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Introduction: The Canadian CT Head Rules (CCTHR) is the gold standard clinical decision rule for minor head injuries (MHIs) & has been shown to have 100% sensitivity in identifying patients that would have an abnormal CT scan. Within the CCTHR age 65+ is considered to be an independent risk factor for abnormal head CT. However, a previously published Italian study indicated that the rate of pathological findings in otherwise low risk MHI patients under the age of 79 was less than 1% & significantly lower than those over the age of 80, which brings to question whether the traditional age cut off of 65 as a factor in the CCTHR is too conservative when considering the appropriateness for imaging. Therefore this study aimed to quantify the extent to which low risk MHI patients between the ages of 65-79 present with abnormal CT findings or require neurosurgical intervention when compared to patients over 80 years of age as one of the criteria used in the CCTHR is the age threshold of 65. A secondary objective of this study was to explore abnormal CT rates across these age groupings for otherwise low risk patients on anticoagulants. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients over the age of 65 that received a head CT for a MHI in the Kelowna General Hospital ED between 2006-2016. The imaging results for all patients that had no other risk criteria of the CCTHR other than age were reviewed & rates of pathological findings were compared between patients ages 65-79 & 80+ for both patients on anticoagulants & those not on anticoagulants. Differences in rates by age were compared for statistical significance using the chi-squared & Fisher’s exact test. Results: To date 248 patients have been reviewed & meet the criteria of being >65 & with no other CCTHR criteria. 65% of patients were female & 30% of patients were on anticoagulants. For the patients that were not on anticoagulants, 6 of the 75 (8%) individuals between 65-79 & 9 of the 94 (10%) of those over 80 had abnormal findings on CT (p=0.128). Conclusion: Preliminary results of this study population indicate that there are a significant number of abnormal CT findings in patients under the age of 80 suggesting that patients ages 65-79 without any other CCTHR criteria may still benefit from a head CT. Chart reviews are ongoing & updated results including findings for anti-coagulated patients will be presented at CAEP 2017.
Top-down biomedical interventions to control schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa have had limited success, primarily because they fail to engage with the social, political, economic and ecological contexts in which they are delivered. Despite the call to foster community engagement and to adapt interventions to local circumstances, programmes have rarely embraced such an approach. This article outlines a community co-designed process, based upon Human-Centered Design, to demonstrate how this approach works in practice. It is based on initial work undertaken by social science researchers, public health practitioners and community members from the Zanzibar Islands, Tanzania, between November 2011 and December 2013. During the process, 32 community members participated in a qualitative and quantitative data-driven workshop where they interpreted data on local infections from S. haematobium and co-designed interventions with the assistance of a facilitator trained in the social sciences. These interventions included the implementation of novel school-based education and training, the identification of relevant safe play activities and events at local schools, the installation of community-designed urinals for boys and girls and the installation of community-designed laundry-washing platforms to reduce exposure to cercariae-contaminated fresh water. It is suggested that the a community co-designed process, drawing from Human-Centered Design principles and techniques, enables the development of more sustainable and effective interventions for the control of schistosomiasis.
We present new radial velocities for 306 bright (R < 16) galaxies in a 77 deg2 region of the Shapley supercluster, measured with the FLAIR-II spectrograph on the UK Schmidt Telescope. The galaxies we measured were uniformly distributed over the survey area, in contrast to previous samples which were concentrated in several rich Abell clusters. Most of the galaxies (230) were members of the Shapley supercluster: they trace out two previously unknown sheets of galaxies linking the Abell clusters of the supercluster. In a 44 deg2 area of the supercluster excluding the Abell clusters, these sheets alone represent an overdensity of a factor of 2·0 ± 0·2 compared to a uniform galaxy distribution. The supercluster is not flattened in the Declination direction as has been suggested in previous papers. Within our survey area the new galaxies contribute an additional 50% to the known contents of the Shapley supercluster, with a corresponding increase in its contribution to the motion of the Local Group.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
In South Africa there are efforts to manage reintroduced subpopulations of the Vulnerable cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in small reserves (10–1,000 km2) as a managed metapopulation. We estimated areas required to support cheetahs given varying prey densities, prey profiles and presence/absence of competing predators. A recent population and habitat viability assessment indicated that 20 subpopulations of 10 cheetahs or 10 subpopulations of 15 cheetahs are required to retain 90% of the heterozygosity of free-ranging cheetahs and to overcome stochastic events in the absence or presence of lions Panthera leo, respectively. We estimate that 203 ± SE 42 km2 (range 48–466 km2) is required to support 10 cheetahs in the absence of lions, whereas 703 ± SE 311 km2 (166–2,806 km2) is required to support 15 cheetahs given equal numbers of lions, and 2,424 ± SE 890 km2 (727–3,739 km2) given equal numbers of leopards Panthera pardus, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, wild dogs Lycaon pictus and lions. Existing subpopulations of cheetahs generally occur at densities higher than our mean predicted densities but usually within the range of predicted densities. The large area requirements of cheetahs have implications for the development of the managed metapopulation. Sourcing reintroduction sites of the sizes required to support recommended subpopulation sizes will be difficult. Consequently, innovative measures to increase the carrying capacity of reserves for cheetahs and/or to enlarge reserves will be required. Managers may be forced to stock cheetahs close to or beyond the carrying capacity of their reserves. Consequently, careful management of reintroduced subpopulations will be required to prevent declines in prey populations.
We are presently using the Chandra X-ray Observatory to conduct the first systematic X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) is a 570 ks Chandra Cycle 12 Large Program targeting 21 high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth. When complete, this survey will provide a suite of new X-ray diagnostics that will inform the study of late stellar evolution, binary star astrophysics, and wind interactions. Among the early results of ChanPlaNS (when combined with archival Chandra data) is a surprisingly high detection rate of relatively hard X-ray emission from CSPNe. Specifically, X-ray point sources are clearly detected in roughly half of the ~30 high-excitation PNe observed thus far by Chandra, and all but one of these X-ray-emitting CSPNe display evidence for a hard (few MK) component in their Chandra spectra. Only the central star of the Dumbbell appears to display “pure” hot blackbody emission from a ~200 kK hot white dwarf photosphere in the X-ray band. Potential explanations for the“excess” hard X-ray emission detected from the other CSPNe include late-type companions (heretofore undetected, in most cases) whose coronae have been rejuvenated by recent interactions with the mass-losing WD progenitor, non-LTE effects in hot white dwarf photospheres, self-shocking variable winds from the central star, and slow (re-)accretion of previously ejected red giant envelope mass.
A new approach to spectroscopy of laser induced proton beams using radiochromic film (RCF) is presented. This approach allows primary standards of absorbed dose-to-water as used in radiotherapy to be transferred to the calibration of GafChromic HD-810 and EBT in a 29 MeV proton beam from the Birmingham cyclotron. These films were then irradiated in a common stack configuration using the TARANIS Nd:Glass multi-terawatt laser at Queens University Belfast, which can accelerate protons to 10–12 MeV, and a depth-dose curve was measured from a collimated beam. Previous work characterizing the relative effectiveness (RE) of GafChromic film as a function of energy was implemented into Monte Carlo depth-dose curves using FLUKA. A Bragg peak (BP) “library” for proton energies 0–15 MeV was generated, both with and without the RE function. These depth-response curves were iteratively summed in a FORTRAN routine to solve for the measured RCF depth-dose using a simple direct search algorithm. By comparing resultant spectra with both BP libraries, it was found that the effect of including the RE function accounted for an increase in the total number of protons by about 50%. To account for the energy loss due to a 20 µm aluminum filter in front of the film stack, FLUKA was used to create a matrix containing the energy loss transformations for each individual energy bin. Multiplication by the pseudo-inverse of this matrix resulted in “up-shifting” protons to higher energies. Applying this correction to two laser shots gave further increases in the total number of protons, N of 31% and 56%. Failure to consider the relative response of RCF to lower proton energies and neglecting energy losses in a stack filter foil can potentially lead to significant underestimates of the total number of protons in RCF spectroscopy of the low energy protons produced by laser ablation of thin targets.
The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), in relation to that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), was determined in a comparative unlinked anonymous antenatal and neonatal (for indirect measurement of maternal antibodies) serosurvey in the Gauteng region of South Africa, using dried blood spots (DBS) and modified particle agglutination assays. Samples were confirmed to be antibody positive by western blot. A total of 2582 DBS collected during 1993 and 1994 from subjects of African, European and coloured origin were tested. Ten were confirmed as positive for HTLV-I and 128 for HIV-1. No antibodies to HTLV-I or HIV-l were demonstrated in the 221 women of European and coloured origin who were screened. The HTLV-I seroprevalence rate in subjects of African origin appeared to increase from 0% in 1993 to 0·49% in 1994, while HIV-1 seroprevalence rates of 5·2% and 5·4% were recorded for 1993 and 1994 respectively. No significant differences in HTLV-I and HIV-1 seroprevalence rates were noted for the two areas investigated. These results indicate that HTLV-I should be included in infection control programs, and provide baseline data for monitoring the possible spread of HTLV-I in the heterosexual population in this region.
A total of 12902 neonatal samples collected on absorbent paper for routine metabolic screening were tested anonymously for antibodies to toxoplasma. Seroprevalence varied from 19.5% in inner London, to 11.6% in suburban London, and 7.6% in non-metropolitan districts. Much of this variation appeared to be associated with the proportions of livebirths in each district to women born outside the UK. However, additional geographical variation remained and seroprevalence in UK-born women was estimated to be 12.7% in inner London, 7.5% in suburban London, and 5.5% in non-metropolitan areas. These estimates are considerably lower than any previously reported in antenatal sera in the UK. The wide geographical variation highlights a need for further research to determine the relative importance of different routes of transmission.
An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT 124 infection which affected 101 people in England in December 1987 and January 1988 was detected through surveillance of laboratory reports from medical microbiology laboratories of the NHS and PHLS. Within 1 week of noting the increase in reports, epidemiological and microbiological investigations identified a small German salami stick as the vehicle of infection and the product was withdrawn from sale. The epidemiological investigation highlighted the occurrence of a long incubation period, bloody diarrhoea. Prompt recognition and investigation of the outbreak prevented further cases of severe infection.
Melancholia has long resisted classification, with many of its suggested markers lacking specificity. The imprecision of depressive symptoms, in addition to self-report biases, has limited the capacity of existing measures to delineate melancholic depression as a distinct subtype. Our aim was to develop a self-report measure differentiating melancholic and non-melancholic depression, weighting differentiation by prototypic symptoms and determining its comparative classification success with a severity-based strategy.
Consecutively recruited depressed out-patients (n=228) rated 32 symptoms by prototypic or ‘characteristic’ relevance (using the Q-sort strategy) and severity [using the Severity-based Depression Rating System (SDRS) strategy]. Clinician diagnosis of melancholic/non-melancholic depression was the criterion measure, but two other formal measures of melancholia (Newcastle and DSM-IV criteria) were also tested.
The prevalence of ‘melancholia’ ranged from 20.9% to 54.2% across the subtyping measures. The Q-sort measure had the highest overall correct classification rate in differentiating melancholic and non-melancholic depression (81.6%), with such decisions supported by validation analyses.
In differentiating a melancholic subtype or syndrome, prototypic symptoms should be considered as a potential alternative to severity-based ratings.
An experimental investigation of an idealized rapidly sheared granular flow was performed to test the predictions of a model based on the kinetic theory of dry granular media. Glass ballotini beads were placed in an annular shear cell and the lower boundary rotated to induce a shearing motion in the bed. A single particle was tracked using the positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) technique, a method that determines the location of a particle through the triangulation of gamma photons emitted by a radioactive tracer particle. The packing fraction and velocity fields within the three-dimensional flow were measured and compared to the predictions of a model developed using the conservation and balance equations applicable to dissipative systems, and solved incorporating constitutive relations derived from kinetic theory. The comparison showed that kinetic theory is able to capture the general features of a rapid shear flow reasonably well over a wide range of shear rates and confining pressures.
Periodic axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating end wall
When the fluid inside a completely filled cylinder is set in motion by the rotation of the bottom end wall, steady and unsteady axisymmetric vortex breakdown is possible. The onset of unsteadiness is via a Hopf bifurcation.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of the flow inside the cylinder where marker particles have been released from an elliptic ring concentric with the axis of symmetry near the top end wall. This periodic flow corresponds to a Reynolds number Re=2765 and cylinder aspect ratio H/R=2.5. Neighboring particles have been grouped to define a sheet of marker fluid and the local transparency of the sheet has been made proportional to its local stretching. The resultant dye sheet takes on an asymmetric shape, even though the flow is axisymmetric, due to the unsteadiness and the asymmetric release of marker particles.When the release is symmetric, as in Fig. 2, the dye sheet is also symmetric. These two figures are snapshots of the dye sheet after three periods of the oscillation (a period is approximately 36.3 rotations of the end wall). Figure 3 is a cross section of the dye sheet in Fig. 2 after 26 periods of the oscillation. Here only the marker particles are shown. They are colored according to their time of release, the oldest being blue, through green and yellow, and the most recently released being red. Comparison with Escudier's experiment shows very close agreement.
The particle equations of motion correspond to a Hamiltonian dynamical system and an appropriate.
Ideal elasticity is the property whereby the energy expended in deformation of the elastomer is completely recovered on removal of the deforming force. Because the energy expended in deformation is given by the area under the force, f, versus increase in length, ΔL, curve, a perfectly reversible force-extension curve means complete recovery on relaxation of the energy expended on deformation. Therefore, ideal elastomers exhibit perfectly reversible force-extension curves.
Perhaps our earliest perspective of the mechanism underlying ideal elasticity comes from a fundamental observation concerning rubber elasticity. In the mid-nineteenth century, Joule and Thomson noted a quantitative correlation between the increase in temperature of the elastomer due to stretching and the increase in force due to increasing the temperature (Flory, 1968). Thermodynamics provides for the analysis underlying this correlation, and the Boltzmann relation provides the bridge between experimental thermodynamic quantities and statistical mechanical description of molecular structures.
Continuing qualitatively with the Joule and Thomson correlation, heat produces motion, and the energy represented by heat distributes into the various available degrees of freedom in the chain molecules comprising the elastomer. Accordingly, the release of heat on stretching correlates with a loss of motion. By means of statistical mechanics, the loss of motion is seen as a decrease in entropy on extension. In addition, should solvent be essential for elasticity, this requires explicit consideration.
We report on version 1.0 of the Edinburgh/AAO/Strasbourg catalogue of new and possible Planetary Nebulae (PN) distributed via cdrom at this meeting. We provide accurate positions, designations, images and other descriptive parameters for the PN. In future releases this will be supplemented by inclusion of spectra and related material such as line ratios, velocities etc.
The 900+ PN have been discovered solely from visual scrutiny of narrow-band exposures taken for the AAO/UKST H-alpha survey of the Southern Galactic Plane. Most have classic PN-type morphologies (i.e. bi-polar, rings, shells or ovals). SuperCOSMOS data will soon supersede our visual scanning but it proved an effective preliminary technique to identify candidate PN on the basis of morphology, isolation and identification as an H-alpha nebulosity. We already have confirmatory spectroscopy for ~ 700 objects. Much of our new sample are of very low surface brightness, with no obvious central star, and so have remained undetected in previous surveys. They are revealed here due to the excellent depth, resolution, coverage and uniformity of the H-alpha survey. Many PN are also well extended. The average angular size is 51″ with the median of 27″ but examples extend to several arcminutes. This may indicate many are in a highly evolved state where the central star has faded from easy optical detection and the nebula itself is dissipating into the ambient ISM. Large numbers of candidate PN have also been found in the Galactic Bulge region, most of which have been confirmed via UKST FLAIR/6dF MOS spectroscopy (Parker et al, in preparation and these proceedings).
By version 2.0 (release in 2002) we will have doubled the number of Galactic PN accrued from all sources over the last 75 years. This new catalogue should have a profound impact on many aspects of PN research.
We report on an unprecedented source of Planetary Nebulae (PN) discovered from AAO/UKST Hα survey images of the Southern Galactic Plane. A pristine region of PN discovery space is being sampled due to the excellent depth, coverage, resolution and uniformity of the Hα survey. Large numbers of new PN are being found (~1000 so far). They are typically more evolved, obscurred and of lower surface brightness than in most other surveys. The doubling of known PN should have a significant impact on many aspects of PN research.
In an effort to explore new highly resistive soft magnetic materials, Fe/SiO2 nanocomposite materials have been synthesized using a wet chemical reaction approach in which the precursor complex was annealed at various temperatures. The crystallographic structure, nanostructure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the synthetic Fe/SiO2 particles were studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that for this approach, the [.alpha]-Fe particles are coated with amorphous silica. The progress of the reaction, the purity of Fe/SiO2 in the synthetic powder, and the Fe particle size are highly dependent on the annealing temperature. By adjusting the annealing temperature, the particle size can be controlled from approximately 20 nm to 70 nm. For the synthetic nanopowder obtained by H2 reduction at 400 °C, there exists a superparamagnetic behavior below room temperature; while for the nanopowders obtained by reduction at higher temperatures, the ferromagnetic behavior is dominant. Based on these studies, optimum synthesis conditions for Fe/SiO2 nanocomposites is determined.