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Reduced gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Such volumetric abnormalities might denote alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, local gyrification or all of these factors. The STG can be anatomically divided into five subregions using automatic parcellation in FreeSurfer: lateral aspect of the STG, anterior transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl gyrus (HG), planum polare (PP) of the STG, planum temporale (PT) of the STG and transverse temporal sulcus.
We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3T scans from 40 age- and sex-matched patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects, and the scans were automatically processed using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to assess group differences in regional volumes and detailed thickness, surface area and local gyrification.
As expected, patients with schizophrenia had significantly smaller bilateral STG volumes than healthy subjects. Of the five subregions in the STG, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly and marginally reduced volumes in the lateral aspect of the STG and PT of the STG bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. The volumetric alteration in bilateral lateral STG was derived from both the cortical thickness and surface area but not local gyrification. There was no significant laterality of the alteration in the lateral STG between patients and controls and no correlation among the structures and clinical characteristics.
These findings suggest that of five anatomical subregions in the STG, the lateral STG is one of the most meaningful regions for brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Position-controlled InP nanowires (NWs) with separations of 10-100 μm were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au-deposited SiO2-mask-patterned InP substrates. Excess indium species diffused from the large mask region formed plural tilted NW-like structures from single openings in addition to the vertical VLS NWs formed by Au catalyst. The introduction of HCl gas during the NW growth was found to efficiently suppress the tilted NW-like structures. Vertical InP NWs without anomalous growth were successfully formed by controlling the HCl flow rate. Moreover, single InP/InAsP/InP quantum wells (QWs) with wurtzite crystal phase structure were epitaxially grown on the sidewall of the position-controlled InP NWs, and two-dimensional arrayed patterns of photoluminescence (PL) coming from the radial QWs were clearly observed in the 1.3-μm wavelength region at room temperature.
A meta-analysis of the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonist of the azapirone class as an anxiolytic drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not previously been reported.
We carried out a systematic review of the literature available in PubMed, the Cochrane Library database and PsycINFO up to 12 October 2013, and conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo and RCTs of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies for MDD treatment. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), number needed to treat (NNT)/number needed to harm (NNH) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Fifteen RCTs comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo (total n = 2469, four studies with buspirone, seven with gepirone, three with ipsapirone and one with zalospirone) were identified. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists had significantly more responders (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65–083, p < 0.00001, NNT = 6, 12 trials, n = 1816) than placebo. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists were superior to placebo in discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR 0.49, p = 0.02, NNH = 16, p = 0.03, 10 trials, n = 1494) but were inferior to placebo in discontinuation due to side-effects (RR 1.88, p < 0.0001, NNH = 17, p = 0.001, 13 trials, n = 2196). However, all-cause discontinuation was similar in both groups (RR 0.99, p = 0.85, 14 trials, n = 2402). Four 5-HT1A agonist augmentation studies were identified (total n = 365, three buspirone studies and one tandospirone study). There were no statistically significant effects of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies on response rate (RR 0.98, p = 0.85, four trials, n = 341). 5-HT1A agonist-related side-effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness, insomnia, palpitation, paresthesia and sweating were greater than with placebo (p < 0.00001 to p = 0.03).
Our results suggest that 5-HT1A agonist has a more beneficial effect on MDD than placebo, but has several side-effects.
A seroprevalence survey on measles, mumps, rubella and varicella was conducted on healthcare workers (HCWs) at Shimane University Hospital, Japan utilizing an enzyme immunoassay. Of 1811 HCWs tested, 91·8% were seropositive to measles, 92·1% to mumps, 89·5% to rubella and 96·3% to varicella. Sex-related differences in seroprevalence were found in rubella (males vs. females: 84·7 vs. 92·2%, P < 0·001). Moreover, males aged 30–39 years were most susceptible to rubella (22·4%), which may be attributed to the design of childhood immunization programmes in Japan. Individuals aged ⩽29 years were more susceptible to measles (14·3%) and mumps (10·9%), compared to other age groups. There were no significant sex- and age-related differences in varicella seroprevalence. The physician occupational group was more susceptible to rubella, but no significant occupational-related difference was observed in the other diseases. Susceptible subjects, with negative or equivocal serological results were given a vaccine which induced seroconversion in most vaccinees. Seroconversion occurred more frequently in the equivocal group than in the negative group. These findings provide a new insight for the seroprevalence survey of vaccine-preventable diseases in Japanese HCWs with special reference to vaccine efficacy.
We examined the influence of momentary annealing on the nanoscale surface morphology of NiO(111) epitaxial thin films deposited on atomically stepped sapphire (0001) substrates at room temperature in O2 at 1.3 × 10−3 and 1.3 × 10−6 Pa using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The NiO films have atomically flat surfaces (RMS roughness: approximately 0.1–0.2 nm) reflecting the step-and-terrace structures of the substrates, regardless of the O2 deposition pressure. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the NiO(111) epitaxial film deposited at 1.3 × 10−3 Pa O2, a periodic straight nanogroove array related to the atomic steps of the substrate was formed on the film surface for 60 s. In contrast, the fabrication of a transient state in the nanogroove array formation was achieved with RTA of less than 1 s. However, when the O2 atmosphere during PLD was 1.3 × 10−6 Pa, random crystal growth was observed and resulted in a disordered rough surface nanostructure after RTA.
We have investigated an InAs channel Hall-bar structure with ferromagnetic spin injector in one of the current terminals. After magnetizing the Fe electrode, spin polarized electrons are injected through the edge of the isolation mesa structure and the anomalous Hall voltage is observed, when electrons are injected from the ferromagnetic terminal. However, when electrons are injected from the non-magnetic metal (Ti/Au) of opposite terminal, the Hall voltage disappeared to the variation error level due to the fabrication imperfections. This result suggests the possibility that out-of-plane spin injection from the channel edge lead to perpendicular nuclear magnetic field. It is presumably caused by nuclear spin polarization in InAs channel near the spin source edge through Overhauser effect. The estimated internal magnetic field was 2000 Gauss.
We examined pertussis hospitalizations among infants aged <1 year between 2006 and 2008 using the nationwide inpatient database in Japan. A total of 660 infants hospitalized for pertussis were identified. Peak incidence occurred at age 1 month and infants aged 0–2 months (too young for pertussis vaccination) and ⩾3 months (eligible for at least one dose of vaccination) accounted for 44·5% and 55·5% of hospitalizations, respectively. Complications related to pertussis were found in 165 (25·0%) cases, including one death; the age at admission did not differ significantly between patients with and those without complications (mean age 4·1 vs. 4·5 months, P=0·12). Seventeen patients required mechanical ventilation. Of the 17 cases, 14 infants were aged <3 months and three infants were aged ⩾3 months. Our findings highlight that the vaccination schedule against pertussis may often be delayed in Japan.
Growth process of microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) using plasma-enhanced chemicalvapor- deposition method under high-rate-growth condition has been studied for the control of optoelectronic properties in the resulting materials. We have found two important things for the spatial-defect distribution in the resulting μc-Si:H through a precise dangling-bond-density measurement, e. g., (1) dangling-bond defects are uniformly distributed in the bulk region of μc- Si:H films independent of their crystallite size and (2) large number of dangling bonds are located at the surface of μc-Si:H especially when the film is deposited at high growth rate. Starting procedure of film growth has been investigated as an important process to control the dangling-bond-defect density in the bulk region of resulting μc-Si:H through the change in the electron temperature by the presence of particulates produced at the starting period of the plasma. Deposition of Si-compress thin layer on μc-Si:H grown at high rate followed by thermal annealing has been proposed as an effective method to reduce the defect density at the surface of resulting μc-Si:H. Utilizing the starting-procedure-controlling method and the compress-layerdeposition method together with several interface-controlling methods, we have demonstrated the fabrication of high conversion-efficiency (9.27%) substrate-type (n-i-p) μc-Si:H solar cells whose intrinsic μc-Si:H layer is deposited at high growth rate of 2.3 nm/sec.
An experimental study on the adhesion of thin films was conducted for the ultraviolet (UV)-cured SiOC films on Si substrate by examining the mechanical energy balance during the indentation process combined with atomic force microscopy observation. The effect of UV cure on the interfacial delamination toughness and the structure of the SiOC films are discussed. The energy release rate of the SiOC film/Si substrate interfacial delamination increases with the increases in the time of UV curing, indicating that the indentation method is efficient to examine the adhesion of coating. As the UV curing time increases, the film thickness and the Si–CH3 bond structure decrease, whereas the SiO2 network structure develops and the mechanical properties of the film are improved. Furthermore, the energy release rate of SiOC film/Si interfacial delamination is well correlated in a proportional manner to the Young's modulus of the film.
A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.
Selective heteroepitaxial growth of α-Al2O3 thin films on a NiO layer was investigated using an electron-beam assisted pulsed laser deposition process. The epitaxial NiO layer was grown on an ultrasmooth sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) (0001) substrate. The α-Al2O3 thin film could be grown epitaxially only in the electron-beam irradiated region of the epitaxial NiO layer at 300°C, while the amorphous Al2O3 film was grown in the non-irradiated region. The homoepitaxial growth of α-Al2O3 thin films could not be attained on the sapphire (0001) substrate at 300°C. This indicates that the electron-beam irradiation enhances heteroepitaxial growth of the α-Al2O3 thin films on the NiO layer at 300°C. When we annealed the epitaxial Al2O3/NiO bilayer film at 350°C in a hydrogen atmosphere, we could reduce only the NiO layer to an epitaxial Ni metal layer, allowing the fabrication of epitaxial Al2O3/Ni (insulator/metal structure) films. The fabricated Al2O3/Ni bilayer films exhibited a very smooth surface.
We have employed a triode-type plasma CVD system to fabricate highly stabilized hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The p-i-n type solar cells were fabricated on a textured SnO2/glass substrate (ASAHI VU type). By applying a triode system, the Si-H2 bond density in the film decreased to about one third (from 1.7 at.% for conventional parallel-plate-electrode to 0.6 at.% for a triode configuration), and correspondingly the degradation ratio decreased from 13 % to 10 %. We have achieved the degradation ratio of 5 % by optimizing the player deposition conditions. In case of a triode system, there were minor effects of higher hydrogen dilution in the stabilized efficiency. We have experimented the effects of the substrate temperature for a higher stabilized efficiency. Further improvement in solar efficiency has been made by applying antireflection layers to air/glass and TCO/p interfaces. As a result, we have achieved the stabilized efficiency of 9.22 % (Jsc = 15.9 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.863 V, FF = 0.672) with a degradation ratio of 7.8 %. We have also employed the triode-deposited a-Si:H solar cell to a tandem type solar cell with a structure of a-Si:H/hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H). We have achieved the stabilized efficiency of 10.9 % (Jsc = 12.0 mA/cm2, Voc = 1.31 V, FF = 0.691) with a degradation ratio of 7.3 %.
Oncomelania nosophora (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) is the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in Japan. Although most of the snails were eliminated during the 20th century, they are still found in two areas in Japan. One area is in the Kofu Basin, including Nirasaki City, in Yamanashi Prefecture. The other is the Obitsu River Basin in Kisarazu City, Chiba Prefecture. Snails collected in Nirasaki and Kisarazu were exposed to 3 geographical strains of S. japonicum originating from Japan, China, and the Philippines. Both isolates of O. nosophora showed high susceptibility to the Japanese strain of S. japonicum (74·0%–82·2% for the Nirasaki isolate and 58·0%–56·0% for the Kisarazu isolate) and low susceptibility to the Chinese strain (0·0%–1·3% and 1·4%–7·9% respectively). In contrast, the susceptibility of the snails to the Philippine strain was significantly different (P<0·01) between the isolates (3·3%–6·6% for the Nirasaki isolate and 31·9%–75·9% for the Kisarazu isolate). To examine the differences in infectivity in detail, we conducted histological observations of snails exposed to the Philippine strain at 3 h, 1, 3, and 15 days after miracidial exposure. We found differences in the development of the parasite between the isolates of snails from early after exposure.
We numerically simulate the surface flow of a gas-supplying companion star in a semi-detached binary system and construct the Doppler map. Our numerical results indicate an eddy configuration composed of a Heddy, a L1-eddy, and a L2-eddy associated with high/low pressures on the surface of the companion star. We find that the formation of these eddies can be explained in terms of the astrostrophic wind. We apply our calculations to the Galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0019.8+2156. This object is very attractive for the present study since the observed Doppler map might reflect the surface flow on the companion star. We have constructed the Doppler map of RX J0019.8+2156 and compare it with observations.
Several lamellar microstructures of a Ti-48 % Al alloy were made by changing heating rate in the α+γ dual phase field, and their creep properties were investigated at 1150 K. Average spacing and average length of α2 lamellae decrease with increasing heating rate. The decrease of α2 lamellar spacing is most effective at lower heating rate, and minimum creep rate decreases with increasing the heating rate, since a high density of γ/α2 boundaries stabilizes lamellar microstructure during creep. On the other hand creep rate increases at high heating rate, since α2 lamellar length becomes shorter with increasing heating rate. A reduction of creep rate by one order of magnitude is achieved at the optimum heating rate providing the best combination of narrow spacing and sufficiently long length of α2 lamellae.