of intense light pulse pairs are examined. By varying the delay time between pulses in a pair while keeping the total illumination time and dose constant, the time scales involved in the light-induced defect creation are investigated. In nanosecond pulse case, we find a sharp drop in degradation efficiency with delay time, followed by further gradual decrease at much longer times. For microsecond pulses, the degradation efficiency varies with the delay time in microseconds. The recombination proceeds bimolecularly and is largely completed during the pulse. It is suggested that the first stage of degradation is related to bimolecular recombination that takes place during the pulse. The second stage is possibly related to longer-living metastable species.
We have characterized a-Si:H initial layers for μc-Si:H nucleation by real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR) to investigate the μc-Si:H formation mechanism. By performing Ar plasma treatment of a-Si:H layers, we confirmed a presence of a 2 monolayer thick sub-surface in a-Si:H layers. In the a-Si:H sub-surface that leads to the μc-Si:H nucleation, an important peak at ∼1937 cm−1 assigned to the SiHn complex was found in the ATR spectra. From H2 plasma treatment experiments, we proposed that this SiHn complex is formed by H insertion into strained Si-Si bonds. The SiHn complex formed in the a-Si:H sub-surface showed a clear relationship with the μc-Si:H nucleation. From these results, we conclude that the μc-Si:H nucleation occurs by the formation of the chemically active and flexible SiHn complexes in the 2 monolayer thick a-Si:H sub-surface.
We present angle-resolved photoemission measurements for ultrathin In films on Si(111). Depending on the coverage, this system self-organizes into a metallic monolayer with either 4×1 or √7×√3 symmetry relative to the substrate. Electronically, they behave like ideal one- and two-dimensional electron gases (1DEG and 2DEG), respectively. The 4×1 system has atomic chains of In whose energy bands disperse only parallel to the chains, while for the √7×√3 system, the dominant reciprocal space features (in both diffraction and bandstructure) resemble a pseudo-square lattice with only weaker secondary features relating to the √7×√3 periodicity. In both materials the electrons show coupling to the structure. The 1DEG couples strongly to phonons of momentum 2kF, leading to an 8×“2” Peierls-like insulating ground state. The 2DEG appears to be partially stabilized by electron gap formation at the √7×√3 zone boundary.
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV
electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or
boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 ×
1016 cm−3, together with the impact of oxygen on
radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects
states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped
Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain
valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects
in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears
to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level
EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center.
Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si
(which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12; BIT) -based ferroelectric materials are proposed from the view of the “Site-engineering”, where the Bi-site ions are substituted by lanthanoid ions (La3+ and Nd3+) and Ti-site ions by other ions with higher charge valence (V5+). In the present study, influences of vanadium (V) - substitution for (Bi,M)4Ti3O12 thin films [M = lanthanoid] on the ferroelectric properties are evaluated. V-substituted (Bi,M)4Ti3O12 films have been fabricated using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique on the (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/(100)Si substrate. Remnant polarization of (Bi,La)4Ti3O12 and (Bi,Nd)4Ti3O12 films has been improved by the V-substitution independent of the coercive field. The processing temperature of BLT and BNT films could also be lowered by the V-substitution.
We report on that plasma damage on SnO2 can be suppressed by using surface termination by chlorine. It was found that the darkening of SnO2 is decreased and a wider gap p-a-Si material is obtained by using SiH2Cl2 especially at the higher reaction pressure and at the lower substrate temperature. The suppression of darkening of SnO2 and wide optical gap is correlated to chlorine contents in the film. It is demonstrated that SiH2Cl2 is also beneficial for boron-doped material, indicating a suitable material for a window layer of solar cells.