To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
In an effort to optimize patient outcomes, considerable attention is being devoted to identifying patient characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and its responsiveness to treatment. In the current study, we extend this work by evaluating whether early change in these sensitivities is associated with response to antidepressant treatment for MDD.
Participants included 210 patients with MDD who were treated with 8 weeks of escitalopram and 112 healthy comparison participants. Of the original 210 patients, 90 non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole for an additional 8 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anhedonia were assessed at the beginning of treatment and 8 weeks later in both samples. Reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed using the BIS/BAS scales measured at the initiation of treatment and 2 weeks later.
Individuals with MDD exhibited higher punishment sensitivity and lower reward sensitivity compared with healthy comparison participants. Change in reward sensitivity during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with improved depressive symptoms and anhedonia following 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Similarly, improvement in reward responsiveness during the first 2 weeks of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was associated with fewer symptoms of depression at post-treatment.
Findings highlight the predictive utility of early change in reward sensitivity during antidepressant treatment for major depression. In a clinical setting, a lack of change in early reward processing may signal a need to modify a patient's treatment plan with alternative or augmented treatment approaches.
The lifestyle recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) are primarily intended for cancer prevention. In the absence of specific recommendations for cancer survivors, we investigated adherence of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors to the WCRF/AICR lifestyle recommendations and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The cross-sectional part of the Energy for life after ColoRectal cancer (EnCoRe) study was conducted in 155 CRC survivors (stage I-III), 2–10 years post diagnosis. Dietary intake, physical activity and general body fatness were measured by 7-d food diaries, by questionnaires and accelerometers and BMI, respectively. Adherence to each of the ten WCRF/AICR recommendations was scored as 0 (no/low adherence), 0·5 (moderate adherence) or 1 point (complete adherence), and summed into an overall adherence score (range: 0–10). HRQoL, disability and distress were assessed by validated questionnaires. Associations of the overall WCRF/AICR adherence score with HRQoL outcomes were analysed by confounder-adjusted linear regression. The mean adherence score was 5·1 (sd 1·4, range: 1·5–8·5). In confounder-adjusted models, a higher adherence score was significantly associated with the HRQoL dimension better physical functioning (β per 1 point difference in score: 2·6; 95 % CI 0·2, 5·1) and with less fatigue (β: −3·3; 95 % CI −6·4, −0·1). In conclusion, higher adherence of CRC survivors to WCRF/AICR lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention was associated with better physical functioning and with less fatigue. This study adds to the limited knowledge on adherence to lifestyle behaviours in CRC survivors and relationships with quality of life. Prospective studies are needed to investigate longitudinal associations.
OSO absorption spectra may offer a clue to the distribution of intervening matter clouds at z = 0 … 3. We tackle 1) the question of the occurrence of metal absorption lines of different ionisation levels in the same redshift systems by investigating the radiation transport through an inhomogeneous temperature profile; 2) the clustering properties of the lines of the Lyα forest by a correlation analysis of 9 published high-resolution QSO-spectra with the result of a certain contribution of metal absorption lines as well as marginally significant positive correlation regions ξ ≈ 0.3.
Talcing into account vacuum polarization effects and a coherent massive scalar field we consider a singularity free cosmological model from which an intermediate inflationary stage follows quite naturally. According to the ideas of Tryon, Fomin, Zeldovich and others on the spontaneous creation of an universe by a quantum process the newly created universe must be closed. Its evolution starts from a finite initial value a of the order of the Planck length with a zero velocity ho = 0 (h - Hubble parameter). Therefore, in this moment an effective source term not fulfilling the strong energy condition must be dominant. It can originate fron a coherent massive scalar field (mass m) with zero kinetic energy and/or the vacuum polarization (considered here in the form of a modified gravitational Lagrangian with quadratic terms of the Ricci scalar). The corresponding general Lagrangian reads (c = h =1)
where ∝ is a negative coupling constant and Lmat is the Lagrangian of other possible existing matter. Both the massive scalar field and the vacuum polarization effects drive the universe to expand exponentially for a definite time interval depending on the initial radius a0 and the parameters m and ∝, during which all other matter being originally present is diluted. The following small oscillations superimposed on the dust-like power law behaviour of the scale factor cause an intensive particle production, and the universe heats up to a radiation dominated Friedmann universe. This process must terminate before baryogenesis. The matching of the different phases of the cosmological evolution and the requirement to fit the parameters of the observed universe lead to a definite parameter range for m and |∝| well below the Planck values. In consequence the present mass density must be equal to the critical one (Ω = 1) with high accuracy.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
Iterative patterns of morphological evolution present a unique opportunity to explore the causal mechanisms of evolution. We report here on an iterative morphological trend within a clade of prosobranch gastropods.
We studied the Melanopsis impressa lineage from Middle to Late Miocene marginal lake sediments of the Pannonian basin (central and eastern Europe). The descendants of M. impressa evolved a type of whorl shouldering in at least two different instances. The first instance occurs in the Late Miocene Pannonian Stage, when the smooth and conical M. impressa gives rise to M. fossilis, a species characterized by strong shouldering. The disappearance of M. fossilis coincides with a major contraction in the areal extent of the lake and with a shift from brackish to fresh water at the end of the Pannonian Stage. Melanopsis impressa may have survived this event in marginal drainage environments; during the subsequent Pontian Stage, M. impressa or a close relative gives rise to a second shouldered descendant (M. petrovici-M. cylindrica complex).
The constructional aspects of shouldering are different in each case. In the first instance, shouldering is characterized by a broad and rounded ridge in the middle of the adapical half of the body whorl, usually associated with a depressed area adapically. In contrast, shouldering in the second instance is a simple, rounded or angled spiral prominence on the adapical half of the whorl.
Repeated development of a character in a single lineage might suggest that the parallelism is due to an intrinsically defined pathway. The different constructional aspects of shouldering in our examples, however, suggest that it was the selective regime that was repetitive. The brackish paratethyan sea of the Pannonian Stage and the smaller, freshwater lake of the subsequent Pontian Stage differed in many respects, but hydrodynamic or predatory selection pressures may have evoked similar morphological responses.
To achieve their conservation goals individuals, communities and organizations need to acquire a diversity of skills, knowledge and information (i.e. capacity). Despite current efforts to build and maintain appropriate levels of conservation capacity, it has been recognized that there will need to be a significant scaling-up of these activities in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the rapid increase in the number and extent of environmental problems in the region. We present a range of socio-economic contexts relevant to four key areas of African conservation capacity building: protected area management, community engagement, effective leadership, and professional e-learning. Under these core themes, 39 specific recommendations are presented. These were derived from multi-stakeholder workshop discussions at an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. At the meeting 185 delegates (practitioners, scientists, community groups and government agencies) represented 105 organizations from 24 African nations and eight non-African nations. The 39 recommendations constituted six broad types of suggested action: (1) the development of new methods, (2) the provision of capacity building resources (e.g. information or data), (3) the communication of ideas or examples of successful initiatives, (4) the implementation of new research or gap analyses, (5) the establishment of new structures within and between organizations, and (6) the development of new partnerships. A number of cross-cutting issues also emerged from the discussions: the need for a greater sense of urgency in developing capacity building activities; the need to develop novel capacity building methodologies; and the need to move away from one-size-fits-all approaches.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
On Perspectives. Mathematical logic arose from a concern with the nature and the limits of rational or mathematical thought, and from a desire to systematise the modes of its expression. The pioneering investigations were diverse and largely autonomous. As time passed, and more particularly in the last two decades, interconnections between different lines of research and links with other branches of mathematics proliferated. The subject is now both rich and varied. It is the aim of the series to provide, as it were, maps or guides to this complex terrain. We shall not aim at encyclopaedic coverage; nor do we wish to prescribe, like Euclid, a definitive version of the elements of the subject. We are not committed to any particular philosophical programme. Nevertheless we have tried by critical discussion to ensure that each book represents a coherent line of thought; and that, by developing certain themes, it will be of greater interest than a mere assemblage of results and techniques.
The books in the series differ in level: some are introductory some highly specialised. They also differ in scope: some offer a wide view of an area, others present a single line of thought. Each book is, at its own level, reasonably self contained. Although no book depends on another as prerequisite, we have encouraged authors to fit their book in with other planned volumes, sometimes deliberately seeking coverage of the same material from different points of view. We have tried to attain a reasonable degree of uniformity of notation and arrangement. However, the books in the series are written by individual authors, not by the group. Plans for books are discussed and argued about at length. Later, encouragement is given and revisions suggested. But it is the authors who do the work; if as we hope, the series proves of value, the credit will be theirs.
History of the Ω-Group. During 1968 the idea of an integrated series of monographs on mathematical logic was first mooted. Various discussions led to a meeting at Oberwolfach in the spring of 1969. Here the founding members of the group (R. O. Gandy, A. Levy, G. H. Muller, G. E. Sacks, D. S. Scott) discussed the project in earnest and decided to go ahead with it. Professor F. K. Schmidt and Professor Hans Hermes gave us encouragement and support.
On Perspectives. Mathematical logic arose from a concern with the nature and the limits of rational or mathematical thought, and from a desire to systematise the modes of its expression. The pioneering investigations were diverse and largely autonomous. As time passed, and more particularly in the last two decades, interconnections between different lines of research and links with other branches of mathematics proliferated. The subject is now both rich and varied. It is the aim of the series to provide, as it were, maps of guides to this complex terrain. We shall not aim at encyclopaedic coverage; nor do we wish to prescribe, like Euclid, a definitive version of the elements of the subject. We are not committed to any particular philosophical programme. Nevertheless we have tried by critical discussion to ensure that each book represents a coherent line of thought; and that, by developing certain themes, it will be of greater interest than a mere assemblage of results and techniques.
The books in the series differ in level: some are introductory, some highly specialised. They also differ in scope: some offer a wide view of an area, others present a single line of thought. Each book is, at its own level, reasonably selfcontained. Although no book depends on another as prerequisite, we have encouraged authors to fit their book with other planned volumes, sometimes deliberately seeking coverage of the same material from different points of view. We have tried to attain a reasonable degree of uniformity of notation and arrangement. However, the books in the series are written by individual authors, not by the group. Plans for books are discussed and argued about at length. Later, encouragement is given and revisions suggested. But it is the authors who do the work; if, as we hope, the series proves of values, the credit will be theirs.
History of the Group. During 1968 the idea of an integrated series of monographs on mathematical logic was first mooted. Various discussions led to a meeting at Oberwolfach in the spring of 1969. Here the founding members of the group (R.O. Gandy, A. Levy, G.H. Muller, G. Sacks, D.S. Scott) discussed the project in earnest and decided to go ahead with it. Professor F.K. Schmidt and Professor Hans Hermes gave us encouragement and support. Later Hans Hermes joined the group.
Ice and water surface temperatures were measured with an airborne radiation thermometer PRT-5 over the North Water polynya during three missions between late winter and early summer 1974. Error corrections, problems of data analyses and mapping are discussed. Attempts are made to relate the main types of sea ice to temperature ranges, which then are used in conjunction with satellite pictures to produce surface temperature maps.
A group of previously unmapped glaciers on the slopes of Trident and Katmai Volcanoes, southwestern Alaska, was studied for information on the abnormal regimen produced by effects of the 1912 eruption of Mount Katmai. During the eruption an area of 5 square miles (13 km.2) of the summit above regional snow line was destroyed, and the beheaded glaciers were buried under a blanket of pumice and ash. Field data are presented to indicate that the terminus of Fourth Glacier has been essentially stationary since the 1912 eruption. Upper portions of the glacier have thinned, exposing the rim of the caldera which 40 years ago was partly ringed with fringing ice cliffs. Permafrost has developed to within a few feet of the surface of the pumice mantle. Under prevailing climatic conditions Fourth Glacier may be preserved in its present static condition for an indefinite period.
An unusual opportunity for the study of glaciers in the process of development is afforded in Katmaicaldera in south-western Alaska. A violent eruption in 1912 destroyed the summit of glacier-clad Mount Katmai, creating a caldera 4 km. wide and 800 m. deep. Ice cliffs produced by beheading of the glaciers have since thinned and shrunk away from the rim of the caldera, except in the south-west. There, local reversal of direction of movement has resulted in an ice fall which descends part way down the crater wall. In the past thirty years two small glaciers have formed, near 1525 m. above sea level, within the caldera on large masses of slumped wall-rock below the north and south rims respectively. Elsewhere the sheer walls of the crater descend so steeply to the level of the caldera lake that permanent snowbanks cannot accumulate. The lake, which continues to rise at a rate of more than five meters per year, is at present the primary deterring factor in glacier development in the caldera.