Infective larvae of an intestinal nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, enter rodent hosts percutaneously, and migrate through connective tissues and lungs. Then they arrive at the small intestine, where they reach maturity. It is not known how S. venezuelensis larvae develop during tissue migration. Here we demonstrate that tissue invasion ability of S. venezuelensis larvae changes drastically during tissue migration, and that the changes are associated with stage-specific protein expression. Infective larvae, connective tissue larvae, lung larvae, and mucosal larvae were used to infect mice by various infection methods, including percutaneous, subcutaneous, oral, and intraduodenal inoculation. Among different migration stages, only infective larvae penetrated mouse skin. Larvae, once inside the host, quickly lost skin penetration ability, which was associated with the disappearance of an infective larva-specific metalloprotease. Migrating larvae had connective tissue migration ability until in the lungs, where larvae became able to settle down in the intestinal mucosa. Lung larvae and mucosal larvae were capable of producing and secreting adhesion molecules.