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Additional crystallographic data are given for the recently reported mineral middlebackite, which has been described for discoveries at Iron Knob in South Australia and Passo di San Lugano near Trento, Italy. The material examined in the present study was from a third finding of the mineral, viz. from a quartz outcrop at Mooloo Downs Station in Western Australia within which it was co-located with the chemically- and structurally-related mineral moolooite, CuIIC2O4·nH2O, reported by Clarke and Williams (1986). In this study, the crystal structure was elucidated independently of the other studies using a combination of the a priori charge flipping and simulated annealing methods with synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) powder data. The principal crystal data for the Mooloo Downs material are: space group P21/c with lattice parameters a = 7.2659(18) Å, b = 5.7460(11) Å, c = 5.6806(11) Å, β = 104.588(3)°; Vc = 229.46(18) Å3; empirical formula CuII2C2O4(OH)2 with 2 formula units per unit cell; and calculated density = 3.605 g cm−3. The lattice parameters agree approximately with values given for the other studies, but not within the reported error estimates. The atom coordinates, interatomic distances, and angles for the Mooloo Downs material are compared with those from the other studies using single crystal data, with the values from all three studies agreeing approximately, but again not within the reported uncertainties. The crystal chemistry found for middlebackite received strong confirmation through the synthesis for the first time of di-copper oxalate di-hydroxide. Laboratory X-ray diffraction powder data for the synthetic form of the mineral from this study agree closely with the SRD data for the natural mineral.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
The orthorhombic mineral moolooite, CuC2O4. nH2O, described by Clarke and Williams (1986) using Debye-Scherrer photographic data, has a fully-disordered stacking fault (FDSF) structure. Related monoclinic models have been reported for various synthesised samples based on Schmittler (1968). In the present study, synchrotron radiation diffraction data for moolooite and synthesised specimens have been examined with particular reference to crystallographic disorder. The moolooite data correspond to space group Pnnm, with a = 5.3064(2), b = 5.6804(2), c = 2.5630(1) Å; Vc = 77.26(1) Å3; and Z = 1; and the FDSF structure along the b-direction has been confirmed. The synthetic specimen data from the study indicate partial ordering, with space group P21/n; and the cell parameters for one specimen being a = 5.957(7), b = 5.611(5), c = 5.133(7) Å; β = 115.16(2)°; Vc = 155.27 Å3 and Z = 2. The level of zeolitic water in the materials has been considered using the approach of Schmittler based on thermogravimetry and pycnometry. The new data for natural topotype material correspond to CuC2O4.1.0H2O. It is postulated that the level of water for natural and synthetic specimens may be attributed to the conditions under which the material forms.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Given the substantial overlap in cognitive dysfunction between bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ), we examined the utility of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)—developed for use in SZ—for the measurement of cognition in patients with BD with psychosis (BDP) and its association with community functioning. The MCCB, Multnomah Community Ability Scale, and measures of clinical symptoms were administered to participants with BDP (n=56), SZ (n=37), and healthy controls (HC) (n=57). Groups were compared on clinical and cognitive measures; linear regressions examined associations between MCCB and community functioning. BDP and SZ groups performed significantly worse than HC on most neurocognitive domains; BDP and HC did not differ on Social Cognition. Patients with BDP performed better than patients with SZ on most cognitive measures, although groups only differed on social cognition, working memory, verbal memory, and the composite after controlling for clinical variables. MCCB was not associated with community functioning. The MCCB is an appropriate measure of neurocognition in BDP but does not appear to capture social cognitive deficits in this population. The addition of appropriate social cognitive measures is recommended. (JINS, 2015, 21, 468–472)
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are often considered to be the greatest challenge in dementia care, leading to increased healthcare costs, caregiver burden, and placement into care facilities. With potential for pharmacological intervention to exacerbate behaviors or even lead to mortality, the development and rigorous testing of non-pharmacological interventions is vital. A pilot of the Tailored Activities Program (TAP) for reducing problem behaviors in people with dementia was conducted in the United States with promising results. This randomized trial will investigate the effectiveness of TAP for reducing the burden of BPSD on persons with dementia and family caregivers within an Australian population. This trial will also examine the cost-effectiveness and willingness to pay for TAP compared with a control group.
This randomized trial aims to recruit 180 participant dyads of a person with dementia and their caregivers. Participants will have a diagnosis of dementia, exhibit behaviors as scored by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the caregiver must have at least 7 h per week contact. Participants will be randomly allocated to intervention (TAP) or control (phone-based education sessions) groups, both provided by a trained occupational therapist. Primary outcome measure will be the revised Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) to measure BPSD exhibited by the person with dementia.
This trial investigates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TAP within an Australian population. Results will address a significant gap in the current Australian community-support base for people living with dementia and their caregivers.
Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are the most promising candidates for flexible electronics owing to their flexible structures, the simplicity of processing large-area devices, and excellent compatibility with flexible substrates. To date, many studies have been reported that have aimed at developing a wide range of plastic electronics such as flexible displays, sensors. In this paper, we discuss our recent work, focusing on OTFT arrays and their application to flexible display. An active-matrix (AM) backplane using a low-temperature cross-linkable olefin-type polymer as the gatedielectric and an air-stable DNTT as the organic semiconductor (OSC) was successfully fabricated on a plastic substrate. The short-channel TFT array exhibited a high hole mobility of over 0.5 cm2/Vs, a low subthreshold slope of 0.31, and excellent environmental and operational stability. A 5-inch flexible OLED display exhibited a high luminescence of over 300 cd/m2 by driving of the DNTT-based OTFTs. Solution-processed OTFTs are also attracting considerable attention owing to both their simple manufacturing process and excellent transistor performance. We present a simple patterning process for a solution-processable OSC that can be used to develop a high-mobility short-channel TFT array. The OSC film was directly patterned on the confined active channel region by a simple lamination coating technique and the resulting TFTs showed a high mobility of up to 1.3 cm2/Vs. In the final section, we report on eco-friendly paper-based organic TFT array. A transparent cellulose nanofibers paper was firstly applied to a flexible substrate for the TFT backplane. A solution-processed TFT on the transparent paper exhibited a high mobility exceeding 1 cm2/Vs, good air stability, and excellent mechanical stability.
Tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is transmitted between cattle and badgers (Meles meles) in the UK and Ireland but it is unclear where or when transmission occurs. We investigated direct and indirect interactions between badgers and cattle using automated proximity loggers on animals and at badger latrines located on pasture, in an area of south-west England with a high-density badger population. Direct contacts (interactions within 1·4 m) between badgers and cattle at pasture were very rare (four out of >500 000 recorded animal-to-animal contacts) despite ample opportunity for interactions to occur. Indirect interactions (visits to badger latrines by badgers and cattle) were two orders of magnitude more frequent than direct contacts: 400 visits by badgers and 1700 visits by cattle were recorded. This suggests that indirect contacts might be more important than direct contacts in terms of disease transmission at pasture. The TB infection status of individual badgers (ascribed with 93% accuracy using three diagnostic tests) did not affect the frequency or duration of their visits to latrines located on pasture grazed by cattle. Nevertheless, there was wide variation in contact behaviour between individuals, which highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneity in contact patterns when developing strategies to control disease spread in wildlife and livestock.
As a result of evidence documenting harmful effects of Zn supplementation on immune function and Cu status, thirty-eight men were recruited onto a Zn supplementation trial. The aim was to examine the effects of chronic Zn supplementation on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets. Subjects (n 19) took 30 mg Zn/d for 14 weeks followed by 3 mg Cu/d for 8 weeks to counteract adverse effects, if any, of Zn supplementation on immune status resulting from lowered Cu status. A control group (n 19) took placebo supplements for the duration of the trial. Dietary intakes of Zn approximated 10 mg/d. Blood samples, taken throughout the trial, were assessed for full blood profiles and flow cytometric analyses of lymphocyte subsets. Putative indices of Cu status were also examined. Results indicate that there was no effect of Zn supplementation on circulating levels of peripheral blood leucocytes or on lymphocyte subsets. Cu status was also unaltered. Independent of supplement, there appeared to be seasonal variations in selected lymphocyte subsets in both placebo and supplemented groups. Alterations in circulating levels of B cells (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19), memory T cells (CD45RO) and expression of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) on T cells were observed. Findings indicated no adverse effects of Zn supplementation on immune status or Cu status and support the US upper level of Zn tolerance of 40 mg/d. The seasonal variations observed in lymphocyte subsets in the group as a whole could have implications for seasonal variability in the incidence of infectious diseases.
A long cropmark enclosure at Springfield, Essex, interpreted as a Neolithic cursus, was investigated betwee 1979–85 to confirm its date and establish a site sequence. The enclosure was c. 690 m long and 37–49 m wide the ditch being uninterrupted in all areas examined, features within the interior at the eastern end included a incomplete ring of substantial post-pits which it is suggested originally formed a complete circle. Peterborou pottery, predominately Mortlake style, Grooved Ware, a small amount of Beaker pottery, earlier Bronze Age urn sherds, and flint artefacts of the late 3rd-early 2nd millennium were recovered from the cursus ditch an other features. Collectively the evidence indicates a prolonged period of use. The results of the excavations a described, the site is discussed in its local and regional context and the implications of the excavation for our understanding of cursus monuments are considered.
The ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) Nd60Fe30Al10system exhibits extremely large coercivities at low temperature and moderate coercivities near room temperature. The magnetic hardness, as best evidenced by the onset of magnetic irreversibility, was studied in bulk suction-cast and melt-spun alloys with the nominal composition Nd60Fe30Al10. Systematic x-ray diffraction studies of the degree of crystallinity performed as a function of position within the bulk suction-cast samples is found to correlate with the variation in the room-temperature magnetic hysteresis character. X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the presence of both crystallites and amorphous material on the samples' outmost surfaces; the amorphous phase content increases with distance into the cast sample. These results underscore the importance of solidification conditions and attendant nanophase selection, on the resultant magnetic properties of this class of alloys.
Octanethiol-stabilized Si nanocrystals, ranging from 2 to 8 nm in diameter, were synthesized in cyclohexane heated and pressurized above its critical point at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 500°C. The nanocrystals exhibit crystalline cores and photoluminesce with relatively high efficiencies. These nanocrystals are suitable for single particle spectroscopic measurements that reveal optical information about the individual chromophores that are buried in ensemble measurements. The sterically-stabilized Si nanocrystals emit with relatively narrow emission spectra at room temperature, characteristic of molecules.
This study compares prospectively the cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to central venous and pulmonary artery catheterization before and after induction of general anaesthesia. Twenty patients for elective coronary artery surgery were randomized into two groups. One group had central venous and pulmonary artery catheterization performed awake using local anaesthesia. The other group had these catheters inserted following induction of general anesthaesia. In all patients heart rate, arterial blood pressure, ST segment analysis and epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured prior to central venous cannulation and at 2-min intervals until placement of the lines was achieved. There were no statistically significant changes in any cardiovascular or catecholamine variable with time compared with the base–line measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in plasma catecholamine levels between the awake and the anaesthetized groups.
Mass attenuation coefficient corrections, for Rietveld phase analysis with an external compositional calibration standard, may be made using Compton scattering intensities measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The method is mainly useful for Rietveld phase analysis when mixing an internal standard is impossible or undesirable. The validity of the method has been demonstrated using a suite of alumina-zirconia powders of known composition. Also presented are results for a typical application—determination of phase composition depth profiles defining the graded compositional character of an aluminium titanate/zirconia-alumina ceramic composite.
We have developed a process for the fabrication of (001) oriented SrTiO3 buffer layers onto (001) MgO substrates by rf magnetron sputtering followed by a post-deposition heat treatment in air. Precursor films with Tl :Ba : Ca : Cu ratio 2 : 2 : 2 : 3 were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering onto both these buffered substrates and directly onto (001) SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates, and thalliated at elevated temperatures. Because of Sr diffusion from the substrate/buffer layer, and its subsequent substitution for Ba in the superconducting film, the single Tl–O layer phase Tl(Ba1−xSrx)2Ca2Cu3Oy was stabilized. Diffusion of Ba and Ca in the opposite direction led to the formation of a Ba–Ca–Ti–O compound at the interface. The Tl(Ba1xSrx)2Ca2Cu3Oy films typically have superconducting transition temperatures (Tc's) > 103 K and critical current densities (Jc's) > 2.9 × 105 A cm−2 at 77 K. Rs values measured on these films and scaled to 10 GHz were 3.0 mΩ at 80 K and <200 µΩ at 50 K for the film grown on SrTiO3 buffered MgO, and 2.0 mΩ and 1.0 mΩ at 50 K for the film grown directly onto the (001) SrTiO3 substrate. Films fabricated on (001) SrTiO3 using an in situ deposition technique with a substrate temperature around 100 °C lower than the ex situ thalliation temperature showed no evidence of an interfacial reaction layer.